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Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013

ENABLING ENVIRONMENT

2.1.6. Improvement of impact of policy frameworks

Recommendation: Ensure that project/programmes are well aligned with countries’ development priorities as opposed to those of the donors.  Advocate to ensure that national policy-makers are in full support of the relevant social protection initiatives.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: For policy support interventions on social protection to be effective, they require the full support of national policy-makers, and they need to be in line with the development priorities of a country.

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2.1.8 Organising informal economy groups

Recommendation: 7. While organising IE workers into groups such as savings and credit cooperatives that can be beneficial to addressing decent work deficits, note that the heterogeneous nature of the informal economy may results in challenges. In project design, consider differences between IE operators and workers and the eventual potential challenges to scaling up activities after project end. Such consideration may take the form of good analysis of the functioning of types of IE activities and possible contextual challenges. Subsequently, envisage, test and measure results to learn lessons. Integrate lessons learned back into new programming.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: informal economy workers were supported through the joint action of trade unions and cooperatives. Among other things, the project envisaged organizing workers into groups, often in the form of savings and credit cooperatives (SACCOs). Through specific training activities on decent work, and support activities in the area of OSH, certain decent work deficits were addressed. At the same time, the project was challenged by the heterogeneous nature of the informal sector and the difficulty of scaling-up activities after the pilot phase.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.1 Social dialogue and IE

Recommendation: 1) Promote and facilitate social dialogue between a range of stakeholders as this contributes to appropriate content, capacity strengthening through knowledge sharing, speedier decision-making and ownership.   Dialogue may include rural/or community members, local/regional/national government, civil society and academia representatives, workers and employers organisations.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the Women’s Entrepreneurship Development and Gender Equality project (WEDGE III, INT/08/06/IRL)57 made a substantial contribution to the participation of women in processes of social dialogue. This helped provide support to established women entrepreneurs, promoted women entrepreneurship in general, promoted the institutionalization of women’s participation in social dialogue, and gave women the capacity to take up such roles.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.1 Social dialogue and IE

Recommendation: 9) While participation is important, it should be recognised that it is, by itself, not a sufficient measure to ensure effectiveness and sustainability.  Strengthen capacities of social partners in their particular functions and roles as needed. Capacity strengthening may include covering a wide range of organizational capacity skills (management, decision-making, analysis, bargaining) and knowledge (emerging issues, sector- specific knowledge, etc.).

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the analysis indicated that capacity building is an essential component of strategies to strength processes related to social dialogue. The strengthening of social partners in their particular functions and roles in tripartite mechanisms covers a wide range of organizational capacity skills (management, decision-making, analysis, bargaining) and knowledge (emerging issues, sector- specific knowledge, etc.). While there may be the temptation for technical interventions to offer the social partners similar packages for capacity building, the review shows that there is a need to adapt the strategies to the characteristics of the partners. The review also points to the opportunity offered by interventions on employment promotion to improve the participation of particular groups in social dialogue mechanisms.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.1 Social dialogue and IE

Recommendation: 

11) When reviewing project designs, note that the duration of projects should be sufficient to ensure that social dialogue can be adequately implemented.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the short duration of projects was not conducive to the long-term nature of change in processes of social dialogue.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.3. Social protection

Recommendation: 1) Include a range of stakeholders related to the IE in capacity strengthening and decision-making on social protection issues as it helps raise their awareness and strengthens their ownership of related processes. This should include government, employers and workers’ organisations, and other civil society groups and may include other non-state actors such as experts from academia.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the evaluation indicated that the variety of actors that benefited from capacity strengthening as well as their involvement in the decision-making process, contributed to raising their awareness about unemployment insurance, and strengthening national ownership of this social protection scheme.

- The coordination between various actors within the public administration is considered a key factor in building comprehensive and sustainable social protection systems.

