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2.3.6. Vocational education/skills training

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Alessio Lupi16 May 2018

Indicators: a) GP and LL on   vocational/skills training in IE identified.

b) Challenges on Vocational/skills training in IE identified and possible means to overcome challenges identified and analysed.

c) Appropriateness of types of vocational/skills training with regard to enhancing livelihoods analysed. (i.e., are the types of training in line with local needs)

Data Analysis Methods: Identification of GP and LL on vocational/skills training. Analysis of GP and LL to determine adaptability and scalability. Identification of challenges identified during promotion and implementation on vocational/skills training and determine if/how these were overcome.

RECOMMENDATIONS:

1) When planning a Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programme, conduct an internal review of Government priorities about labour market and economic diversification. Labour market assessments are needed to identify viable economic sectors for private sector development, the human resource requirements within the market and the appropriate training packages. The objective is to align the TVET system more closely with the requirements and dynamics of the market, as well as to the needs of an economic diversification strategy.

References:

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2) In project design take into account that not all youth have the inclination or aptitude to become self-employed, so any type of training needs to be sensitive to youth preferences and capacities. Determine preference for self-employment or employment working for others when enrolling youth in programmes. Be aware that their preferences may also change over time.

ReferenceIFAD, 2015, Lessons learned Youth access to rural finance: Inclusive rural financial services, General background document on issues in our research matrix, Lessons Learned series is prepared by the IFAD Policy and Technical Advisory Division, IFAD, Rome.

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3) Distinguish between home-based income and market-based employment objectives. Expand the repertoire of courses and options for trainees in both.

Reference: Gairdner, David; Al-Allaf, Riadh; Mandelik, Florence, 2013, Independent Evaluation, The Republic Of Iraq, Evaluation of Micro Enterprises for Reintegration of Internally Displaced Persons in Thi Qar Governorate, Final evaluation, UNIDO, Vienna.

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4) Explore a range of methods to determine types of skill sets needed in the labour market. Aside from labour force surveys this can include surveying companies and Corporate Social Responsibility programs to understand the skill-sets that are needed.

Reference: ACUMEN - Cartier Charitable Foundation, International Center for Research on Women, 2015, Women And Social Enterprises: How Gender Integration Can Boost Entrepreneurial Solutions to Poverty, General background document on issues in our research matrix, ACUMEN, New York

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5) Carefully review and plan the implementation steps of a TVET programme and ensure that these are well organised to avoid implementation delays. Note that any significant delays may result in loss of momentum and poor results.

ReferenceOrbicon A/S; GHK Consulting Limited; Pinto Consulting GmbH, 2011, Evaluation of the Danish Neighbourhood Programme with a focus on the Economic Development Portfolio, Final evaluation, Danida, Copenhagen, Covered countries: Armenia, Kosovo, Serbia.

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6) Ensure the TVET and training is sufficiently tailored to local contexts and the needs of participants so that participants can implement what they learned easily in the local situation.

Reference: Buhl-Nielsen Eric, Oskarsson Bertil, 2015, Evaluation of Swedish International Training Programme (ITP) 288, “The Role of Labour Market Policies in Poverty Alleviation” 2009-2015, Final evaluation, SIDA, Stockholm, Covered countries: Tanzania, Kenya and Mozambique.

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7) Include emphasis on the establishment of linkages between government training institutions, private training institutions and private sector operators in TVET projects.

References

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8) Ensure that projects include implementation of assistance with job referral in the project design.

ReferenceUNIDO, 2015, Reintegration for Liberian Returnees through Skills Training and Job Creation, Final Evaluation, UNIDO, Vienna.

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9) Ensure that all TVET modules include clear learning objectives and, if relevant, establish linkages to national qualifications networks.

ReferencePringsulaka, Pamornrat, 2013, Enhancing Rural Access Project, Timor-Leste Independent Mid-Term Evaluation, Evaluation Summary, ILO, Geneva.

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10) Involve potential employers in the project by asking them to review course content and mentor trainees.

