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Inaugurating Knowledge@Terra Interviews: Understanding Water-Soil Conservation Practices and Spatial Management Measures in Shandong 开启地域知识访谈:初探山东的水土保持实践和空间管理措施

(updated 22.12.2019 更新于2019.12.22)

In vast information systems for global sustainable development, many regional green developments and actions over climate, land, soil and water are still under-discovered, from most advanced and suitable technologies to nature-cultural heritage  territorial solutions, that carry the backbone of global actions. 在促进全球可持续发展的庞大信息系统中,许多区域性的绿色发展和气候、土地、土壤和水方面的行动,从最先进和最适宜的技术到自然文化遗产的地域解决方案,仍然没有被发现,而这些却是全球行动的支柱。

To support exchanges between valuable territorial solutions, at World Soil Day 2018 (5th Dec. 2018), an inter-territorial and multi-actor data communication strategy, Knowledge@Terra Classrooms (K@T) was created to explore lesser-known, valuable and tailored territorial solution communication with land, soil, water and climate. K@T Classrooms is an independent, neutral, open and non-commercial initiative based on technical facts and understanding. 为了支持高价值地域解决方案之间的交流,在2018年世界土壤日(2018年12月5日)期间,一个跨地区和多角色参与的信息交流策略地域知识课堂(K@T Classrooms)得到创建,以探索和传播关于土地、土壤、水和气候的,鲜为人知、高价值和量身定制的地域解决方案。K@T是一项基于技术事实和理解的独立、中性和开放的倡议。

During the first 10-month testing period (Dec.2018-Sept.2019), 16 organisations from China and Europe expressed support. K@T observed 12 global regions (from 9 countries), lectured territorial solutions. Together with World Soil Day promotion materials, their reallife territorial stories have been created as preliminary online displays for starting regions (Spain and China). Besides a comprehensive testing report, a special presentation that introduced Knowledge@Terra Classrooms -- "Support Regionally Integrated Agro-Forestry practices in Mountain Regions to Prevent Erosion, Comparing China-EU Cases" -- was presented orally through NATUREHERIT at Soil Erosion Global Symposium in UN-FAO Headquarter in Rome. Supporting organisations or individuals in 6 regions started discussing Knowledge@Terra Classrooms, from dryland forest management to delta agriculture management. Key professionals and representatives from more than 30 organisations (from China, EU countries and India) have exchanged with NATUREHERIT.  在10个月的初次测试期间(2018年12月至2019年9月),共有来自中国和欧洲的16个国家和地区组织表示支持。通过有限的访问和地区参与者,在世界12个地区(来自9个国家)进行了地方和远程观察。起始地区(西班牙和中国)的实时地域故事得到地域知识课堂的总结,与世界土壤日的相关宣传材料一起,通过网络性介绍得到初步展示。除了形成测试总结报告外,2019年5月,一份介绍地域知识课堂的报告在联合国粮农组织罗马总部举行的土壤侵蚀全球研讨会上,由自然颖源(NATUREHERIT)进行了口头发言——“支持防止侵蚀的山区综合农林解决方案,比较中欧案例”。6个地区的支持单位或个人开始讨论地域知识课堂,从旱地森林经营到三角洲农业经营等等。来自30多个组织(包括中国、欧洲和印度)的主要专业人员和参与者与自然颖源进行了交流。

 

The theme of World Soil Day 2019 is "Stop Soil Erosion, Save Our Future". In the urgency of mitigating global climate change and food safety challenge, the 2nd testing of Knowledge@Terra Classrooms has started as a Worldwide Event of the World Soil Day 2019. In the upcoming 10 months (5 Dec. 2019 - 30 Sept. 2020), the testing focuses on Interview & Reporting on territorial solutions, to stimulate co-actions of different regions!  2019年世界土壤日的主题“防止土壤侵蚀,拯救我们的未来”。在应对全球气候变化和食品安全挑战的新时刻,作为2019世界土壤日的全球活动之一,第二轮地域知识课堂测试已开始。在随后的10个月内(2019年12月5日至2020年9月30日)测试将针对地域解决方案的采访和报告,以激励不同地区的共同行动!

