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Multi-Functional Forestry and Agroforestry (Lin'an and surrounding regions) 多重功效的森林和农林系统 (临安与周围地区)

Image source: Asian-Pacific Model Forestry Network, Baisha Village Administration

 

The world of forestry and agroforestry knows the oldest local and farming eco systems on earth. These Nature Systems offer multi-dimensional, -facet and -adaptable solutions to the survival and living of human societies. 

林业和农林业的世界有着最古老的地方和农业生态系统。这些“自然系统”为人类社会的生存和生活提供“多维度”、“多方面”和“多适应”的解决方案。

 

Through stereo planting and soil-water conservation projects on different slopes, each forestry land use strives for sustainable spatial and cultivation patterns to ensure eco protection, rural livelihood and regional safety in the mountain areas.

* Prof. Zhu Zhaohua, Research Institute of Forestry, the Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF), previous vice director of International Network of Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR), award receiver of the first "Man of Tree" by International Richard St. Barbe Baker Foundation

* Prof. Wang Anguo, previous Chief Engineer of Lin’an Forestry Bureau

 

Image source: Public images, Asian-Pacific Model Forestry Network, Baisha Village Administration

Image source: Lin’an Government, International / Asian-Pacific Model Forest Programs, NATUREHERIT, Zhu Zhaohua, Internet incl. Wechat ac. Hangzhou Toutiao.

As a mountainy district, 75% land of Lin’an is hilly and mountainous areas with slopes above 15C, alongside slightly sloped and flat plain with wetlands, rivers and lakes, paddy fields and dry areas. Because of logging activities in the early 80’s, severe rains often caused water-soil erosion disasters to villages in Lin’an (Hangzhou) and surrounding regions in Tianmu Mountains, south of Yangtze River Delta and Taihu Lake. To prevent water-soil erosion longtermly, develop rural agroforestry and prevent land degradation, the two pioneering scientific contributors carried out tailored agroforestry and agriculture practice formulas, the so-called “stereoscopic forest economy”, in Lin’an’s mountainy hills (82.6%) and plain areas (10%). 

Thank these efforts from 1980’s, various international, national institutions and projects contributed to Lin’an and neighboring regions, incl. UNESCO, FAO, International Model Forest Program, China Academy of Forestry, Zhejiang A&F University and International Network of Bamboo and Rattan.

通过不同坡度的山地立体种植和水土保持工程,每块林地都力求可持续的空间利用和种植模式,以确保山区的生态保护、农村生计和地区安全。

* 中国林业科学研究院竺肇华教授,曾任国际竹藤组织副总干事,国际李察圣巴伯贝克基金会首个“树人”奖获得者

* 曾任临安林业局总工程师的王安国教授

以山区为主的临安,除了平原地区的湿地、河湖、水田和旱地,坡度在15度以上的丘陵山地占75%以上。由于80年代初的伐木活动,暴雨常对长三角和太湖南部的临安(杭州)及天目山周边地区的村庄造成水土流失灾害。为防止长江三角洲和太湖以南的天目山水土流失,复合农林经济,防止山区土地退化,两位科学贡献者发展在临安的丘陵山地(82.6%)和平原地区(10%)定制了不同坡度山地上的立体种植农林实践公式,为山区防止泥石流发生的生态减災模式,称为“立体森林经济”。

由于他们从20世纪80年代开始的不懈努力,多个国际国内机构和项目为临安和附近地区做出了贡献,包括联合国教科文组织,联合国粮农组织,国际示范林计划,中国林业科学研究院,浙江农林大学和国际竹藤组织等。

 

To prevent soil erosion and degradation and ensure quality agroforestry cultivation management in mountain areas, international and national experts worked with a specialized local expert team of Agriculture and Forestry Bureau tightly, to advise and accompany farmers in sloped and plain locations.

* Water-Soil Erosion Taskforce and Agricultural Forestry Bureau of Lin’an District Government

Image source: Baisha Village Administration

Image source: Internet images, Lin'an District Government

Image source: NATUREHERIT, Lin'an District Government, Internet

The water-soil erosion safety measures are jointly managed and controlled by teams of Water-Soil Erosion Taskforce and Agricultural Forestry Bureau of Lin’an Government. They explained to Knowledge@Terra Classrooms that, despite climate change and remaining operational dilemmas (such as fragmented small agroforestry plots), reducing trend of erosion-risks can be seen in the whole Lin’an scope. Unlike examples of mono-species transformation, agroforestry of Lin’an Model integrates a territorially balanced percentage distribution of ca. 40% protected forestry, 50% Non-wood forest product forest land (NWFP, including economic forest and bamboo forest) and 10% timber forest. Soil Testing and Fertilizer Formula to improve agricultural soil pollution is another example of Chinese policy-practice, which prompted refined technical innovation in the variety of eco-based solutions for different crops in hilly and plain zones. 

To interact with village renaissance and agricultural tourism in Chinese and other global regions of similar conditions, the holistic territorial development approach and technical solutions are summarized as “Lin’an Model” and further explored in the practical research of Asian-Pacific Model Forestry program presently. Baisha Village is one of the leading showcases of Lin’an Model in origin valleys of Taihu Lake.

Read more: http://www.apfnet-ktc.cn |  http://www.apfnet.cn/single-131.html (Chinese 中文) | http://www.hangzhou.gov.cn/art/2017/4/27/art_812265_6794765.html (Chinese 中文)

为了防止山区土壤流失和退化,确保高品质的农林种植管理,国际和国内专家与当地农林局的专家团队紧密合作,为在坡地和平原地区的农民提供咨询和陪伴。

* 临安区水土流失管理部门和农林局

水土侵蚀的安全措施由临安的政府水土流失管理部门和农林局共同管控。他们向地域知识课堂解释,尽管气候变化和仍然存在的耕种管理问题(如农林地的小块碎片化),在整个临安的范围内可以观察到侵蚀风险的降低趋势。因为与单一的种植案例不同,临安模式的农林种植结合了受保护的生态林地(约40%)、非木质林产品林地(约50%,包括经济林和竹林等)和用材林(10%),地区林地均衡比例分布。以改善农用土壤污染为目的的土壤检测和肥料配方是另一个中国政策实践案例,促使丘陵和平原地区针对不同作物的各种生态解决方案进行精细化的技术创新。
为与中国和世界类似条件地区的乡村复兴和农业旅游形成互动,地域整体发展路径和技术解决方案被概括为“临安模式”,正在用于亚太示范林的项目实践研究。太湖源头山谷中的白沙村是“临安模式”的典型之一。

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Natureherit Design & Consult
Xiaoying Liu
|
24 September 2019

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