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The  Governments of  the  Member States  and the  European Commission  were
represented as follows:

Ms Miet SMET                  Minister for Employment, Labour and Policy on
                              Equal Opportunities

Ms Jytte ANDERSEN             Minister for Labour
Ms Karen JESPERSEN            Minister for Social Affairs

Mr Norbert BLÜM               Federal  Minister   for  Labour   and  Social
Mr Horst GÜNTHER              Parliamentary State Secretary,
                              Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
Mr Ioannis SKOULARIKIS        Minister for Labour

Mr José Antonio GRIÑAN        Minister for Labour and Social Security

Mr Michel GIRAUD              Minister    for   Labour,    Employment   and
                              Vocational Training

Mr Frank COGAN                Deputy Permanent Representative

Mr Adriano TESO               State  Secretary for  Employment  and  Social

Ms Mady DELVAUX-STEHRES       Minister for Social Security
Mr Jean Claude JUNCKER        Minister for Labour

Mr A.P.W. MELKERT             Minister for Social Affairs and Employment

Mr José Bernardo VELOSO       Minister for Employment and Social Security

United Kingdom:
Mr Michael PORTILLO           Secretary of State for Employment
Ms Anne WIDDECOMBE            Minister of State, Department of Employment

For the Commission:
Mr Jacques DELORS             President
Mr Padraig FLYNN              Member
Mr Antonio RUBERTI            Member

The  following  representatives  of  the  three  acceding  countries   also
attended as observers:

Mr Josef HESOUN               Minister for Labour and Social Affairs

Mr Pretti SORSA               State Secretary for Labour

Ms Ingela THALEN              Minister for Health and Social Affairs
Mr Leif BLOMBERG              Minister for Labour


The Council examined a  compromise suggestion from the Presidency which was
confined to settling  only some of  the points addressed in  the Commission

However,  even  this limited  solution  did  not meet  with  the  Council's
unanimous agreement.

Commissioner  FLYNN stated that the Commission would initiate the procedure
laid down in the agreement on social policy.


The  Council  discussed the  proposal  for a  Directive on  the  posting of
workers  in the  framework of  the provision  of services  on the  basis of
compromise suggestions by the Presidency.

The debate focused in particular on:

- the scope of the Directive;

- non-application  for an initial  period of  the Directive's provisions on
  the minimum length of annual paid leave and minimum rates of pay;

- whether  or   not  the  list  of  areas  covered  by  the  Directive  was

- the legal basis.

Since the discussions  succeeded in bringing delegations'  positions closer
together,   the   Council   agreed   to   continue   its   proceedings   on
21 December 1994.


Following  contributions  by President DELORS  and  Commissioner FLYNN, the
Council held an exchange of views on the document  entitled "Action to turn
growth into jobs - Brussels  Action Plan  (Phase 2)", which the  Commission
submitted in preparation for the Essen European Council.

At  the  close  of  this  exchange  of  views,  the President  noted  broad
agreement on the ideas in this document.


The Council  adopted a  Decision establishing an  action programme for  the
implementation of a European Community vocational training policy.

The  programme,  entitled  the  LEONARDO  DA  VINCI  programme,  is  to  be
implemented for the period 1 January 1995 to 31 December 1999.   Its aim is
to  support  and supplement  Member  States' action,  while  respecting the
responsibility  of  the   latter  for  the  content   and  organization  of
vocational training.

The  Council  agreed  to  allocate  ECU 620 million  as  the amount  deemed
necessary  for the implementation  of the  programme.  At  the latest three
years  after  the start  of  the programme  the Council  will  evaluate the
results which it has attained.  To this end,  the Commission will submit to
the   Council  a  report,   together  with   any  proposals   it  considers
appropriate,  including  proposals on  the  financial  allocations for  the
programme and  their breakdown,  which  the Council  will act  upon at  the
earliest opportunity.

The programme is open to the participation of:

- the  associated  countries  of  Central  and  Eastern  Europe  (CCEE)  in
  accordance with the conditions laid down  in the additional protocols  to
  the  association agreements  on participation in  Community programmes to
  be concluded with those countries;

- Cyprus and Malta on the basis of additional  appropriations in accordance
  with  the same  rules  as  those applied  to  the EFTA  countries,  under
  procedures to be agreed on with those countries.

