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2.4.2. Social inclusion promotion (awareness raising on social inclusion in IE)

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Alessio Lupi16 May 2018

Indicators: a) GP and LL on social inclusion promotion in IE identified.

b) Challenges on social inclusion promotion in IE identified and possible means to overcome challenges identified and analysed.

Data Analysis Methods: Identification of GP and LL on social inclusion promotion. Analysis of GP and LL to determine adaptability and scalability. Identification of challenges identified during promotion of social inclusion and determine if/how these were overcome.


1) To reach their fullest potential, projects/programmes should actively address the power imbalance of and most vulnerable groups of people who are dependent on the IE.

Reference: Sahan, E., and Fischer-Mackay, J., 2011, Making Markets Empower The Poor: Programme perspectives on using markets to empower women and men living in poverty, General background document on issues in our research matrix, Oxfam Discussion Papers, OXFAM, Oxford.


2) Follow a 4-point strategy to support inclusion of marginalised people so that barriers that perpetuate disadvantageous power dynamics can be eliminated:

  • Support producer organisations to develop their market power and encourage them to take progressive measures to ensure equal participation and benefits for women and marginalised producers.
  • Support new business models where specialised intermediaries and service providers assist producers, including women to empower them by helping them become more competitive and able to access more lucrative formal markets.
  • Make pre-commercial investments : Providing assets and training to support marginalised people who lack the assets and skills necessary to use markets to lift themselves out of poverty.

3) Giving marginalised groups a voice in governance and investment. This involves supporting marginalised groups in dealings with governments, and also helping them with any negotiations around pre-commercial investments such as technologies and irrigation; or access to resources such as land rights for women.

Reference: Turrall, Susanne, 2013, A Study of Evidence in Mainstreaming Social Inclusion into Programmes Promoting Agricultural Productivity and Access to Markets among the Rural Poor, Meta-analysis of evaluations, DFID Rapid Desk-Based Review, DFID, London, Collection of projects and insights about: gender and agricultural productivity \ Gender and Access to Markets \ Vulnerable Social Groups Inclusion in several countries.


4) In project design, verify the extent to which the project will substantially contribute to increases in incomes as opposed to only marginally supporting the beneficiaries/community members.

While this may seem obvious many projects simply decide on a range of activities without prioritising those most likely to have high impact.

Reference: Bangui, Cécile, 2014, Mid-term Evaluation of the Integrated Food Security Project in Kassala: Sudan (IFSP-Kassala) – GCP /SUD/069/CAN, Midterm or interim evaluation, FAO, Rome.


5) Clearly identify the beneficiary selection criteria in the project design document.  This should include vulnerability criteria that are agreed to with the major stakeholders. During the project inception period, double check the correct application of selection criteria to ensure that the target community members are actually engaged in and benefit from the project.



6) When designing programming with people dependent on the IE, promote focus on the rural nonfarm economy. This should not be to the exclusion of urban communities. Such support provides for poverty reduction of IE operators and workers in rural areas but may also contribute to strengthening rural economies (local economic development) and product/services shortages in rural markets shortages.

Facilitate a four component strategy to analyse market conditions of particular areas and plan concrete intervention aimed at strengthening the rural nonfarm economy. Such strategy would be composed of:

  • Identifying potential drivers of growth which may include financial and personal services, trade and transportation, manufacturing, construction and mining
  • Developing rural infrastructure
  • Promoting access to markets
  • Building human capital

References: De Los Rios, Carlos, 2014, Harnessing the Potential of the Nonfarm Economy for Smallholders in Latin America, Thematic evaluation, ELLA Policy Briefly, Practical Action, Lima, Evaluation focused on smallholder farmers and rural development in Latin American countries.


SOURCE: RNSF research - Volume 4.2

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