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2.4.5. Strengthening IE with attention to gender issues

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Alessio Lupi16 May 2018

Indicators: a) GP and LL on addressing gender issues in IE identified.

b) Challenges on addressing gender issues in IE identified and possible means to overcome challenges identified and analysed.

Data Analysis Methods: Identification of GP and LL on gender and IE. Analysis of GP and LL to determine adaptability and scalability. Identification of challenges identified during promotion and implementation of actions on gender and IE and determine if/how these were overcome.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

1) Promote the carrying out of gender analysis on IE issues. This should include analysis to reach an understanding of:

  • Gender roles and responsibilities in the household and the community
  • Differences in access to and control over resources and decision-making,
  • Factors that constrain or facilitate equal participation of women and men in community development processes. the different capacities, needs and priorities of women and men.
  • Draw on the existing knowledge and capacities of men, women, boys and girls.

References:

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2) Develop a multi-dimensional index (analysis) in order to better assess the degree of women/s existing empowerment. Given that women’s empowerment characteristics vary depending on different contexts, such and index should rely on baseline interviews or studies conducted with stakeholders or local experts from the relevant areas.

Main subjects in the Index might build on the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index’ (WEAI) developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) with support from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). See https://www.ifpri.org/weai-training-materials

Aspects that might be included for an index with women dependent on the IE and extracted from the  Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index’ (WEAI):

  • Self-perception and personal change (self-confidence; self-efficacy; opinion on women’s economic role, gender rights, property rights, freedom of movement, power within the house)
  • Personal freedom (personal autonomy, attitude to gender-based violence
  • Domestic violence; knowledge where to go and what to do in the case of violence)
  • Access to & control over resources; decisions & influence (control over sexuality
  • Involvement in expenditure-investment-management decisions of the household; influence in women’s group and community decision making)
  • Support from Social Network (participation in groups
  • Level of support provided by groups to pursue own initiative)
  • Care and unpaid work (ability to redistribute burden of care responsibilities
  • Attitude towards and awareness of care work; women have more time for leisure and socialising.

ReferenceLombardini, Simone & Yoshikawa, Kanako, 2015, Impact evaluation of the project ‘Piloting gender sensitive livelihoods in Karamoja’ (Uganda), Impact evaluation, OXFAM's effectiveness review 2014/2015, OXFAM, Oxford.

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3) Use gender audit tools such as the Service Quality Check for Supporting Female and Male Operated Small Enterprises to determine if the organisation providing effective support to people dependent on the informal economy and small enterprises. The tool permits the organisation to identify for improvement in the way in which an organization reaches out to and serves both women and men. Consult – WEAI Training Materials:

http://www.ilo.ch/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_emp/---emp_ent/---ifp_seed/documents/instructionalmaterial/wcms_248595

References

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4) Include in project design attention to women’s empowerment within the household and community. Household and community empowerment can also be the result of economic empowerment but is best specifically stimulated in conjunction with economic empowerment.

References

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5) In projects with people dependent on the IE, include a specific component on gender mainstreaming and ensure that it is well articulated in the project design. Ensure that this includes development of training and policies that take the different needs of female and male operators/workers into account.

References:

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6) In projects for and with women entrepreneurs, including those operating in the IE, include:

  • Working with government, employers and workers organisation and other from civil society organisations
  • Strengthen the capacities of business development service providers including attention to how they can better support women entrepreneurs
  • Support cooperatives.

ReferenceThakur, Mini; Pandey, Brajesh; Trikha, Divya; Kumar, Poorvaja, 2013, Independent evaluation of the ILO's strategy to promote decent work in the Arab region: a cluster evaluation of Jordan, Lebanon and the Occupied Palestine Territory: 2008-2012, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

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7) Encourage cross linkages between projects on the IE to other development programmes such on HIV, youth employment, gender-based violence and women’s empowerment.

