The euro becomes legal tender in Slovakia.
The Czech Republic holds the rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union for the first time. Presidency priorities include the economy and energy.
The European year of creativity and innovation begins. In the course of the year, conferences, projects and exhibitions take place across Europe to raise awareness of the need for imaginative solutions for today’s challenges.
Linz (Austria) and Vilnius (Lithuania) share the title of European Capital of Culture for 2009.
Switzerland votes to extend the agreement on the free movement of persons between the EU and Switzerland.
European members of the G20 group, which represents the world’s largest economies, meet in Berlin. Leaders agree on the need for a common approach to combat the financial crisis and restore trust in the common market.
The de Larosière Group of experts presents a report, requested by the European Commission, recommending more financial supervision to avoid a repetition of the financial crisis.
Heads of state and government meet informally to discuss the implementation of the "economic recovery plan".
Hillary Clinton, United States Secretary of State, becomes the highest-ranking US official to visit the European Parliament since Ronald Reagan in 1985.
European Council - leaders agree inter alia to use €5 billion in unspent EU funds to upgrade energy and internet connections whilst increasing EU aid to countries in difficulties.
The G20 Summit in London agrees to channel €832 billion into the IMF and other institutions and to tighten the rules on financial markets.
EU-US summit in Prague where European Union leaders and U.S. president Barack Obama discuss the financial crisis and security issues.
EU health ministers meet in Luxembourg as “Novel” flu virus -influenza A(H1N1) reaches Europe.
The EU holds a special employment summit in Prague aimed at tackling the impact of the economic crisis on European jobs.
European elections take place across the EU and 736 MEPs are elected. Total turnout is 43.2%.
EU summit in Brussels prepares the way for a second referendum on the Lisbon Treaty in Ireland.
Sweden takes over the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union for the second time. Presidency priorities are economic recovery and climate change.
Polish MEP Jerzy Buzek is elected president of the European Parliament.
Iceland applies for EU membership.
A team of European Union observers monitors the presidential election process in Afghanistan.
The European Parliament approves the nomination of José Manuel Barroso for a second five-year term as President of the European Commission.
Informal meeting of EU Heads of State takes place in Brussels to prepare for the next G20 Summit in Pittsburgh.
A G20 Summit is held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). The leaders of the world’s largest economies discuss climate change and sustainable economic recovery.ery.
Ireland votes “yes” to the Lisbon Treaty in a second referendum.
The European Council discusses financial aid to help developing countries fight global warming and prepares for the December international conference on climate change.nge.
20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall.
An EU-Russia Summit is held in Stockholm. Discussions take place on an early-warning agreement to help deal with potential energy supply disruptions, the response to the financial and economic crisis and climate change.
At a meeting of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy is appointed first permanent President of the EU Council and British Trade Commissioner Catherine Ashton, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
The Lisbon Treaty enters into force.
At a meeting of the European Council held in Brussels the 'Stockholm Programme' is adopted for the years 2010-2014 aimed at further development of freedom, justice and security.
The Copenhagen Climate Accord is signed. It is considered a step towards a future worldwide agreement but has no binding force. The EU proposed to further cut its CO2 emissions if other countries commit to doing the same.
Serbia applies for EU membership.