The Health Council has evaluated the effects of bitumen (vapour and aerosol), to identify at which occupational exposure levels health damage can arise. No safe upper limit can be determined because the available data are surrounded with a great many uncertainties. The Council does, however, see sufficient reason to classify bitumen as a suspected carcinogen in humans, with the comment that the carcinogenicity has been insufficiently investigated. This is equivalent to a Category 3 classification of the European Union. Within this category, the situation is the most comparable to subcategory b. This evaluation is the first step to defining statutory norms for occupational exposure by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment.