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2.4.10. Strengthening IE with attention to migrants, refugees, trafficked persons

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Alessio Lupi16 May 2018

Indicators: a) GP and LL on strengthening livelihoods of migrants, refugees, trafficked persons in IE identified.

b) Challenges on strengthening livelihoods of migrants, refugees, trafficked persons in IE identified in IE identified and possible means to overcome challenges identified and analysed.

Data Analysis Methods: Identification of GP and LL on strengthening IE with attention to migrants, refugees, trafficked persons; Analysis of GP and LL to determine adaptability and scalability; Identification of challenges identified during promotion and implementation and determine if/how these were overcome.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

1) Implement good practices that are well established in all programming and which should also be used in livelihoods programming with refugees dependent on the IE. These include:

  • Regular consultation and interaction with refugees and local communities in program design. This should include the participation of refugees in assessing livelihood challenges and needs and analysing internal and external factors influencing livelihoods.
  • Liaise closely and organise coordination with relevant ministries and other national and local authorities, partner agencies and other stakeholders aiming at joint advocacy and programme planning to integrate livelihood services for refugees into the public system
  • Through advocacy activities, promote the productive and creative potential of refugees, their skills and talents
  • Regular monitoring and impact evaluation
  • Testing and pilots of programs, especially those that are designed in headquarters and imported into field settings.
  • Adapting and customising for all such programs to be fully specific to the situation settings and should be piloted and revised before full funding is allocated.
  • Providing clear explanations of the length of the program, related benchmarks, and the planned exit strategy.

References: 

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2) Include in a contextual assessment in refugee camps prior to design of development actions the following information:

  • How are camps used?
  • What was done before in this context?
  • What will/will not work based on past experience?
  • Note specifically:
  • What kinds of economic capacity building activities are already in place (or were tried before);
  • How both the refugees and the local host population view new or proposed livelihoods programs with refugees who are dependent on the IE;
  • Whether the wider market context is appropriate and conducive to the promotion of refugee livelihoods;
  • Whether the host government policy context is appropriate and conducive to the promotion of refugee livelihoods.

Reference: Holzaepfel, Erica A.; Jacobsen, Karen, 2015, Evaluating the Effectiveness of DOS/PRM Livelihoods Programs in Ethiopia and Burundi, Meta-analysis of evaluations, Social Impact Inc, Washington DC.

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3) When implementing projects with migrant workers, include a range of rights-based support mechanisms, both at home and overseas, with economic empowerment efforts in the sending communities.

ReferenceMauer, Ralf, 2013, Decent work results and effectiveness of ILO technical cooperation: a meta-analysis of project evaluations, 2011–2012, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

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4) Engage in advocacy to mobilise key stakeholders prior to engaging them to work on high-level labour migration goals. Such goals may include the signing of bilateral agreements, the development of labour migration policies, the legal framework reform or ILO Conventions ratification.

In migration policies, support the development of a migratory corridor focus, working both in the origin and destination countries where relevant.

ReferenceVarela, Javier, 2013, Gender-sensitive Labor Mitigation Policies in the Nicaragua-Costa Rica-Panama and Haiti-Dominican Republic Corridors – Midterm Evaluation, Midterm or interim evaluation, Evaluation Summary, ILO, Geneva.

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5) After a disaster, engage in anti-trafficking awareness raising and support provision of livelihood opportunities to reduce the  push factors for trafficking in persons.

ReferenceSequitin, Rosario, 2015, End of Project Evaluation of “Preventing Trafficking in Persons through Sustainable Livelihood Recovery for Typhoon Affected People” Project, Final evaluation, World Vision, Washington DC.

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6) Provide support to both the host community and the internally displaced persons (IDP) or refugee population at the same time on informal economy activities as relevant in contexts where large IDP populations create an economic burden on the Host Community that might result in conflict.

References

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7) Ensure that labour migration programmes/projects always include a careful analysis of the socio-cultural, political and economic context in both sending and receiving countries.

Reference: Varela, Javier, 2013, Gender-sensitive Labor Mitigation Policies in the Nicaragua-Costa Rica-Panama and Haiti-Dominican Republic Corridors – Midterm Evaluation, Midterm or interim evaluation, Evaluation Summary, ILO, Geneva.

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8) When analysing livelihoods support options with refugees dependent on IE settings, determine the most appropriate option for camp settings by considering a range of aspects:

  • Cash for work (CFW) or cash transfers are more effective and easier to implement than other common livelihoods activities such as vocational training
  • If the goal is to promote small business enterprise, a mentoring program or partnership creation might be more useful (and take fewer resources) than a training.
  • Exploring alternatives as part of a broader contextual assessment should occur before designing the program, that takes place prior to the design of refugee livelihoods programs (whether in or outside of camps).