Knowledge@Terra is open and innovative to communicate territorial solutions more efficiently, collectively and inclusively. Because Soil Erosion is tightly related to Water Resource and Environment, with support of Shandong Society of Soil and Water Conservation and other supporting regions and professional institutions, the testing combines the World Water Day activities in March 2020. Alongside Sustainable Soil Management promotion through the World Soil Day, this unique co-action aims at broadcasting feasible policy-practice solutions, release soil-water management crisis across related regions.  地域知识课堂对于不同的地域解决方案开放,进行更加高效集约和包容的创新交流。由于土壤侵蚀与水资源环境息息相关。在山东水土保持学会和其他支持地区和专业机构的支持下,第二轮测试将结合2020年3月的世界水日活动,与世界土壤日宣传的可持续土壤管理认知共同前行,努力推广可行的政策和实践方案,缓解相关地区水土管理的综合危机。

The first K@T interview explores the practice and communication of Chinese Water and Soil Conservation Law in Shandong Region. A summary see below:  第一次地域知识访谈探索中国水土保持法在山东地区的实践和交流,简要如下:

During the World Soil Day Week (02-08.12.2019), NATUREHERIT interviewed key regional professionals that work on frontlines of Water-Soil Safety Conservation (Hazard Prevention and Treatment). Interviewees include Councillor Mingsen Wang and General Secretary Liang Ma from Shandong Society of Soil and Water Conservation (Water Resource Research Institute of Shandong Province), Director Weidong Xu and Zhenyu Yang from Spatial Landuse Planning Research Centre, Shandong Institute of Geological Sciences. The interviewee also include some local authorities and a fertigation system provider in pilot agro projects of the Ministry of Agricuture and Rural Affairs.  在世界土壤日周期间(2019.12.02-08),自然颖源采访了在水土安全保障(灾害预防和措施)前沿工作的主要地区专家。采访对象包括:山东水土保持学会(山东省水利科学研究院)王明森理事长、马良秘书长,山东地质科学研究院空间土地利用规划研究中心的徐卫东和杨振宇主任。受访者还包括一些地方管理者和农业农村部农业试点项目的水肥系统技术单位。

Shandong Province, China [Location, Tai Mountain in Tai’an City, Pier at Sea in Qingddao City]            中国山东省 【区位,泰安市泰山,青岛市海边栈桥】

Facing the sea (Pacific Ocean) and the inland, the vast hilly Shandong Peninsula extends to the east. Mountain ranges of Luzhongnan and Jiaodong and their drainage basins cover a surface area of 157,100 km2. Situated between subtropical and moderate climate, it has always been the transition zone between north and south. Old-named "Qi Lu", Shandong has a very ancient origin of Chinese civilization, rich in territorial varieties and bio-diversities, cradled ancient philosophers incl. Confuzius and Mencius. The Chinese Grand Canal passes Shandong through three major river catchment basins (Yellow, Hai and Huai River). The key waterwork of the Grand Canal from Ming Dynasty, Daicun Dam, still regulates the Dongping Lake watershed for the Grand Canal and local river transport, facilitate canal-river-lake-wetland water systems, domestic water and irrigation systems.  面向大海(太平洋)和内陆,辽阔而丘陵状的山东半岛向东延伸,位于鲁中南和胶东山脉及其流域,面积15.71万平方公里。山东地处亚热带和温和气候之间,一直是中国的南北过渡地区。山东古称“齐鲁”,有着非常古老的中华文明渊源,地域和生物及其多样,孔子、孟子等古代哲学家出于此地。中国大运河通过三大流域(黄河、海河和淮河)流经山东。明代大运河的重点水利工程戴村坝,至今仍为大运河和当地河道提供水上运输,调节着东平湖流域的运河河湖湿地水系、生活用水和灌溉系统。

Left: Qi Lu territories in Spring and Autumn period and Warring States Period (8th-3rd Century BC); Right: Geographic information map of modern Shandong Province   左图:春秋战国时代(公元前八到三世纪)的齐鲁地域| 右图:现代山东省的地理信息图