Reference: Zegers, Mei, 2014, Independent Final Evaluation Law-Growth Nexus Phase II: Labour Law and the Enabling Business Environment  for MSMEs in Kenya and Zambia, Final evaluation, ILO, Geneva.

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8) Include in economic empowerment projects focus on rights issues including their democratic rights in elections at the ward, county and national level. Ensure that projects participants understand the role and responsibilities of government duty bearers and community members.

Reference: Dodo Aleke, Kiara Japhet & Baaru Mary, 2014, Enterprise Development for Rural Families Programme in Kenya, Final Report, Final evaluation, SIDA, Stockholm, Project: SIDA Hand in Hand Eastern Africa’s Enterprise Development for Rural Families (EDRF), Kenya.

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9) When conducting training in for groups that are composed of types of IE work that are often dominated by men, verify the usefulness of organising women only training groups. Study the local context to determine the need for such separate groups and ensure that training content is adapted to cover women’ specific needs.

ReferenceSahan, 2011: “Promoting Women’s Role In Processing And Trading In The Assosa Enterprise In Ethiopia- Functional Adult Literacy: Sustainable, Women-Focused Capacity- Building In Ethiopia

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10) Promote the registration of associations of women dependent on the informal economy and the formation/participation of women in trade unions.

ReferenceJafar, Salmar, 2013, Promoting Gender Equality for Decent Employment, Midterm or interim evaluation, ILO, Geneva.

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11) Advocate for decentralised institutional strengthening on gender issues including as it relates to women’s IE work issues. This may include assigning staff positions at Ministry of Labour decentralised level and ensuring that such persons are provided with capacities on IE related issues.

ReferenceBuhl-Nielsen Eric, Oskarsson Bertil, 2015, Evaluation of Swedish International Training Programme (ITP) 288, “The Role of Labour Market Policies in Poverty Alleviation” 2009-2015, Final evaluation, SIDA, Stockholm, Covered countries: Tanzania, Kenya and Mozambique.

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12) Ensure that gender in IE projects is adequately considered and not limited to points such as trying to have gender balance in groups or inclusion or some attention to gender issues in training without considering gender equality and equity causes sufficiently.

Reference: Zegers, Mei, 2014, Independent Final Evaluation Law-Growth Nexus Phase II: Labour Law and the Enabling Business Environment for MSMEs in Kenya and Zambia, Final evaluation, ILO, Geneva.

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13) Consider seriously in planning how men will be included in projects focusing on women’s empowerment. Ensure that women in such projects are the primary beneficiaries of services while men can be included in awareness raising aspects. (Note that in some projects men are also beneficiaries in women’s empowerment projects). When projects work with particular sectors, ensure that not only sectors that are male dominated are selected.

References:

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14) Take into consideration that because a project has a focus on women workers it does not automatically mean that gender issues are addressed. Ensure that project includes a focus on a deeper analysis of inequalities in the gender division of labour and the effect of gender on their work.

ReferenceMurray, Una, 2014, Making Decent Work a Reality for Domestic Workers Swedish funding towards Outcome 5, Final evaluation, ILO, Geneva, Covered countries: Paraguay, India, Zambia, Tanzania and The Philippines.

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15) Avoid delays in addressing advocacy and awareness raising on gender issues in project time lines. Include attention to this issue at the earliest feasible stage.

ReferenceJafar, Salmar, 2013, Promoting Gender Equality for Decent Employment, Midterm or interim evaluation, ILO, Geneva.

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16) Ensure that women’s participation in discussion includes participation in actual decision-making. Include indicator(s) that will measure this.

References

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17) Ensure that SBCC targeting both men and women is conducted in projects related to women dependent on the IE on issues of equity in control and decision-making of household resources. Ensure that training includes both female and male trainers on women entrepreneurship activities. This helps broaden understanding of the issues between men and women, including among the trainers.

References:

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18) Ensure explicit attention to safeguard that women are included in group formation of associations / cooperatives.