The  aim of  the common  framework of  objectives is  to contribute  to the
achievement of the  objectives of Article 127  of the Treaty by  pursuing a
series of objectives such as:

- improving  the   quality  and   innovation  capacity of   Member  States'
  vocational training systems and arrangements;

- developing the European dimension in  vocational training and  vocational

- promoting lifelong  training so  as  to encourage  ongoing adaptation  of
  skills  to meet  the needs  of workers  and  undertakings, contribute  to
  reducing unemployment and facilitate personal development;

- giving all young people in the  Community who so wish the  possibility of
  one  or, if possible,  two or  more years of  initial vocational training
  after their  full-time  compulsory  education, leading  to  a  vocational
  qualification  recognized  by the  competent  authorities  in the  Member
  State in which it is obtained;

- encouraging  specific vocational  training  measures for  adults  without
  adequate   vocational  qualifications,   in  particular   adults  without
  adequate education;

- promoting  equality of  access  to  initial and  continuing  training for
  persons disadvantaged  by socio-economic, geographical  or ethnic factors
  or by  physical or mental disabilities;  special attention must be  given
  to persons  affected by several risk factors likely to cause their social
  and economic exclusion;

- supporting  vocational training  policies in such a  way that all workers
  in  the   Community  have  access   to  continuing   vocational  training
  throughout their working life without any discrimination;

- promoting equality  of opportunity as regards access for men and women to
  vocational  training  and  their  effective  participation  therein,   in
  particular so as to open up new areas of work to them and encourage  them
  to return to work after a career break;

- supporting  activities aimed at  developing linguistic  skills as part of
  vocational training measures;

- promoting the development of  vocational guidance facilities  with a view
  to  providing every  individual  with  the opportunity  to  have lifelong
  high-quality vocational guidance.

The programme provides that:

- the Commission  in consultation  with the  Member States,  will implement
  the Community measures specified  in the Annex  to the Decision and  take
  measures to  enable an  appropriate  transition to  be  made between  the
  action  already undertaken  under the  COMETT, FORCE,  EUROTECNET, LINGUA
  and  PETRA programmes and the Community measures to be implemented within
  the framework of this programme;

- Member  States  will  take   the  necessary  steps   to  ensure  national
  coordination and  organization of the implementation of the programme, in
  particular  by  making  provision  for  the  appropriate  structures  and
  mechanisms at national level.

The  Commission will  be assisted  by a joint  committee, i.e. a management
committee for  more important matters and  an advisory committee  for other
matters,  composed  of  two  representatives  from  each  Member State  and
chaired by the Commission representative.

On certain issues  the committee will be  assisted by subcommittees  and/or
working parties  in  specific  fields  (in  particular  initial  vocational
training, continued vocational training, university/industry cooperation).

A number, equal  to that of the  representatives of  the Member States,  of
representatives of the social partners, appointed by the  Commission on the
basis  of proposals  from  the social  partners  at Community  level,  will
participate in the  work of the  committee as observers,  when consultation
takes  place  without  prejudice  to  the  conduct  of  the  management and
advisory procedures.

The Commission  will ensure  overall  consistency between  the LEONARDO  DA
VINCI  programme and the Community action programme on education (SOCRATES)
and other Community  measures.  In addition, the  Commission and the Member
States  will foster complementarity between the operation of this programme
and Community-initiative programmes.

The  Community  measures  provided  for  are  divided  into  four  strands,
described in detail in part A of the Annex:

- support  for   the  improvement  of   vocational  training  systems   and
  arrangements in the Member States;

- support  for the  improvement of vocational  training measures, including
  university/industry co-operation, concerning undertakings and workers;

- support  for  the  development  of  language  skills,  knowledge and  the
  dissemination of innovation in the field of vocational training;

- support  measures:  cooperation  network   between  the  Member   States;
  information, monitoring and assessment measures.

In  addition, the Annex  contains provisions  on the  Community's financial
contribution, on  the submission of proposals for Community measures and on
the selection procedures applicable to those proposals.


The Council held  a policy debate  on the Commission White  Paper "European
Social  Policy: a way  forward for the  Union".  The  purpose of this White
Paper is to establish  a framework for  future action in  the Union in  the
field of social policy.

Commissioner FLYNN announced  that in order to implement the White Paper he
would propose that  the Commission adopt  a work programme at  the earliest


Following  a Presidency  initiative,  the  Council  of eleven  adopted  the
Resolution  set  out below  on  certain prospects  for  the European  Union
social policy:  A contribution  to economic and  social convergence in  the


It is the first time that a Resolution has been adopted in Council by  only
eleven members, on the basis of the agreement on social policy.