Shandong region has rich natural resources and important for Chinese agriculture, viticulture and fishery production, as well as mining and maritime industries, rural rehabitation and nature-culture heritages. As the second largest province in population (100 million people), it is less known that Shandong faces severe water scarcity and water-soil erosions since decades because of its vast mountain zones and relative thin-layer soils. In the last 5 years, after achieving 7013-km2 soil-water conservation work, the total province still has 24410 km2 water-soil-vulnerable mountain zones in 2019, ca. 15% of provincial land surface. 山东地区自然资源丰富,是农业、葡萄栽培和渔业生产的重要地区,也是矿产和海洋产业、农村改造和自然文化遗产的重要地区。山东省是中国人口第二大省(1亿人),但由于山区广大,土壤相对较薄,几十年来面临着严重的缺水和水土流失。近5年来,全省水土保持工作完成7013平方公里,而2019年仍有24410平方公里的水土流失面积,约占全省陆地面积的15%。

(Source in Chinese 中文来源:https://news.tianyancha.com/detail/2d62726b0786864742d63c69c6881937cf634...)

Soil maps of Soil Erodibility (left), Typos (middle), Erosion Severity and Management Responsibility  关于土壤可蚀性(左)、类型(中)、侵蚀严重性和管理责任(右)的土壤图

Councillor Wang and Secretary Ma explained that, because of the vulnerable natural conditions, water-soil conservation dates back several thousand years. After World War II, relative small but effective forestry and construction efforts started in mountain areas at Yishu River and various counties in 1950. The positive results after several years and dissemination to other parts of the province received compliments and encouragement from the Chinese Central Government. The Chinese Water-Soil Preservation Law was published (and revised) in 1991 (and 2010) to tackle water-soil erosion and land slides in hilly and sloping regions, supervised by the Ministry of Water Resources. Based on regional practices and setup of the Law in 1991, Shandong established provincial Water-Soil Conservation Policy in 1992 and revised in 2014. Holistic planning and approval procedures on watershed and plot level have been built up including national-regional policy, forecast and monitoring solutions to project design, planning and financial approaches.  王理事长和马秘书长解释说,由于地区自然条件脆弱,水土保持历史可追溯到几千年前。二战后的1950年,沂沭河山区和多个县开展了小型有效的造林和治理工作,并在几年后初见成效,得到了中央政府的赞扬和鼓励。中国水土保持法于1991年(和2010年)公布(和修订),以解决山地丘陵地区的水土流失和滑坡灾害,由水利部监督。根据地方实践和此法的制定,山东省在1992年制定省级水土保持政策,并于2014年修订,整体建立了流域和地块层面的整体规划和审批程序,包括国家和地区政策、项目设计的预测和监测解决方案,规划和融资方法。

Taking the old Yellow River basin and Grand Canal area as example, water-soil conservation in Shandong are complex situations that need multi-facet scientific researches, technical solutionis and practical implementation by different institutions and players. To cope the challenge, Shandong Society of Soil and Water Conservation was established in the 1980's, the first provincial association for science and technology in soil and water conservation, to help the authorities and communities to build up and maintain a crucial water and soil community of technical research, practices and social-economic services. Optimize nature-based spatial and technical planning, multiple exchanges and joint researches of provincial, national and international scientific research institutions, young education and awareness raising through media and publishing channel.  以黄河故道和大运河地区为例,山东的水土保持情况复杂,采取的措施需要不同机构和相关方的多项科学研究、技术方案和具体实施。为了应对挑战,山东水土保持学会成立于20世纪80年代,是全国成立最早的省级行业学会,旨在帮助有关部门和社区建立和维护一个关键水土保持技术研究、实践和社会经济服务社区。优化基于自然的空间和技术规划方案,联合全省、省外和国际科研院校的多位交流和共同研究,以及青少年教育、通过媒体和出版等手段的认知等。

