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Gairdner, David; Al-Allaf, Riadh; Mandelik, Florence, 2013, Independent Evaluation, The Republic Of Iraq, Evaluation of Micro Enterprises for Reintegration of Internally Displaced Persons in Thi Qar Governorate, Final evaluation

2.3 DIRECT ACTIONS IN COMMUNITIES

2.3.6. Vocational education/skills training

Recommendation: 1. When planning a Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programme, conduct an internal review of Government priorities about labour market and economic diversification. Labour market assessments are needed to identify viable economic sectors for private sector development, the human resource requirements within the market and the appropriate training packages. The objective is to align the TVET system more closely with the requirements and dynamics of the market, as well as to the needs of an economic diversification strategy.

Reference: Al Allaf, Riadh; Gairdner, David; Mandelik, Florence, 2012, Promotion of micro industries for accelerated and sustainable livelihood recovery – Ninewa Governate of Iraq (MISP-V), Final evaluation, UNIDO, Vienna.

EVIDENCE SAMPLE: the evaluation stated that UNIDO’s VET Programme (MISP V) in Iraq was mainly addressed to promote economic diversification, emerged as core Government priority.

To meet Government  needs, the programme was focused on Small and Medium Enterprises (SME). SMEs smooth the transition from predominantly agricultural economies to more urban, industrial economies by providing for accessible value-adding processing activities. SMEs succeeded in creating employment. Generally, SMEs showed a higher level of business activity and income and were better positioned to take advantage of improvements to the overall economy. Growth in business resulted in a creation of employment, with the large majority of positions being full time. Importantly, employment creation extended beyond immediate extended family networks and included recruitment from the general labour market. The majority of SME owners were also making their own investments in upgrading business facilities and infrastructure, with the effects of leveraging the MISP V contribution, further expanding operations and improving sustainability.

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2.3 DIRECT ACTIONS IN COMMUNITIES

2.3.6. Vocational education/skills training

Recommendation: 3) Distinguish between home-based income and market-based employment objectives. Expand the repertoire of courses and options for trainees in both.

Reference: Al Allaf, Riadh; Gairdner, David; Mandelik, Florence, 2012, Promotion of micro industries for accelerated and sustainable livelihood recovery – Ninewa Governate of Iraq (MISP-V), Final evaluation, UNIDO, Vienna.

Evidence sample: the evaluation identified the need to distinguish between home-based income and market-based employment objectives, and expand the repertoire of courses and options for women in both.

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2.3 DIRECT ACTIONS IN COMMUNITIES

2.3.6. Vocational education/skills training

Recommendation: 7) Include emphasis on the establishment of linkages between government training institutions, private training institutions and private sector operators in TVET projects.

Reference: Al Allaf, Riadh; Gairdner, David; Mandelik, Florence, 2012, Promotion of micro industries for accelerated and sustainable livelihood recovery – Ninewa Governate of Iraq (MISP-V), Final evaluation, UNIDO, Vienna.

Evidence sample: the evaluation indicated that the design phase did not develop an effective strategy for linking vocational training to either small business development opportunities or support for market entry. Some activities were identified in Project Inception Report results matrix. However, none of these were finally implemented, despite extensive discussion on some of them.

The evaluation noted that the project had a highly effective vocational training intervention for vulnerable persons, successfully targeting women and youth. However, the project lacked the design or means to create livelihood opportunities or promote small business development.

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2.3 DIRECT ACTIONS IN COMMUNITIES

2.3.6. Vocational education/skills training

Recommendation: 33) Be aware that graduates of TVET may not immediately automatically find employment. Develop other means to support graduates through social protection methods if needed until employment can be accessed.

Reference: Gairdner, David; Al-Allaf, Riadh; Mandelik, Florence, 2013, Independent Evaluation, The Republic Of Iraq, Evaluation of Micro Enterprises for Reintegration of Internally Displaced Persons in Thi Qar Governorate, Final evaluation, UNIDO, Vienna.

