The management options of any environmental problem can not be arbitrary link to technical or scientific proposals but have to be associated to the intrinsic human and social constrains and limitations. The energy and water consumption in most of the world countries is in a highly stressed situation, so emerging crises of energy and water are likely. In the case of energy management, we introduce as a simple indicator the concept of the “fair” fraction of energy resources that can be spent by a given country, assuming that all world citizens have the same right of access to renewable energy resources, irrespective of their country of residence. Alternatives for water management involving high energy costs have to be discarded because energy consumption today is also very high. The only alternatives for water management are more efficient water uses, reduced consumption and re-using water at the maximal possible level.