"The Council of the European Union,

Having regard to  the Agreement on  social policy, annexed to  the Protocol
(No 14) on social policy,  annexed to the Treaty  establishing the European

Whereas one of the objectives  of the Union, in the context of the internal
market and strengthening  cohesion, is to  promote and secure  economic and
social progress for its peoples, in  such a way as to ensure that  advances
in economic integration are accompanied by progress in other fields;

Whereas  the Union  is thereby  committed to  social  flanking measures  to
accompany  the internal market  and to developing  the social  dimension of
the Community;

Whereas,  in recognition  thereof, all  the Member  States accepted  at the
Maastricht  Intergovernmental Conference  a  "policy in  the social  sphere
comprising  a  European  Social  Fund"  (Article 3(i)  of  the  EC Treaty);
whereas that decision is  the logical continuation of  earlier decisions of
the European Council in Hanover (June 1988) and Rhodes (December 1988);

Whereas the Madrid European Council was emphatic  that "the same importance
should be  given to  social aspects as  was given  to economic  aspects and
that they should consequently be developed in a balanced fashion";

Whereas the Brussels European  Council on 29 October 1993 established  that
"the Union Treaty offers new foundations for social  policy, subject to the
provisions  of  the  Protocol annexed  to  the  Treaty"  and  expressed its
determination   swiftly  "to  implement   -  in  all   their  forms  -  the
possibilities  afforded  by  the  Treaty  for  a  more mutually  supportive

Whereas  the  social  and  labour  law  systems,  organized  and  developed
differently  as they  are  in  the  various  Member States,  constitute  an
essential basis  for individuals in planning  their lives; whereas at their
meetings in Madrid  and Luxembourg the  Heads of State and  Government were
anxious to  stress that  particular attention  should be  paid to  existing
systems,   traditions  and   practice  in   the  Member   States;  whereas,
specifically  in  Europe the  national  identity  of the  Member  States is
particularly  defined  by  their  individual  paths  to  solidarity  within
society  and  social  balance;  whereas  Article F(1)  of the  Union Treaty
expressly commits the EU to respect for national identities;

Whereas European  social policy must  accordingly pay  particular attention
to the principle  of subsidiarity enshrined as  a principle  of law in  the
Maastricht Treaty (second paragraph of Article B of the  Treaty on European
Union, Article 3b of  the EC Treaty); whereas the  principle also signifies
a policy of closeness to  the citizen, in terms of moderation  and balanced
action, inter  alia as regards  the allocation  of responsibilities  to the
Union and the Member States;

Whereas,  with  its  guidelines  for  implementation  of  the  subsidiarity
principle, the  Edinburgh European Council in  December 1992 confirmed this
fundamental  principle  of Community   legislation  and  spelled   out  the
division  of responsibilities  between the  European Union  and the  Member

Whereas  the Brussels European Council on 10 and 11 December 1993 presented
an action  plan for implementing  the Commission's  White Paper  on growth,
competitiveness and employment; whereas,  in implementation of that  action
plan,  the  Employment and  Social  Affairs Council  has  prepared its  own
contribution to combating unemployment and will submit  it, as requested by

the Corfu European Council of 24 and 25 June 1994,  to the European Council
in Essen;

Whereas  the  social  dimension  is  increasingly  recognized  outside  the
European Union  as well;  whereas this  is also  shown by the  fact that  a
world summit on social development  is to be held by the  United Nations in
Copenhagen  in  March 1995; whereas  the  European  Union is  participating
actively in  this process  and is  making a  committed contribution  to its

Whereas, in  implementing the Commission's action  programme resulting from
the 1989  Community Charter  of the Fundamental  Social Rights of  Workers,
the  Council  has   made  far  greater  progress   than  hitherto  publicly
recognized; whereas  this is  particularly  true as  regards the  technical
protection of  labour  and  legislation on  dangerous  substances;  whereas
recently, in particular with  the Directives on the protection of  pregnant
women, the  protection of  young  people at  work and  the organization  of
working time, safety  and health at work have  been further consolidated by
means of minimum standards;  whereas, in the sphere  of labour legislation,
the Directive on the  form of proof of  an employment relationship and  the
amending  Directive   on  collective   redundancies  have   been  important
decisions; whereas  the  Community  has  also  provided  quite  significant
social  policy  impetus  in   other  fields  of  action;  whereas  in  this
connection   mention  should  be  made  of  the  programmes  on  vocational
training, on  promoting equal opportunities  between men and women,  on the
integration of people with  disabilities and on combating poverty, as  well
as recommendations  such as  that on the  convergence of social  protection
objectives and policies;

Whereas  these measures have predominantly been adopted in broad agreement;
whereas in  future too the Council  should strive first and  foremost for a
social policy based on consensus among all twelve Member  States and at the
same time ensure  that the two  sides of industry and  other representative
social groups  within Europe are especially involved; whereas, furthermore,
the  new Social  Protocol  instrument offers  additional opportunities,  to
which the European Council  of 29 October 1993 expressly referred;  whereas
these were used  for the first time when the Directive on the establishment
of a European Works Council was adopted,


1.  NOTES that by  means of the Commission's Green Paper on European social
    policy  a detailed discussion  has been  set in motion  in the European
    Parliament  and the Council, between  both sides  of industry and among
    the  public on the choice of new areas of social policy and a timetable
    for the future orientation of European social policy;