References:

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19) Be aware that the actual gender issues that may be identified in a IE project may not always be the most immediately obvious ones.

ReferenceZegers, Mei, 2014, Independent Final Evaluation Law-Growth Nexus Phase II: Labour Law and the Enabling Business Environment  for MSMEs in Kenya and Zambia, Final evaluation, ILO, Geneva.

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20) It should be noted that simply having tools on gender issues does not mean that gender mainstreaming in IE projects is automatically included. Other factors that need to be considered are:

  • Partnerships with specialised organisations,
  • Allocation of sufficient time as it allows for the design, implementation and, when required, adaptation of appropriate and context-based gender mainstreaming strategies.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

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21) Note that the strategies for addressing different vulnerable groups within the same project may need to vary.  The interaction between gender, race, and other categories of difference in individual lives, social practices, institutional arrangements, disaster risks and cultural ideologies may require different approaches. This needs to be taken into account when implementing projects that include a range of types and combinations of vulnerability.

References

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22) Support the development of networks that can help strengthen advocacy with representatives of parliamentarians, media, duty bearers.[1]

ReferenceJafar, Salmar, 2013, Promoting Gender Equality for Decent Employment, Midterm or interim evaluation, ILO, Geneva.

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23) Review and analyse project training for women engaged in IE work to determine if they are replicable to other situations.

See for example materials on: http://www.ilo.org/empent/areas/womens-entrepreneurship-development-wed/lang--en/index.html. Also consult IESF Library.

Reference: Zegers, Mei, 2012, Women’s Entrepreneurship Development and Gender Equality-Southern Africa- Final Evaluation, Final evaluation, ILO, Geneva, Covered countries: Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa.

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24) Ensure that all training for women’s economic empowerment is well conceptualised and clear strategies with structural frameworks are developed and that include a diversity of types of training.
Reference: Hempel, Hendrik, 2012, Mid-Term Evaluation Food security and livelihood support of war and drought affected population in the Red Sea State - Sudan, Midterm or interim evaluation, Welthungerhilfe, Bonn.

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25) Ensure that decisions on project actions, such as the establishment of women’s training centres should be made strategically and take the need to link training to social empowerment into account.
ReferenceBangui, Cécile, 2014, Mid-term Evaluation of the Integrated Food Security Project in Kassala: Sudan (IFSP-Kassala) – GCP /SUD/069/CAN, Midterm or interim evaluation, FAO, Rome.

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26) Ensure that women are included in meetings, decision-making and beneficiary registration processes.

Reference: Gourley, Deborah, 2012, Evaluation of NRC Food Security and Livelihoods Projects in Chipinge and Chiredzi Districts, Zimbabwe, 2011-12, Final evaluation, Norwegian Refugee Council, Oslo.

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27) Consider in training materials that women’s basic level of education may be inadequate to sufficiently understand the materials ideally. Materials should be adapted prior to training and not rely on facilitators to adapt them during the training itself as some may not be able to do so adequately.

ReferenceZegers, Mei, 2012, Women’s Entrepreneurship Development and Gender Equality-Southern Africa- Final Evaluation, Final evaluation, ILO, Geneva, Covered countries: Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa.

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28) When planning training on women’s empowerment and skills, take into account possible problems of distance to\from the training venues and how the socio-cultural context affects their participation. Women’s participation in empowerment trainings may be extremely challenging, since women may have to break with traditions to participate.

References:

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29) Involving groups of women in extended training programme requires strict attention to:

  • Women actual involvement in decision making and active participation
  • Utility of women training centres and content course
  • Geographical needs and habits of participant groups.

Reference: Bangui, Cécile, 2014, Mid-term Evaluation of the Integrated Food Security Project in Kassala: Sudan (IFSP-Kassala) – GCP /SUD/069/CAN, Midterm or interim evaluation, FAO, Rome.

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30) To enhance mainstreaming of gender equality and equity, include in TVET projects:

  • Infant day care if needed;
  • An analysis of gender dynamics to determine support males in female participants household and means to increase such support if necessary.

