In her Clingendael publication, "Defending Europe - Translating mutual assistance into action" Anne Bakker argues that procedures and institutional support alone are not enough to translate the mutual assistance commitment into action. The EU’s new task in protection of Europe also needs to be translated into capabilities.
Furthermore, the existing institutional capacity needs to be reinforced. In line with the EU-NATO declaration of December, synchronisation between the IPCR arrangements and NATO’s Crisis Response System is needed. Finally, intelligence sharing between member states and EU actors needs to be strengthened.