Non-discrimination, equal treatment and gender equality
Ensuring equal opportunities for men and women is one of the fundamental democratic principles of the legal system in Hungary:
Health and safety at work
The Labour Safety Act is one of the key documents detailing health and safety requirements for work organisations, as well as requirements for preventing work accidents and employment-related illness.
The labour safety and labour management directorate, as well as the labour safety and labour management special administrative bodies of the Budapest and county government offices, the labour safety and labour management inspectorates are responsible for public administration duties relating to labour safety and to the activities of labour authorities.
The Labour Safety and Labour Management Directorate of the National Labour Office is the occupational health body designated by the Government. Under the Labour Safety Act, employers have to provide an occupational healthcare basic service for all employees. The occupational healthcare services may be provided via the employer or a third party service provider contracted with the employer.
General labour regulations on the territory of the Republic of Hungary are outlined in the Labour Code.
An employment contract is a written agreement between an employer and an employee creating an employment relationship and containing the rights and obligations of the parties to the employment relationship.
The creation of an employment relationship is based on the conclusion of an employment contract that has strict requirements concerning its content and form. There is also the possibility of “simplified” employment, where the employment relationship is created when the employer meets his reporting obligations in respect of the tax authority on the basis of an agreement between the parties, or a simplified contract of employment is concluded.
Social insurance is a system operating on the basis of risk sharing by the members of the society to the maintenance of which each subject entitled to social insurance must contribute with payments and duties. Employers must pay pension insurance contributions, health insurance contributions and labour market contributions every month, in order to cover any social security benefits. They must also pay sickness benefit contributions in the event that any sickness benefits are paid. They also have an obligation to pay healthcare contributions in order to cover healthcare services. Employees are entitled to fifteen working days' sick leave per calendar year for periods of incapacity owing to illness. In certain cases, there is a possibility of exemption from work.
For safe working, employers must provide their employees with labour safety training, and arrange preliminary, periodical and extraordinary medical examinations for them.
Any legal disputes must be submitted to the public administration and labour courts from 1 January 2013, which are the legal successors of the labour courts, and operate in the counties and in Budapest.
Mandatory social rules complete the requirements related to managing staff.
Businesses are free to go beyond the minimum social legal requirements at their own initiative.
Non-discrimination, equal treatment and gender equality
The Equal Treatment Authority is a national body that receives reports and complaints relating to discrimination throughout the country.
Health and safety at work
In any case, the requirements for working safely so as not to endanger health must be ensured by the employer. It is an important provision that employers may not provide employees with financial or other rewards instead of fulfilling the requirements for working safely so as not to endanger health.
According to the provisions of the Health and Safety Act, employers are obliged to perform a qualitative and, where necessary, quantitative assessment of the risk of endangering the health and safety of employees.
Accidents at work and occupational diseases must be reported, investigated and recorded. Accidents at work that lead to incapacity must also be investigated immediately, and the result must be recorded in the workplace accident log book. The circumstances of any accidents at work that do not lead to incapacity must also be clarified, and the results must be recorded.
The Social Security Number (TAJ number) is a personal identifier that Hungarian nationals receive at birth and keep all their lives. This code is used in records relating to healthcare, social and personal pension systems. TAJ numbers are generated by the National Health Insurance Fund.
Employers must pay pension insurance contributions, health insurance contributions and labour market contributions every month, in order to cover any social security benefits, and also sickness benefit contributions (in the event that any sickness benefits are paid). They also have an obligation to pay healthcare contributions in order to supplement the resources necessary to fund healthcare services in respect of certain income. The validity of the TAJ number and of the insurance legal relationship may be electronically checked by the employees provided they have registered at the client gateway.
A person is entitled to a job-seeker's allowance or benefit if the competent labour centre cannot offer a suitable job, and he or she wants to undertake a job, does not have (e.g. a business) activity with incomes, is not entitled to receive a sick-leave benefit or a support for the disabled, and has at least a period of 360 days of entitlement in the recent 3 years. From 1 January 2013, the job-seekers are entitled to make contacts with the competent authorities in an electronic way in certain cases such as indication of his or her intention to submit an application for a job-seeker's allowance, for a job-seeker's benefit before retirement, or for registration.
Websites of governmental bodies responsible for health and safety at work:
The Social Renewal Operational Programme focuses on job market supply, human resources development and increased involvement in the job market. The purpose of project "Improvement of health and safety at work, development of labour safety and labour management control" of the Programme is to improve the health and safety at work by developing the system and processes of official controls, by improving its efficiency; by improving the quality, focuses and depths of the controls in the fields of labour management and labour safety; as well as by increasing the consciousness of the employees, the employers and the social partners.
The Government’s main aim with the New Széchenyi Plan Employment programme is to increase employment and encourage employment in target groups for equal opportunities.
The purpose of project "Improvement of the job possibilities of those in disadvantageous situations (Decentralised programmes in the convergence region)" is to help the job-seekers in disadvantageous situations in entering the labour market with complex, personalised services and supports adopted to the local labour market possibilities and needs. The target group of the programme contain registered job-seekers having maximum basic education, are starting job-seekers, or job-seekers below 25, or job-seekers above 50, who received or still receive child care allowances, pregnancy and child birth allowance, child care benefit within 12 months before their entry into the programme, are entitled to a support for replacement of occupation, or are permanently unemployed, or endangered by permanent unemployment.
The purpose of project "Labour market programme for the employment of those in disadvantageous situations in the Central Hungarian Region" is to help the job-seekers in disadvantageous situations in entering the labour market with complex, personalised services and supports adopted to the local labour market possibilities and needs. The target group of the programme may contain registered job-seekers who are unskilled, or have out-of-date or useless skills, are beginners, or job-seekers below 25, or job-seekers above 50 at the time of entry into the project, as well as those who received child-care allowance, pregnancy and child birth benefit, child-care benefit within 12 months before their entry into the project, or those who received or still receive child raising support or care benefit, or job-seekers entitled to a support for replacement of occupation, or are endangered by permanent unemployment, or job-seekers registered as those for at least 3 months or are permanent job-seekers.
The highlighted "I learn again" project is a programme of national significance which is implemented by the National Labour Office jointly with the county government offices. The general purpose of the programme is to increase of the educational level of the adult population, to increase the number and rate of those involved in adult training, to incite the adults to learn, as well as to offer more trained staff for the employers. The project offers the possibility to adults with primary education or without qualifications to close up and to acquire basic education to allow them to take part in special training.
The purpose of project Partnership for the safety of employment is to support the safety of employment, contributing to the improvement of confidence and mutual honour between the operators of the labour market, to the prevention of infringements and accidents, to the protection of the employees via the voluntary commitments of the participants in the partnership.
The purpose of programme Contribution to the participation of women in the labour market is to increase the participation of women in the labour market and to make the labour market more family-friend.
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