2.  RECALLS  the Commission's presentation  of its  White Paper on European
    social policy, which summarizes the discussion taking place  throughout
    the European Union and  in which the  Commission develops its ideas  on
    the  future  of European  social  policy in  ten  detailed chapters  on
    social policy;

3.  IS  CONVINCED that  the  Commission's  White Paper  on European  social
    policy represents an  important contribution to the further development
    of social policy in the Union;

4.  WELCOMES  the  fact  that during  1995  the  Commission  will  submit a
    detailed new work  programme in which it will put forward its proposals
    for the  future organization  of  social policy  until the  end of  the

5.  EXPECTS that  in  so  doing  the  Commission  will  also  continue  the
    constructive  dialogue with  the  Council  and in  developing the  work
    programme will take account  of the discussion  held in the Council  on
    the  White Paper  on European social policy  and the opinions expressed
    by the Member States;

6.  POINTS  OUT  that,  in  its  conclusions  of  21 December 1992  on  the
    effective implementation  and enforcement  of Community legislation  on
    social  affairs [1]    and  its  contribution of  22 September 1994  to
    combating unemployment, the Council  has already adopted  a position on

    areas  of social  policy which are also  covered in the  White Paper on
    European social policy;

7.  Against  this   background,  and  without   wishing  to  conclude   the
    discussion  in the  Union  and  consideration  of  the White  Paper  on
    European social policy,  hereby LISTS  some central objectives  towards
    which European social policy could be directed;

Improving  the   competitiveness   of   the  Union   and   increasing   the
opportunities for job-creating growth

8.  REAFFIRMS its conviction that:

- a  market economy based  on free  and fair competition  is the foundation
  for a dynamic development  of the internal market and the creation of new
  and secure employment;

- the internal market  must also  become increasingly open  to the  outside
  world  because  expanding   world  trade  in  free  markets   represents,
  especially  for workers, a  major opportunity  to safeguard existing jobs
  and create additional jobs;

- economic  and social  efficiency  are  inextricably linked  and  both the
  economy and  the labour force gain from cooperation between the two sides
  of industry  insofar as  it is  in keeping  with national  traditions and

- good  industrial relations,  socio-political stability and predictability
  in the  Member States and the European  Union as a  whole are significant
  factors in the long term for the location of undertakings;

- with  its White  Paper  on  growth, competitiveness  and  employment, the
  Commission   has  given  significant  impetus  to  the  strengthening  of
  competitiveness  and the improvement  of the  employment situation in the

- in its action plan  the European Council  has provided the Member  States
  and  the Union with  specific goals  for the implementation  of the White
  Paper on growth, competitiveness and employment;


- further development of  the social  dimension of the  European Union  and
  the strengthening of the  role of the two sides  of industry should be an
  essential   pre-condition  for  combining  market   freedom  with  social

- it  is  now essential  for  the  emerging upturn  in  the  economy to  be
  transformed  into a  strong, sustainable process  of growth;  at the same
  time  the efficiency  of the labour  market must be improved  by means of
  specific  measures so that  this renewed  growth creates as  many jobs as

- in  addition,   the   Union's  international   competitiveness  must   be
  strengthened.  While ruling out any form of  protectionism, a fundamental
  consensus  should  be  aimed  at  worldwide   as  part  of  a   dialogue,
  principally  with our major  competitors on  the world market, especially
  in  Asia and the  Pacific, so that, in  the framework of fair competition
  as  regards the  location of undertakings,  any economic  success is used
  for the  purpose of suitable social  progress.  The relevant  discussions
  should be  conducted constructively  in  the relevant fora,  such as  the
  ILO,  GATT  or  subsequently  the WTO,  for  the  future organization  of
  international trade  and above all for  combating forced and child labour
  and securing freedom of association and free collective bargaining;

Protecting the rights of employees by means of minimum social standards

10.  NOTES that, in recent years, the Union has endeavoured to  set binding
     and  legally  enforceable  minimum  standards  in  many  social  areas
     throughout the  Community in order to develop  European social policy.

     Minimum standards constitute  an appropriate instrument for  achieving
     economic  and  social  convergence  gradually  while  respecting   the
     economic capabilities of the individual Member States.  They also meet
     the expectations of workers in the European Union and calm fears about
     social dismantling and social dumping in the Union;

11.  IS  CONVINCED that, in  view of  the complexity and  at the  same time
     necessity of minimum social standards, progress along this road should
     be cautious; takes the view that this does not require a comprehensive
     legislative  programme, but  rather agreement  on  specific fields  of
     action in  order  to build  up the  core of  minimum social  standards
     gradually in a pragmatic and flexible manner;

12.  WISHES that  the new  legal base  of the  Agreement of  the Eleven  on
     social  policy should  as far as  possible be  employed only  when the
     other  avenues  and  possibilities for  an  agreement  covering Twelve
     Member States have been fully explored;