ReferenceVan de Velde, Martine, 2013, Skills Development and Employment Services for the Construction Sector in the Gaza Strip – Final Evaluation, Evaluation Summary, ILO, Geneva.

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11) Study particularly successful TVET programmes to identify their good practices for replication in new areas.

Reference: Lightfoot, Michael; Rose, Aimee; Wafeq, Mainsha; Kamal, Burhamuddin; Santos, Ronald, 2015, Final Performance Evaluation and Sustainability Assessment of the Building Livelihoods and Trade (BLT) Activity, Final evaluation, USAID, Washington DC.
EVIDENCE SAMPLE: the vocational training of the Turquoise Mountain Institute has provided many young people, particularly those from poor socio-economic backgrounds, with some viable craft skills through which to make a living. Moreover, the vision with which the Turquoise Mountain initiative was founded has transformed a formerly derelict area of Kabul into a thriving community.

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12) Consider including possible types of employment that are often not considered for TVET such as sales service provider, security guard, IT sector, development of new products based on traditional crafts, and green jobs.

References

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13) Provide training with a specific session on doing job applications and strengthening of professional confidence. Do not underestimate that lack of preparation and experience in applying for a job is one of the main challenges that prevent those in the unemployed workforce from finding an employment opportunity.

Reference: McLellan, Iain  & Bamwesigye, Jackson, 2012, Mid-Term Evaluation of the Akazi Kanoze Youth Livelihoods Project (Rwanda), Midterm or interim evaluation, USAID, Washington DC.

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14) Promote use of locally available resources, building on already known techniques, and training on non time-consuming skills. (This should not be to the exclusion of innovative products and services if there is a market for them).

References:

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15) Include focus on building relations with private sector companies to ensure employment of younger less-educated workers post training.

16) In vocational training include focus on a wide range of skills including with the retail industry and other customer service areas.

17) Where resources allow, provide the basic equipment necessary to the trainees in the form of income generating ‘toolkits’ and provide support to access start-up capital.

18) Engage in local procurement of tools and materials for training in order to ensure greater project effectiveness in supporting the local economy.

Reference: Cambronero, Sergio; Midling, Michael; Molina, Francisco, 2012, Mid-term Evaluation-USAID Improving Access to Employment Program in El Salvador, Midterm or interim evaluation, USAID, Washington DC.

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19) Ensure that training includes both practical as well as theoretical aspects. Projects on TVET should emphasise and directly include the establishment of effective connections between job training and job placements. This may specifically include supporting:

  • The establishment of direct interactions during training between potential employers and trainees/students
  • Job placement centres/services and raising the awareness of their staff of the existence of the TVET graduates.

References

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20) Link trainees to a range of public and private sector experts who provide expert training in innovative subjects not often considered for TVET programmes.

ReferenceMode, Matteo, 2014, Evaluation of ACF’s Livelihood Projects in Abkhazia funded by UNHCR in 2011-2013, Final evaluation, ACF International, UNHCR, Geneva, Projects: 1) Vocational Training, Small Business start-up opportunities and promotion of Small-Holders' Association in Abkhazia, Samegrelo and Imereti - January-December 2011; 2) Support to livelihoods through agriculture and small business development - January-December 2012; 3) Improving self-reliance of vulnerable families through provision of IGA grants -January- December 2013 in Abkhazia (partially recognised as an independent state).

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21) Promote and provide support to obtain internship options for TVET graduates so that they can acquire experience and come in contact with employers who may not always advertise jobs that are becoming available.

Reference: Attanasio, Orazio; Kugler, Adriana; Meghi, Costas, 2011, Subsidizing Vocational Training for Disadvantaged Youth in Colombia: Evidence from a Randomized Trial, General background document on issues in our research matrix, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 3 (July 2011): 188–220, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Nashville Tennessee.

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22) Include life skills and other training in TVET programming as it is critical to help prepare graduates for jobs. The inclusion of life skills and other soft skills training will help ensure that they can build sufficient confidence to implement their technical skills.

References:

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23) Develop voucher programmes for young and other interested persons to facilitate attendance in TVET programmes. A voucher program enables potential trainees to receive vouchers that they can use to cover (most) of the costs of training in a selected number of training sites.

