Until the present time, beneficial effects of food fortification was the sole province of nutrition science, whereas, toxicology quite separately addressed the potential of risks of high intakes of micronutrients. For the first time, an Expert Group brought both disciplines together in order to develop a highly innovative mathematical technique to simultaneously estimate both health benefits and risks resulting from the addition of nutrients to foods. The technique provides the risk manager with an objective means of assessing/balancing the potential adverse effects of a nutrient (i.e. incidence of toxicity or excess intake) against the potential benefits (i.e. incidence of deficiency or absence of a benefit).