13.  TAKES THE VIEW that,  in order to develop further the  core of minimum
     standards, the  two sides  of industry  should make  their own  active
     contributions to the finding of practical solutions;

14.  EMPHASIZES that, when proposals for minimum standards are being  drawn
     up by the  Commission and when such  standards are being laid  down by
     the Council, the impact  on employment and  on small and  medium-sized
     enterprises should in particular be assessed;

15.  RECALLS that  several Member  States have  already submitted  specific
     suggestions for  minimum standards in the form of contributions to the
     Green Paper on European  social policy; while  others have also  cited
     areas in  this connection  in which  the Union  should not  intervene;
     EXPECTS the Commission  to give all suggestions  careful consideration
     in the context of the planned new work programme;

Respecting the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality

16.  POINTS OUT that  the legislation  of the European  Community, and  the
     supervision thereof, as well as  all other Community measures such as,
     for instance,  programmes and  recommendations, must  comply with  the
     principles of subsidiarity  and proportionality, which commit  all the
     institutions of  the  European Union  to respect  the multiplicity  of
     economic and social traditions in the different Member States;

17.  Therefore DEMANDS that,  for Union  social legislation in  particular,
     Community legislative acts:

-  take account  of the situation in all Member States when each individual
   measure is  adopted and  neither overstretch  any one  Member State  nor
   force it to dismantle social rights;

-  avoid  going  into  undue  detail  but  concentrate  on  basic,  binding
   principles and  leave the  development and  transposition to  the Member
   States  individually and,  where  this  is in  accordance  with national
   traditions, to the two sides of industry;

-  be flexible enough  and confine  themselves to provisions  which can  be
   incorporated into the various national systems;

-  include  clauses   which  allow  the  two sides  of  industry  room  for
   manoeuvre on collective agreements;

-  contain  review clauses  so that they  can be corrected in  the light of
   practical experience;

Convergence rather than unification of systems

18.  RESPECTS the  national systems  of labour  and social  law which  have
     evolved  over   generations;  in  the  light  of   the  principles  of
     subsidiarity and  proportionality, considers  unification of  national
     systems  in  general by  means of  rigorous  approximation of  laws an
     unsuitable direction to follow as it would also reduce the  chances of
     the disadvantaged regions in the competition for location;

19.  ADVOCATES instead gradual convergence of systems - with due regard for
     the economic strength of the Member  States - by means of an alignment
     of national goals;

Strengthening social dialogue

20.  WELCOMES the strengthening  of the role  of the two sides of  industry
     within  the  social  dialogue  as  a  forward-looking  result  of  the
     Maastricht Treaty and a concrete contribution to the attainment of the
     subsidiarity principle in social policy;

21.  EMPHASIZES  that  all  representative  European organizations  on  the
     employer and employee  sides, with particular  reference to small  and
     medium-sized  enterprises  as well,  should  be  consulted within  the
     social  dialogue.    Furthermore, the  two sides  of  industry should,
     insofar  as  they are  empowered  to conclude  binding  agreements, be
     encouraged to conclude agreements on an independent basis;

22.  SUBMITS that the essential features of participation by the  two sides
     of industry  pursuant to the Social  Protocol can in many  respects be
     applied  in the context of the procedure  laid down in Article 118b of
     the EC Treaty;

23.  NOTES that,  as a  means  of further  defining  and following  up  its
     communication on implementation of the Agreement on social policy, the
     Commission intends  to submit a  working paper  on the development  of
     social dialogue;

Meshing of economic and social measures

24.  CALLS  for the Commission's White Paper on growth, competitiveness and
     employment  and the  planned  Commission  work programme  on  European
     social  policy to  lead to  a harmonized  and balanced  development of
     economic  and  social aspects,  in  compliance with  the  principle of
     subsidiarity,  and  REFERS in  that  connection  to Title XIV  of  the
     EC Treaty on economic and social cohesion;


1. STATES that it  intends to propose to the  European Parliament, with due
   regard for the powers of all the institutions concerned as  laid down in
   the Treaty:

-  joint development of the social dimension  of the European Union on  the
   basis of these principles;

-  active cooperation in the development of all aspects of  European social

-  intensified exchanges of ideas;

2. CALLS  UPON  THE MEMBER  STATES  to ensure  that  the Community's  legal
   provisions in  the  social  sphere  are fully  applied  and  effectively



-  to  step up  their dialogue and  make full use of  the new possibilities
   afforded them by the Treaty on European Union;

-  to  use the  consultation procedure to  provide the  European Union with
   improved  bases for the  creation of  a European social  policy which is
   pragmatic and close to the citizen;

