European Union

Poland

Overview

Flag of Poland

Political system

Poland is a parliamentary republic with a head of government - the prime minister - and a head of state - the president. The government structure is centred on the council of ministers. The country is divided into 16 provinces, largely based on the country’s historic regions. Administrative authority at provincial level is shared between a government-appointed governor, an elected regional assembly and an executive elected by the regional assembly.

Location on the EU map

Trade and economy

The most important sectors of Poland’s economy in 2016 were Industry (26.5 %), wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation and food services (26.2 %), and public administration, defence, education, human health and social work activities (14.7 %).

Intra-EU trade accounts for 80% of Poland’s exports (Germany 27%, United Kingdom and Czechia both 7%), while outside the EU 3% go to Russia and 2% from the United States.

In terms of imports, 72% come from EU Member States (Germany 28%, the Netherlands 6% and Italy 5%), while outside the EU 8% come from China and 6% from Russia.

Poland in the EU

European Parliament

There are 51 members of the European Parliament from Poland. Find out who these MEPs are.

European Parliament office in Poland

Council of the EU

In the Council of the EU, national ministers meet regularly to adopt EU laws and coordinate policies. Council meetings are regularly attended by representatives from the Polish government, depending on the policy area being addressed.

Presidency of the Council of the EU

The Council of the EU doesn't have a permanent, single-person president (like e.g. the Commission or Parliament). Instead, its work is led by the country holding the Council presidency, which rotates every 6 months.

During these 6 months, ministers from that country's government chair and help determine the agenda of Council meetings in each policy area, and facilitate dialogue with the other EU institutions.

Dates of Polish presidencies:

Jul-Dec 2011

Presidency of the Council of the EU

The following link is a redirection to an external websiteCurrent presidency of the Council of the EU

European Commission

The Commissioner nominated by Poland to the European Commission is Elżbieta Bieńkowska, who is responsible for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs.

The Commission is represented in each EU country by a local office, called a "representation".

Commission representation in Poland

European Economic & Social Committee

Poland has 21 representatives on the European Economic and Social Committee. This advisory body – representing employers, workers and other interest groups – is consulted on proposed laws, to get a better idea of the possible changes to work and social situations in member countries.

European Committee of the Regions

Poland has 18 representatives on the European Committee of the Regions, the EU's assembly of regional and local representatives. This advisory body is consulted on proposed laws, to ensure these laws take account of the perspective from each region of the EU.

Permanent representation to the EU

Poland also communicates with the EU institutions through its permanent representation in Brussels. As Poland's "embassy to the EU", its main task is to ensure that the country's interests and policies are pursued as effectively as possible in the EU.

Budgets and Funding

How much does Poland contribute and receive?

Member countries' financial contributions to the EU budget are shared fairly, according to means. The larger your country's economy, the more it pays – and vice versa. The EU budget doesn't aim to redistribute wealth, but rather to focus on the needs of all Europeans as a whole.

Breakdown of Poland’s finances with the EU in 2017:

  • Total EU spending in Poland: € 11.921 billion
  • Total EU spending as % of Polish gross national income (GNI): 2.67 %
  • Total Polish contribution to the EU budget: € 3.048 billion
  • Polish contribution to the EU budget as % of its GNI: 0.68 %

More figures on the EU budget, revenue and spending:

EU-funded projects in Poland

The money paid into the EU budget by Poland helps fund programmes and projects in all EU countries - like building roads, subsidising researchers and protecting the environment.

Find out more about how Poland benefits from EU funding.

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