For regions, these actions relate tightly to Land Use Measures and Spatial Land Use Planning through the Ministry of Natural Resources. Director Xu and Yang pointed out that, Land Usage Right Trade Measures are of Chinese way of small-scale land management to strive and ensure quality arable land and integrate public-private funds. Presently, like other provinces, Shandong is integrating different plans to spatial planning on provincial-, city- and county-level. The water-soil conservation challenge is still severe and dynamic, because all functional activities and spatial changes in cities and rural areas affect the vulnerability table - especially from improper agricultural management, industrial and mining activities, infrastructural work, tailing and city-town refurbishment etc. In the new efforts for better land use and eco refurbishment management, the government strives at evaluating and coordinating effective use of land resources between agriculture, urban, industry and mining, especially to ensure high-quality arable land distribution and cultivation according to land-soil-water, climate and topographic quality.  Related key actions include Anti-Water-Soil Erosion Policy-Practices, Watershed Integrated Management, Smart Agro-Irrigation Systems etc.  对于地区而言,水土保持与自然资源部制定的国土管理措施和国土空间利用规划密切相关。徐主任和杨主任指出,土地使用权流转措施是中国小规模土地管理的一种方式,旨在努力确保优质耕地,整合公私资金。和其他中国省份一样,山东目前正在将不同的规划整合到省、市、县等几级空间规划中。相关的关键行动包括防治水土流失政策措施、流域综合管理、智能农业灌溉系统等。水土保持挑战依然严峻而充满动态,因为城市和农村地区的所有功能活动和空间变化都会影响水土流失危险性表,特别是来自不当的农业管理、工矿活动、基础设施建设,尾矿和城镇地区改造等。在改善土地利用和生态改造管理的最新努力中,政府努力评估和协调农业、城市、工业和采矿业之间土地资源的有效利用,特别是根据土地、土壤、水环境、气候和地貌,确保优质耕地分布和种植。

Water-soil conservation in Mengyin County through Land Usage Right Trade. Practical barriers for rural arable land are improving still evident, such as crop collection, transport and market and certificate process.  以蒙阴县为例:确保山区优质耕地和整合公私资金的土地使用权流转措施。农村耕种的实际障碍在改善但仍然存在,如农作物收成、运输、市场和认证过程等。

Mr. Zhang, a Shandong entrepreneur on digital fertigation systems said that he looks for key technical solutions for solar powered irrigation systems. He would appreciate better Platforms and Community of Technical Practices, as well as tailored exchange to other Chinese and oversea regions with similarities, to learn various environmental friendly cultivation and territorial sustainable economies from better technological applications.  提供智慧农业水肥一体化施肥系统的山东企业家张先生说,他正在寻找以太阳能作为灌溉系统能源的关键技术解决方案。他希望能有更好的平台和技术实践社区,与有可比性的其他中国地区和海外地区进行有针对性的交流,从更好的技术应用中学习各种环境友好的耕种、管理和地域可持续经济。

Observing present trend of Water-Soil-Proof Practices and Spatial Land Use Planning in Shandong, the built up public-private partnership for water-soil conservation is one of the earliest successful practices in China, while more diverse blue-green sustainable economies, bankable and profitable investment-financial models have to into land-soil-water management and spatial landuse planning etc. Tailored and most advanced technologies, buit on territorial smart agriculture, agro-forestry and fishery, following footsteps of nature-culture heritages are again the backbones of all players from the region and visitors globally.  从目前山东省水土保持实践和土地利用空间规划的发展趋势来看,已建立的公私合作伙伴关系是中国水土保持的最早的成功实践之一,同时也是蓝绿可持续发展的经济体,其银行可投资和收回成本的金融模式必须包括土地-土壤-水管理和国土空间利用规划等。以地域智能农业、农林和渔业为基础而量身定制的最先进技术,如果紧跟自然文化遗产的脚步,可再次成为该地区所有参与者和国际访客的中坚力量。

Dynamic water-land-disaster monitoring and experimental centres are set up in recent years for monitoring and combating against sub-regional soil erosion and water loss, better land use and eco refurbishment, to grow high-quality rural areas more sustainable and "water-soil-proof".   近年完成省内区域水土流失灾害治理和动态监测和实验中心,是土地利用和生态修复的有效工具。为更可持续和水土安全的高质量农村地区给予保障。

 

Extended reading 拓展阅读:

Soil erosion must be stopped ‘to save our future’, says UN agriculture agency [中文:联合国粮农组织说,必须停止土壤侵蚀来拯救我们的未来] 

Multi-Functional Forestry and Agroforestry (Lin'an and surrounding regions) 多重功效的森林和农林系统 (临安与周围地区)

Multi-Functional Forestry and Agroforestry (Valencia & Mediterranean Forests) 多重功效的森林和农林系统 (瓦伦西亚和地中海森林)

Worldwide Event of World Soil Day Conference: "Arable Land Protection Mechanism and Innovative Approaches in the Framework of Eco Civilization" 世界土壤日全球活动研讨会:“生态文明背景下的耕地保护战略与路径创新”

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Natureherit Design & Consult
last update
1 January 2020

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