ReferenceHolzaepfel, Erica A.; Jacobsen, Karen, 2015, Evaluating the Effectiveness of DOS/PRM Livelihoods Programs in Ethiopia and Burundi, Meta-analysis of evaluations, Social Impact Inc, Washington DC.

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9) Carry out more analysis on disaster impact related to employment/people dependent on the IE. Analysis is needed of:

  • Impacts of disasters and trends on the household level employment context (e.g. out-migration, selling labour and advance)
  • Broader labour market impacts and trends.
  • Gender differences in coping strategies with respect to sustainable livelihoods with people dependent on the IE.

ReferenceHarvey, Paul; Burton, Cynthia; Wilkinson, Laura, 2009, Strategic Evaluation of the Effectiveness of WFP Livelihood Recovery Interventions, Thematic evaluation, A Report from the Office of Evaluation, WFP, Brussels, Covered countries: Bangladesh, Colombia, Lesotho, Nepal, Uganda.

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10) Analyse the employment situation in the host country, especially the informal economy, as it holds more employment prospects for refugees.

ReferenceUNHCR, 2011, Promoting Livelihoods and Self-reliance Operational Guidance on Refugee Protection and Solutions in Urban Areas, General background document on issues in our research matrix, UNHCR, Geneva.

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11) Map out available public and private livelihood-support opportunities with people dependent on the IE in urban areas. Develop effective modalities to enhance access.

ReferenceUNHCR, 2011, Promoting Livelihoods and Self-reliance Operational Guidance on Refugee Protection and Solutions in Urban Areas, General background document on issues in our research matrix, UNHCR, Geneva

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12) In planning support for refugees, develop a plan to move from one level of support to another as people’s capacities and needs evolve through time. Specifically, follow a “graduation approach” to livelihood programming with people dependent on the IE. This should be based on the capacities and related support needs identified for each socio-economic group during the assessment. Gradually reduce the number in need of assistance and livelihood support through the attainment of durable solutions. Phase out the more costly short-term livelihood support measures gradually while maintaining medium to long-term sustainable livelihood promotion measures.

ReferenceUNHCR, 2011, Promoting Livelihoods and Self-reliance Operational Guidance on Refugee Protection and Solutions in Urban Areas, General background document on issues in our research matrix, UNHCR, Geneva

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13) Promote the inclusion of all key stakeholders when engaging in actions to benefit migrant workers.

Reference: Mahy, Pierre, 2014, Tripartite Action for the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers (ASEAN TRIANGLE project) Midterm Evaluation, Midterm or interim evaluation, Evaluation Summary, ILO, Geneva, Project: Tripartite Action for the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers (ASEAN TRIANGLE project) in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam.

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14) Bear in mind when designing projects on migrant labour that children can also be migrant workers. Develop mechanisms to address this issue.

Reference: Jersild, Amy; Lazo, Lucita, 2013, Towards a child-labour-free Philippines: Building on past gains and addressing challenges – Final Evaluation, Evaluation Summary, ILO, Geneva.

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15) To protect investments post disaster in livelihoods of the poorest IE groups, provide cash transfer but also additional short-term support to cover the gap in essential needs so that working capital of their livelihoods activities are not affected. This may include food aid and support to obtain basic household needs kits.

References:

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16) When designing livelihoods projects with refugees dependent on the IE, take into account the potential of livelihoods strategies developed in asylum settings to be transferable on repatriation.

ReferenceHolzaepfel, Erica A.; Jacobsen, Karen, 2015, Evaluating the Effectiveness of DOS/PRM Livelihoods Programs in Ethiopia and Burundi, Meta-analysis of evaluations, Social Impact Inc, Washington DC.

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17) When planning food security programs in disaster/refugee situations—in addition to focusing on measuring food needs and quantifying levels of food insecurity—consider how food aid could contribute to the recovery of livelihoods of people dependent on the IE. Include measures on strengthening livelihoods based on assessments and inputs from community members.

ReferenceHarvey, Paul; Burton, Cynthia; Wilkinson, Laura, 2009, Strategic Evaluation of the Effectiveness of WFP Livelihood Recovery Interventions, Thematic evaluation, A Report from the Office of Evaluation, WFP, Brussels, Covered countries: Bangladesh, Colombia, Lesotho, Nepal, Uganda.

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18) Note that there is a weak evidence base and assessment process for determining disaster recovery needs and when and how to shift activities from relief to recovery objectives. However, it is commonly recommended to start livelihoods recovery activities early.

19) Note that in fragile country situations it is particularly important support the rural communities in such a way that they can utilise their own resources and improve their incomes. This will also prevent the potential of more conflict from re-emerging. This means transitioning from food distribution to support with livelihoods development as quickly as possible.

References

 

SOURCE: RNSF research - Volume 4.2

 

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