The report was written by the National Immunisation Programme Review Committee of the Health Council of the Netherlands. It contains an analysis of the NIP’s effectiveness to date and identifies scientific developments in the fields of immunology, vaccinology and communication science, which may be relevant to the future of the programme. In addition, an assessment framework is put forward, which includes a set of criteria for the inclusion of a vaccination in a public programme. No such framework – which may be likened to Wilson and Jungner’s screening criteria – has hitherto been available, at either the national or international levels. Although developed in the Netherlands, the inclusion criteria can be applied in other countries as well. Choices for specific vaccinations will, of course, be dependent on local burden of disease, local organisation of health care and on available financial means.