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Brussels, 23 April 2008

The European Qualifications Framework: a new tool to translate qualifications

The European Commission welcomes the formal adoption by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) on 23 April 2008. The way is clear now for Member States to adopt this voluntary scheme that will promote lifelong learning and mobility by making it easier to understand and compare individuals' qualifications around Europe.

A Recommendation establishing the European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning (EQF) was formally co-signed today by the European Parliament and the Council.

The Recommendation creates a reference framework which will relate different countries' qualifications systems and frameworks together. It will act as a translation device to make qualifications more readable and understandable to employers, individuals and institutions, so that workers and learners can use their qualifications in other countries.

The EQF is a lifelong learning framework, applying to qualifications obtained in all sectors of education, including general education, higher education and vocational training. Its core is its eight reference levels of qualifications, from those obtained at the end of compulsory education, (level 1) to the highest (level 8: doctorate or equivalent).

The three highest levels correspond to higher education levels as defined within the European Higher Education Area, under the Bologna Process, e.g. Bachelor, Masters and PhD levels. But they may also stand for highly specialised professional qualifications.

In order to make the EQF work across different systems its levels are based on learning outcomes (what a learner knows, understands and is able to do) rather than learning inputs (the length of a learning experience, the type of institution etc).


The EQF will make qualifications from different countries easier to compare and more readable and so support citizens' mobility. It therefore supplements and supports the existing range of programmes and instruments aiming to help Europeans live and work anywhere in the EU, such as the Erasmus programme for student mobility and Europass, which provides a standardised portfolio to enable people to describe their skills in a transparent way.

For example, currently an enterprise in Ireland may hesitate to recruit a job applicant from Hungary because it doesn't understand his or her qualifications. But once the EQF is implemented, Hungarian certificates would carry an EQF reference e.g. "EQF level 5", allowing Irish employers to more readily interpret the level of such qualifications.

Lifelong learning

Many countries are already establishing their own National Qualifications Framework (NQF) in response to the EQF. Qualifications frameworks are increasingly seen as instruments able to connect different parts of a country's education system, so that people can pursue a variety of learning pathways, for example by moving more freely between different types of institutions such as universities or vocational training institutes or by gaining recognition for their non-formal learning.

The EQF – and its national counterparts - therefore recognise the reality of modern careers and modern learning – that an individual's career consists of a variety of different types of learning, some of it structured, some of it informal, but to be pursued throughout the course of one's life. The EQF and NQFs can therefore help equip societies for the challenges of the knowledge economy.

Next steps

At a practical level, the Recommendation sets targets of 2010 for countries to relate their qualifications systems to the EQF. From 2012, all new qualifications should bear a reference to the EQF, so that employers and institutions can identify a candidate's skills knowledge, skills or competences.

The Commission and member states are already working together on the practical tasks of implementation. An Advisory Group, comprising the governments and social partners (employers and trades unions) will coordinate the processes required to relate national systems to the EQF.

More information:

MEMO/08/265, Frequently asked questions about the European Qualifications Framework:

DG Education and Culture: The European Qualifications Framework:

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