Reference: Attanasio, Orazio;  Guarín, Arlen; Medina, Carlos;  Meghir, Costas, 2015, Long Term Impacts of Vouchers for Vocational Training: Experimental Evidence For Colombia, Impact evaluation, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, USA, impact evaluation on the project “Jovenes en Acción” (JeA), Colombia

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24) Ensure that TVET activities are well monitored through an information system that collects data on the post training situation including:

  • Absorption rate of graduates into the job market
  • Changes in students’ attitudes and lives.

References:

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25) Ensure that translation of all the material that is to be used during TVET Programmes and other capacity strengthening materials is ready prior to training. Misunderstandings and message distortion may arise if the facilitator is relied on to translate content (see also 4.4.5 on ensuring that training materials are directly accessible to participants and content does not need too much adaptation during training).

Reference: Dodo Aleke, Kiara Japhet & Baaru Mary, 2014, Enterprise Development for Rural Families Programme in Kenya, Final Report, Final evaluation, SIDA, Stockholm, Project: SIDA Hand in Hand Eastern Africa’s Enterprise Development for Rural Families (EDRF), Kenya.

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26) Ensure that the quality of TVET provided is high and that quality monitoring is carried out.

Reference: Nycander, Lotta; Riechi, Andrew, 2013, Creating the enabling environment to establish models for child labour free areas in Kenya – Final evaluation, Evaluation Summary, ILO, Geneva.

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27) Note that employment creation after TVET completion may not be evident in the short term. If employment creation is to be directly fostered in a TVET project, this should be directly incorporated into the project design. This could include, for example, support for creating self-employment or training oriented directly to supply labour for new to be created employment opportunities.
Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

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28) When providing seed capital support following TVET, ensure that it is provided within 2 months post- graduation to avoid disillusion and fatigue among graduates.

Reference: Karuga, Stanley; Zimbizi, George, 2013, Skills for Youth Employment and Rural Development in Western and Southern Africa Programme (Zimbabwe Component) – Midterm evaluation, Midterm or interim evaluation, Evaluation Summary, ILO, Geneva.

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29) In situations where projects or other entities provide support for self-employment by providing work spaces, ensure that such spaces are sufficiently well located to be suitable to attract clients. While this may seem evident, it is not always considered.

ReferenceZegers, Mei, 2016, Independent Final Evaluation of Ethiopians fighting against Child Exploitive Labor (E-Face), Final Report, USDOL, O’Brien & Associates International, Washington DC

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30) When designing projects, take into account that people who never attained primary education may require supplementary assistance to level off with higher-educated participants (who are at least able to read and write).

Reference: McLellan, Iain  & Bamwesigye, Jackson, 2012, Mid-Term Evaluation of the Akazi Kanoze Youth Livelihoods Project (Rwanda), Midterm or interim evaluation, USAID, Washington DC.

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31) The duration of skills training should be of sufficient length to ensure adequate learning of skills.

Reference: UNIDO, 2015, Reintegration for Liberian Returnees through Skills Training and Job Creation, Final Evaluation, UNIDO, Vienna.

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32) Ensure (and test) that project beneficiaries are fully able to use their newly acquired skills and working tools obtained through training. Monitor the beneficiaries even after the end of the project, supporting them in developing their new activities and, consequently, gain more from their work. Work with government and civil society representatives to enable this.

Reference: Lombardini, Simone, 2015, Impact evaluation of the project ‘Scaling up sustainable livelihoods in Mindanao’, Impact evaluation, OXFAM, Oxford.

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33) Be aware that graduates of TVET may not immediately automatically find employment. Develop other means to support graduates through social protection methods if needed until employment can be accessed.

Reference: Gairdner, David; Al-Allaf, Riadh; Mandelik, Florence, 2013, Independent Evaluation, The Republic Of Iraq, Evaluation of Micro Enterprises for Reintegration of Internally Displaced Persons in Thi Qar Governorate, Final evaluation, UNIDO, Vienna.

 

SOURCE: RNSF research - Volume 4.2

 

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