Evidence sample: The evaluation noted that actual results achieved for income and employment were modest. The majority of sewing course graduates reported earning a small amount of income from informal work (estimate USD 25-50 a month). Discounting for sewing graduates, 12% of the survey cohort reported success in finding employment

12 % found employment, of which only 7% were women in the market-oriented courses found work.

 21%of beneficiaries reported they had created businesses. However, “business” in this context referred to be self-employed, sometimes with a family members or partners, but with characteristics similar to casual labour. There was no instance where a small enterprise was created.

Strategies need to consider the post-graduation support that addresses the specific obstacles to job market access faced by women.

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2.3 DIRECT ACTIONS IN COMMUNITIES

2.3.7. Labour market analysis to determine types of education/training provided 

Recommendation: 4) Enable sub-grantee partners (local NGOs, local authorities etc.) to participate in conducting these market analyses themselves. This can even encourage new contacts between partners and stakeholders that may potentially lead to economic opportunities.

Reference: Gairdner, David; Al-Allaf, Riadh; Mandelik,  Florence, 2013, Independent Evaluation, The Republic Of Iraq, Evaluation of Micro Enterprises for Reintegration of Internally Displaced Persons in Thi Qar Governorate, Final evaluation, UNIDO, Vienna.

Evidence sample: the evaluation concluded that projects must invest in the strategies and mechanisms to create linkages between training and employment and livelihood opportunity. Options should be identified, developed and resourced within the initial assessment and design process.

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2.3 DIRECT ACTIONS IN COMMUNITIES

2.3.7. Labour market analysis to determine types of education/training provided 

Recommendation: 5) Promote analysis and understanding of economic growth dynamics and functioning of the labour market to inform technical assistance on youth employment. Acquire knowledge of the operations of national and local complex organisations, e.g. public administration in general, ministries and department in charge of labour and employment and Public Employment Services. Note that demand for development interventions related to TVET includes labour market assessment, providing support for establishing linkages between training and the labour market, and policy development.

Reference: Gairdner, David; Al-Allaf, Riadh; Mandelik,  Florence, 2013, Independent Evaluation, The Republic Of Iraq, Evaluation of Micro Enterprises for Reintegration of Internally Displaced Persons in Thi Qar Governorate, Final evaluation, UNIDO, Vienna.

Evidence sample: the evaluation noted that future demand for intervention appears to be in the areas of policy development, labour market assessment, and providing the linkages between training and the market.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.5. Strengthening IE with attention to gender issues

Recommendation: 31) TVET should include the identification of traditionally male-dominated skills training and job areas in order to increase the opportunities of female trainees on the job market. Likewise, males may also enter into training that may be dominated by females. Consider promoting TVET training access in skills not traditionally carried out by either men or women. While changing the stereotyping of skills may be difficult, breaking the mould can provide more opportunities for both women and men.

Reference: Gairdner, David; Al-Allaf, Riadh; Mandelik, Florence, 2013, Independent Evaluation, The Republic Of Iraq, Evaluation of Micro Enterprises for Reintegration of Internally Displaced Persons in Thi Qar Governorate, Final evaluation, UNIDO, Vienna.

Evidence sample:

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.10. Strengthening IE with attention to migrants, refugees, trafficked persons

Recommendation: 6) Provide support to both the host community and the internally displaced persons (IDP) or refugee population at the same time on informal economy activities as relevant in contexts where large IDP populations create an economic burden on the Host Community that might result in conflict.

Reference: Gairdner, David; Al-Allaf, Riadh; Mandelik, Florence, 2013, Independent Evaluation, The Republic Of Iraq, Evaluation of Micro Enterprises for Reintegration of Internally Displaced Persons in Thi Qar Governorate, Final evaluation, UNIDO, Vienna.

Evidence sample: the evaluation noted that it is considered a best practice to provide support to both the host community and the IDP or refugee population at the same time in contexts where large IDP populations create an economic burden on the Host Community that might result in conflict.

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5 July 2018

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