- The analysis indicated that the ILO’s vision on social protection generally requires the consultation and contribution of actors who are not automatically involved in ILO technical interventions, e.g. civil society, private sector, various ministries and public administrations (other than the ministry of labour and/or employment), etc. In particular, the coordination between various actors within the public administration is considered a key factor in building comprehensive and sustainable social protection systems. This is illustrated by an ILO project that took advantage of the management arrangement to contribute to this new vision on social protection.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.3. Social protection

Recommendation: 2) Promote discussion in project steering committees or other coordinating bodies on social protection as a means to enhance the capacities of members and address social protection in addressing the IE.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the evaluation indicated that the social partners expressed their enthusiasm about the role played by the project steering committees, particularly because it enhanced their capacity to tackle social protection and employment issues through social dialogue.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.3. Social protection

Recommendation: 9) Support the clear articulation of access to social protection in employment policies, including for people dependent on the IE.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the evaluations stressed that the ILO’s vision of social protection includes not only the classic preventive measures (insurance) but devotes more attention to assistance measures for the poorest as well as measures to enhance and stabilize income levels. This new vision on social protection was formulated in the concept of Social Protection Floor (2009) with particular emphasis on the need to better articulate employment policies to guarantee services and social transfers across the life cycle, paying particular attention to vulnerable groups.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.3. Social protection

Recommendation: 12) Take into consideration that:

  • Workers dependent on the IE face different vulnerabilities at different periods of their lives, and thus need different mechanisms of social protection at different times
  • Donors have a special role to play in exploring the potential of mainstreaming social protection for informal workers into existing formal institutions, while continuing to support innovative ways of building independent institutions where appropriate.
  • Facilitate the fostering of dialogues and coordination between organizations of formal and informal workers, governments, and the corporate sector.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the evaluation noted that the case studies indicate the importance and potential results of a dedicated social protection project in all countries, supported by appropriate specialists on Decent Work Teams. All countries need support to improve social protection as an integral and indispensable part of the ILO development assistance package.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.5. Strengthening IE with attention to gender issues

Recommendation: 5) In projects with people dependent on the IE, include a specific component on gender mainstreaming and ensure that it is well articulated in the project design. Ensure that this includes development of training and policies that take the different needs of female and male operators/workers into account.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the evaluation noted that a number of returning success factors can be observed in those projects which managed to achieve more in this area. A first condition relates to the need to translate the gender mainstreaming approach into explicit strategies operationalized in all project activities or components. To be able to develop such strategies, project staff and partners need to be supported by methodological (gender analysis, gender budgeting, gender audit) and practical tools (manuals, best practices).

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.5. Strengthening IE with attention to gender issues

Recommendation: 20) It should be noted that simply having tools on gender issues does not mean that gender mainstreaming in IE projects is automatically included. Other factors that need to be considered are:

  • Partnerships with specialised organisations,
  • Allocation of sufficient time as it allows for the design, implementation and, when required, adaptation of appropriate and context-based gender mainstreaming strategies.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the mere awareness of the presence of tools is not sufficient to ensure gender mainstreaming. Project staff’s previous experience with gender mainstreaming as well as partnerships with specialised organisations, and the allocation of sufficient time are key factors. Time

constitutes a major cross-cutting condition as it allows for the design, implementation and, when required, adaptation of appropriate and context-based gender mainstreaming strategies, which are able to induce sustainable effects.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.5. Strengthening IE with attention to gender issues

Recommendation: 21) Note that the strategies for addressing different vulnerable groups within the same project may need to vary.  The interaction between gender, race, and other categories of difference in individual lives, social practices, institutional arrangements, disaster risks and cultural ideologies may require different approaches. This needs to be taken into account when implementing projects that include a range of types and combinations of vulnerability.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the review included a limited number of interventions combining gender with other vulnerable groups: unemployed youth, working children, people with disabilities, indigenous populations, etc. It was difficult to establish the rationale for addressing women issues in parallel with issues encountered by other groups of population, but the relevant projects seem to indicate that addressing multiple target groups with similar strategies does not work well. One of the weaknesses observed relates to the lack of ‘intersectionality’, namely, difficulty in addressing the interaction between gender, race, and other categories of difference in individual lives, social practices, institutional arrangements, and cultural ideologies.