-  to make  use of the possibilities  for concluding agreements, since they
   are as a rule closer to social reality and to social problems;


-  with reference to its  conclusions of 21 December 1992  on the effective
   implementation and enforcement of  Community legislation in  the area of
   social affairs, to ensure that  Community legal provisions in the social
   sphere are fully enforced;

-  to  take  particular account,  when  drawing up  its  proposals, of  the
   effects on employment and small and medium-sized undertakings;

-  to  analyse more  carefully the  relationship  between social  security,
   employment and  competitiveness, thus providing  the Member  States with
   an improved basis of information for their initiatives;

-  actively  to support the  exchange of  information between Member States
   regarding measures designed  to curtail costs, improve labour incentives
   and encourage competition;

-  to take  appropriate measures  to foster  social dialogue  and, in  that
   connection,  primarily to encourage  and contribute  to the formation of
   groups and  associations at  European Union  level which  participate in
   social  dialogue  or  similar  forms  of  economic  cooperation  or  are
   involved in  consultations in  accordance  with practice  in the  Member
   State concerned and,  as far as possible, are  represented in all Member

-  account being taken  of the existing stimuli from  the Member States and
   bearing  in mind  the discussion  in the Council  on the  White Paper on
   European  social policy, to  explore possible  areas for future measures
   which  will at  the  same time  take account  of the  need  for  ease of
   application and the need for adoption by consensus;

-  to take account  of the principles and considerations  laid down in this
   Resolution  when  drawing up  concrete  proposals  for future  Community
   social legislation;

-  to include, by  means of  an ongoing process, specific  matters relating
   to women and men and to equal opportunities for them,  in the definition
   and  implementation of  all  Community policies  and,  to this  end,  to
   strive towards developing methods  for the ongoing  integration of equal
   opportunities for women and men in economic and social policies."


The Council agreed to

-  fully support the idea,  objectives and agenda  of the World Summit  for
   Social Development to be held in Copenhagen from 6 to 12 March 1995;

-  recommend participation at the level of Heads of State and Government;

-  consult with the United States and the other G-7 countries;

-  examine  positively  the  commitments  to  be  proposed  to the  Summit,
   including  the  commitment  to   increase  significantly  the  resources
   assigned  to social  development  and  allocate them  more  efficiently,
   through national action and international cooperation. 

(adopted without discussion)

Disabled people: continuation of the HANDYNET system

The  Council adopted  the  Decision on  the  continuation of  the  HANDYNET
system in the framework of  the activities undertaken to date on  the first
technical aids module.

The  Decision   states  that  the  HANDYNET  computerized  information  and
documentation system in  the context of the  HELIOS II programme (Community
action programme  for disabled  people  1993-1996) will  be continued  from
1 January 1995  to 31 December 1996  in  the  framework of  the  activities
undertaken to date on the first technical aids module, which comprises  the
following aspects:

-  electronic mail system;
-  electronic newspaper;
-  multilingual database

Women and employment

The Council  and  the  Representatives of  the  Governments of  the  Member
States, meeting within the  Council, adopted,  on a Presidency  initiative,
the   following  Resolution  on   equal  participation   by  women   in  an
employment-intensive economic growth strategy within the European Union:

   "The Council  of  the  European Union  and  the Representatives  of  the
   Governments of the Member States meeting within the Council,

   Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Community,

   Whereas  the Council  Directives on  equal treatment  for men  and women
   have made an essential contribution to improving the position of women;

   Whereas  Directives 75/117/EEC [2],  76/207/EEC [3],   79/7/EEC [4]  and
   86/613/EEC [5]    adopted with  a  view  to harmonizing  the  living and
   working conditions of  men and  women and promoting  equal treatment  of
   men and women are of considerable importance in this context;

   Whereas  the  Community action  programmes  on  equal opportunities  for
   women and men covering  the periods 1982-1985,  1986-1990 and 1991-1995,
   together  with the  undertakings  entered into  in this  context and  in
   several related  areas, constitute positive  contributions to  promoting
   equality of opportunity;

   Whereas implementation of  the principle of equal pay  for equal work or
   work of  the same  value provided for  in Article 119  of the  Treaty as
   well  as  of the  resulting principle  of equality,  in  accordance with
   Community provision,  is an  essential feature  of the  construction and
   operation of the common market;

   Whereas the harmonization  of the  living and working conditions  of men
   and  women  is essential  in  the interests  of  equitable economic  and
   social development; whereas, at  its meetings in  Madrid and Strasbourg,

   the European  Council stressed  the  need to  pay as  much attention  to
   economic and social aspects;

   Whereas  earlier efforts  made in particular in  the areas of awareness,
   education and training  and the aid available under the  European Social
   Fund  have   created  conditions  favourable  to  the  pursuit  of  more
   ambitious future objectives;