References:

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31) TVET should include the identification of traditionally male-dominated skills training and job areas in order to increase the opportunities of female trainees on the job market. Likewise, males may also enter into training that may be dominated by females. Consider promoting TVET training access in skills not traditionally carried out by either men or women. While changing the stereotyping of skills may be difficult, breaking the mould can provide more opportunities for both women and men.

References:

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32) A gender-aware approach about labour saving technologies and on-farm activities requires ensuring that women have plenty control over the tools. A gender-transformative approach requires asking whether technologies are designed to meet women’s needs and whether women are involved in the innovation systems, both as clients and as providers of innovations. Ergonomically designed equipment for women can reduce strain and make their labour more productive.

References:

  • USAID Zimbabwe, 2012: “Gender Analysis and Assessment for Feed the Future Programming”; Report

EVIDENCE SAMPLE: It is important to understand gender dimensions of access and control to equipment when introducing new technologies. In general the more valuable the equipment is, the less likely that the woman will have access to it. USAID (2012) found that in Zimbabwe:

- Women do not have control or access to agricultural large equipment, in particular tractors, carts, ploughs, wheelbarrows.

- Traditional gender roles mean that women do not try to use the equipment; and they rely on a son or male member of the family to use the equipment or hire labour out.

- Many female headed households, in particular widows, lack the financial resources to hire labour.

2)  A joint study by Practical Action and IFAD (Carr and Hartl, 2010) carried a systematic review of programmes and practice over the last three decades. Ergonomically designed equipment for women can reduce strain and make their labour more productive. Tools and equipment appropriate for tasks that women carry out such as planting, weeding and grinding do exist, but there are many barriers to their adoption. Weeding with short-handled hoes is the most punishing and time-consuming task for women; long-handled hoes are available that could reduce the strain of squatting, but in many parts of Africa these are rejected for cultural reasons. Manufacturers of farm implements make different weights of hoes, including very light ones that are better suited to women’s needs, but most women are unaware of the full range of available tools.

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33) Follow an 8-step strategy to prepare a sound programme enhancing women’s access to markets:

  • Prepare gender analysis tools
  • Undertake a value chain analysis
  • Improve micro-macro linkages
  • Pursue a life cycle approach
  • Support entitlement and capabilities programs
  • Promote clustering and networking
  • Expand access to credit and financial services
  • Address informality

ReferenceGammage S., Diamond, N. and Packman, M., 2005, Enhancing Women’s Access to Markets: An Overview of Donor Programs and Best Practices, Review of multiple projects and/or actions, GATE Analysis Document, USAID, Washington DC.

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34) Promote and facilitate women’s role in small seed enterprises such as community seed banks and seed fairs, and implement monitoring and evaluation of results to verify income benefits.

References:

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35) In projects where the goal is to establish both individual and group enterprises—such as those that can help finance own women’s group functioning—note that project design needs to include comprehensive support to cover both individual and sustainable group enterprises.
ReferenceBuhl-Nielsen Eric, Oskarsson Bertil, 2015, Evaluation of Swedish International Training Programme (ITP) 288, “The Role of Labour Market Policies in Poverty Alleviation” 2009-2015, Final evaluation, SIDA, Stockholm, Covered countries: Tanzania, Kenya and Mozambique

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36) Identify methodologies encouraging simultaneous participation in empowerment programmes of both women and men. Include awareness raising of participants about shared household decision-making, as well as improving influencing skills and generating confidence in women.

Reference: Lombardini, Simone & Yoshikawa, Kanako, 2015, Impact evaluation of the project ‘Piloting gender sensitive livelihoods in Karamoja’ (Uganda), Impact evaluation, OXFAM's effectiveness review 2014/2015, OXFAM, Oxford.

 

SOURCE: RNSF Research - Volume 4.2

 

[1] Police, labour inspectors, social workers, etc.

 

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