That analysis noted that, for instance, the project Promotion of Equality of Gender and Race in the informal economy sector in Latin America (RLA/03/52M/UKM)92 successfully led to the creation of a youth and gender unit within the Ministry of Labour and Employment in Ecuador. The institutionalisation of gender mainstreaming in relevant ministries was a positive development, nevertheless the evaluators noted the risk related to:

(...) the thematic dispersion in the unit: ...youth and gender have some elements in common that are related to discrimination against or the exclusion of significant sectors of society. Nevertheless, there are also differences and specific characteristics in each sector that could lead, under certain circumstances, to one being overshadowed by the other, as unfortunately occurred recently because of the priority that the MTE gave to addressing child labour, to the detriment of gender issues.

Only the multi-countries project (Women’s Entrepreneurship and Gender Equality: Phase 3) integrated to a certain extent an integrated approach through partnerships with organisations of people living with HIV/AIDS (Ethiopia) or with organisations of women with disabilities (United Republic of Tanzania) in order to mainstream these issues in all of the project’s interventions.

The evaluation found that analysis for project planning needed to better explore the relationships between hazards and the particular vulnerabilities of women and poorer households. Without this understanding, project design could not react how different shocks and stresses might be affecting particular groups or households differently.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.5. Strengthening IE with attention to gender issues

Recommendation: 30) To enhance mainstreaming of gender equality and equity, include in TVET projects:

  • Infant day care if needed;
  • An analysis of gender dynamics to determine support males in female participants household and means to increase such support if necessary.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the evaluation of the Start and improve your business (Phase III) project in Papua New Guinea (PNG03/02/AUS)90 found that Start Your Own Business programmes which target women need to ensure that husbands understand the benefits of the training and tolerate the disruptions this might cause to the family routine. In one case where this aspect was overlooked, participants faced domestic violence.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.6. Strengthening IE with attention to youth and children

Recommendation: 6) Ensure that advocacy is implemented to ensure that institutions have mechanisms in place to sustain and scale up programme/project activities on supporting out-of-school (working) youth.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the large EAST project in Indonesia (INS/06/15/NET) led to good results in making out-of-school youths return to school. It failed, however, to convince government counterparts and tripartite partners to establish institutional mechanisms that would sustain and multiply these efforts.

Also the ILO project: Promoting the rights and reducing poverty of indigenous and tribal peoples (INT/08/57/DAN). ILO project:

Government reportedly did not show much interest in taking over institutional mechanisms or structures created or proposed by the project. These examples highlight the need for better ownership and counterpart involvement before projects of this size are granted. This will increase the chances that newly created, relevant and well-implemented activities outlive the project period, and avoid governments’ dependency and inactivity in such projects.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.11. Strengthening IE with attention to general or other specific vulnerable groups

Recommendation:

1) Promote the preparation and implementation of capacity strengthening of relevant national and local institutions to ensure the effective implementation of policies affecting vulnerable groups through national or local administrations.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: ILO programmes can facilitate and support the preparation and implementation of these policies through national or local administrations. Institutional level involves building the capacity of institutions (such as employment services) to apply specific approaches or methods to different kinds of vulnerable groups, in order to improve their chances for employment, decent work and acceptable standards of living.

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2.4 APPROACHES TO ENHANCE LIVELIHOODS, EQUITY AND INCLUSION

2.4.11. Strengthening IE with attention to general or other specific vulnerable groups

Recommendation: 3) Ensure that specific local institutions are involved and their capacities built on programmes/projects with vulnerable groups to help ensure their ownership and sustainability.

Reference: ILO, 2014, Decent work results of ILO employment promotion interventions: lessons learned from evaluations, 2003-2013, Meta-analysis of evaluations, ILO, Geneva.

Evidence sample: the analysis noted that projects targeting vulnerable groups can be successful if local institutions take over their ownership after they end.

The analysis stated that a project on Social entrepreneurship in South Africa (SETYSA), (SAF/07/51M/FLA),105 produced good feedback, but a nationwide multiplier effect is not likely to follow. The evaluator suggests that the decision to locate the project in the ILO Pretoria Office rather than in existing South African institutions could have undermined local ownership and ownership of social entrepreneurship.

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    Document uploaded by

    Alessio Lupi
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    22 May 2018

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