As regard intellectual property, there are separate legislations on patents for inventions, utility models, designs, trademarks and geographical indications, and on the protection of copyrights. Hungary also enforces the relating Community Directives.
Intellectual property rights
Industry property rights
Intellectual properties typically of technical nature not protected by copyrights are covered by protection of industrial properties.
The basic framework for the protection of industrial property is the Act on Invention Patents. The Civil Code and the Competition Act protect also unpatented inventions. There are separate laws to protect utility models, designs, trademark indicators and geographical indicators. The Civil Code also helps to protect economic, technical and organisational knowledge and experiences that have a material value ("know-how").
Subject of the patent: the patentable invention.
From the perspective of both producers and consumers, it is important to be able to distinguish and identify certain goods and services. This is why geographical indications are registered, listed and exclusively protected by law so as to guarantee entitlement. A trademark may be any marking that can be drawn graphically.
One of the main areas of intellectual property act is the copyright.
Copyright is due to the author from the moment when an individual, original work is created in the field of literature, science or art. As a basic rule, copyright offers protection during the author's life and for 70 years after his death. After the author's death, the rights may be exercised by the author's heirs.
What counts as a trade secret, or information of fundamental importance, can never be defined in general terms but rather from the perspective of the company in question. During the course of their work, employees are obliged to protect any trade secrets or information of fundamental importance relating to the employer or its activities, of which the employee may become aware.
Intellectual protection bodies
In addition to the Hungarian Intellectual Property Office, several bodies and councils operate, supplementing and supporting the Office's work.
Protecting intellectual rights abroad
Major relating websites:
Combating and piracy
Any activity that infringes the reproduction rights of its authors, presenters or publishers is piracy.
The places where pirated products in physical form (CD, cassette, DVD, etc.) are primarily found are monitored by interest groups. The second front in the fight against piracy is the Internet.
Property rights encourage investment in innovation and research.
In order to make a patent application, a report must be sent to the Hungarian Intellectual Property Office, and it must contain a description and drawing of the invention.
The Office publishes information on notified inventions in the Gazette of Patents and Trademarks. The Office then conducts a search: if the invention meets the search requirements, a provisional patent is issued.
The person or entity notifying the Office must request an examination of the merits separately; if no merit is found, the patent is automatically refused.
The final patent is entered into the patent register, a patent certificate is issued, and information is published in the Gazette of Patents and Trademarks.
Patents for the exclusive rights to inventions, and the design registrations for utility models can be requested by submitting an application to the Hungarian Intellectual Property Office.
Application for a patent certificate
The procedure of patenting is conducted by the Hungarian Intellectual Property Office. The subject of a patent is an invention that can be patented. The procedure for this starts with the application.
Protecting intellectual property is an integral part of the Hungarian government's medium-term strategy (2007-13) on science, technology and innovation policy.
The strategy also looks to promote intellectual property protection by supporting the acquisition of foreign patents and making use of the VIVACE programme for SMEs.
The government's new research and development and innovation strategy valid until 2020 contains also recommendations for facilitation and incitement of intellectual property protection which will be implemented in an action plan during the next years.