   Whereas,  pursuant to Article 2  of the Treaty, one  of the tasks of the
   Community is to promote a high level of employment;

   Whereas  provision should be made, while respecting the responsibilities
   of Member States  and bearing in mind  the characteristics of the labour
   market structure  in each Member State, including the different types of
   work, for  a sufficient supply  of full-time  and/or part-time work  for
   both men and women;

   Whereas  an  effective  policy of  equal  opportunities  presupposes  an
   integrated,  overall  strategy  allowing   for  better  organization  of
   working  hours and  greater flexibility,  and for  an  easier return  to
   working life; whereas a strategy of  this type must cover  qualification
   opportunities targeted at women and the promotion of self-employment,


(1)  RECALL that  the  legal instruments  of the  Community constitute  the
     necessary basis for the development of Community action, and emphasize
     the role of the Commission as the guardian of the Treaties;

(2)  STRESS that:
(a)  equal opportunities  depend on  men and  women being  able to  support
     themselves by taking up paid employment;
(b)  Europe needs a high level of skills;
(c)  current demographic trends already suggest that the growing number  of
     highly educated  women  provides a  hitherto insufficiently  exploited
     source  of  skills and  innovative  capacity  which  will have  to  be
     developed and used more intensively;
(d)  the female unemployment  rate in  most Member States  far exceeds  the
     rate for men, particularly where long-term unemployment is concerned;
(e)  while  the level  of female employment  has risen  in recent  years at
     Union level, women are still over-represented in the less skilled  and
     lower paid  jobs which offer less  security and are concentrated  in a
     small number of employment sectors;
(f)  women are  under-represented in management  posts and in new  areas of
     employment requiring a high level of technical skills;
(g)  women wishing to  join the labour market face  specific structural and
     practical difficulties;

(3)  CONFIRM  that  if  the  internal  market is  to  continue  to  develop
     dynamically  and  notably if  new  jobs are  to  be created,  positive
     measures in  particular  will  have  to  be  taken  to  promote  equal
     opportunities between men and women;

(4)  PUT FORWARD  against this background a number  of important objectives
     without wishing to foreclose discussion within the Union:

(a)  facilitating  access by women to the  labour market and their progress
     up the career ladder, in particular by improving opportunities to gain
(b)  overcoming the sex-based segregation of the labour market;
(c)  promoting  the  employment  of   women  in  decision-making  posts  in
     economic, social and political circles and institutions, with the  aim
     of achieving equal employment;
(d)  removing the discrepancy between men's and women's pay;

(e)  promoting full-time and part-time work on a voluntary basis;

(f)  improving the organization and flexibility of working hours;
(g)  promoting  self-employment,   and,  in  particular  the  creation  and
     recovery of businesses;

Improving the flexibility of working hours

(5)  NOTE, while  acknowledging the important role  and responsibilities of
     the  two  sides  of  industry   in  this  area,  that  improving   the
     organization and flexibility of working hours within the framework  of
     an active employment policy
(a)  is both a necessity as regards  commercial management and the national
     economy  and a social requirement which will  offer both men and women
     an opportunity  to reconcile  their work  responsibilities with  their
     family obligations and personal interests;
(b)  must  be  underpinned  by  adequate  structures,  such  as  child-care
(c)  can have positive implications for employment;
(6)  ARE CONCERNED that  the labour market  is segregated on  the basis  of
     sex, particularly in the area of part-time work;

(7)  BELIEVE, to this end, that it is necessary to:
(a)  introduce flexibility of  working hours  into working arrangements  in
     both the public and the private sectors;
(b)  make  flexible working  arrangements possible in  a growing  number of
     areas of employment, qualified jobs, as far as possible, included;
(c)  use the increased  flexibility of working  hours in such  a way as  to
     have a positive effect on employment;
(d)  organize  part-time work  on a voluntary  basis for  men and  women in
     order to break down the sex-based segregation of the labour market; 
(e)  instruct personnel managers in the organization of working time and in
     questions involving  work preoccupations,  with a view  to encouraging
     equal opportunities;

Europe needs a high level of skills

(8)  NOTE that:
(a)  new  technologies presuppose  a high level  of skills  on the  part of
     workers; it  is  precisely these  technologies which  require a  basic
     level of training which can be built on and continuing training;
(b)  the number  of training posts  available remains largely  based on sex
     and,  together with  the sex-based obstacles  which inhibit  access to
     work and to career advancement,  continues to prevent any extension of
     the range of jobs open to women;

(9)  STRESS that if women are to be ready to meet future challenges  and to
     develop their potential in a wide  range of jobs at all levels, it  is
     essential that:
(a)  greater numbers of  women be given  training in non-traditional  jobs,
     particularly technical ones,  and have an  improved chance of  finding
(b)  women be prepared for positions of  responsibility and for new sectors
     of  employment, in  particular in  the technical  sphere, by  means of
     specific measures which will provide young women with role models;

