Exploring credibility gaps in Voluntary Partnership Agreements: A review of independent forest monitoring initiatives and lessons to learn identifies several ways in which civil society and community participation could improve the effectiveness and reliability of VPAs.
When civil society organisations in Indonesia began proposing ways to end illegal logging, they knew they had a mountain to climb. In 2002, some 80 percent of logging there was illegally. Corruption and conflict were widespread. Trust was lacking.
A recent report, Who Watches the Watchmen, by the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) with Malaysian NGO Grassrootsreveals major flaws in the system of scrutiny which underpins the RSPO’s guarantee of sustainable production of palm oil.