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Effort sharing sectors are responsible for about 60% of the EU total GHG emissions. Whereas the EU ETS covers CO2 and N2O emissions, effort sharing aims at reducing all 6 6 “Kyoto gases”: CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Effort sharing covers all sectors except industrial sectors covered by the EU ETS, international aviation, LULUCF and international maritime transport. The concerned sectors include road transport and rail, domestic buildings, services, waste and agriculture. The sectors in question display major differences in cost-effective emission reduction potential, and emissions from some (e.g. transport) are difficult to contain. However, other EU-wide measures (energy efficiency standards, energy labelling, CO2 & cars) support Member States in achieving their reduction goals in non-ETS sectors at national levels. In order to reduce emissions in non-ETS sectors efficiently and at least cost, the EU shared the reduction effort among its Member States in line with their potential, and introduced mechanisms further facilitating these goals through the Effort Sharing Decision.