(c)  the  traditionally  female jobs  be  modernized and  upgraded  and the
     possibilities for promotion improved;
(d)  the training  and vocational training possibilities  offered be better
     tailored to the needs of women within an adequate structural framework
     (e.g.  childcare) and  continuing career and  professional development
     planning encouraged;
(e)  women  be offered  specific further  training which  will open  up new
     career  prospects  to them,  particularly  in  rural areas  and  areas
     particularly affected by structural change;
(f)  women  benefit  adequately  from  national  and  Community  assistance
     measures, taking into  account the proportion  of women in all  target
     groups (e.g. young people without training, the unemployed, the  long-
     term unemployed);
(g)  national and transnational  strategies designed to combine  activities
     to  improve vocational  training and the  job opportunities  for women
     receive effective support  at various  levels with a  view to  putting
     into  practice  new  prospects and  innovations,  particularly  within

Facilitating  the continued  entry and  re-entry of  women into  the labour

(10) STRESS that it is therefore advisable to 
(a)  maintain the flow of women into the labour market, and
(b)  facilitate  their return  to  work after  a  career  break for  family
     reasons by offering opportunities for guidance and retraining;

Encouraging self-employment

(11)     NOTE that:
(a)  in a  number of Member States a considerable  proportion of businesses
     are  started  up by  women,  and that  the  creation  and recovery  of
     businesses by women can have a positive effect on employment;
(b)  for many women, setting up a business means escaping from unemployment
     while at the same time creating jobs for others;
(12)     ARE CONVINCED that, consequently: 
(a)  business  creation  or  recovery  programmes  should  take  particular
     account  of  the  specific  needs of  women  and  offer  them relevant
     opportunities for guidance;
(b)  the conditions  laid down in business creation  or recovery programmes
     should be  examined to see whether  they would be equally  relevant to
     action in the services sector;
(c)  Chambers  of   Commerce,  banks,  administrative   bodies  and   local
   -  should cooperate to pinpoint needs and the possibilities on offer for
      guidance and retraining so that women who wish to create or recover a
      business are able to do so, particularly in the framework of new job-
      creation measures in regions where development has lagged behind;

   -  should take  account of the fact  that many  women set up  businesses
      gradually (for instance, beginning as a side-line);



(a)   develop policies for reconciling the obligations of family  and work,
      including measures to encourage and facilitate greater involvement by
      men in domestic life;

(b)   recognize  that,  apart  from the  general  aim of  a  high  level of
      employment, measures  aimed at  promoting the flexibility  of working
      hours,  encouraging voluntary part-time work and improving the skills
      level and their support  for the creation or recovery of  businesses,
      as  outlined  by  the  Commission  in  its  White  Paper  on  Growth,
      Competitiveness and Employment, must for the sake of equal treatment,
      be of benefit to women as well as men;

(c)   make use  of the discussions held  on the implementation  of the said
      White  Paper to increase  the integration of  policies to  help women
      into  the economic, financial,  social and labour-market  policies of
      the Union and its Member States while at the same time developing new
      actions thanks  to  specific programmes  aimed at  women  and  giving
      effective support to interdisciplinary strategies;

(d)   support the Commission in its preparation of  the Fourth Programme of
      Community medium-term action  for equal  opportunities for women  and
      men from 1996 to 2000;

(e)   take full account of the responsibilities and powers of both sides of
      industry in this area;


(a)   hold collective bargaining on the subject of equal  opportunities and
      equal  treatment by  endeavouring in  particular to  ensure that,  in
      undertakings   and   in  the   various   occupational  sectors,   the
      introduction and organization of flexible working hours and voluntary
      part-time work and the return to work are facilitated;

(b)   ensure that women  are adequately represented on  in-service training
      courses in undertakings;

(c)   continue  and step  up the  social dialogue  on how  work and  family
      responsibilities are  to be reconciled as  well as on  the problem of
      protecting the dignity of men and women at the work place;

(d)   press during collective bargaining for equal pay and the abolition of
      discrimination based  on sex  - where  it  exists -  in pay  or  job-
      classification scales;

(e)   take all necessary steps  to increase the representation  of women on
      decision-making bodies;


(a)   in preparation for the Fourth Action Programme on Equal Opportunities
      for Women and Men (1996 to 2000):

   -  to  take a fresh,  closer look  at the objective  of equality between
      men and women  with an eye to an employment-intensive economic growth

   -  to  develop  initiatives  designed  to  improve flexibility,  promote
      part-time  work and the  acquisition of  new skills or qualifications
      and encourage the creation or recovery of businesses;

(b)  when drawing up and implementing the policies and action programmes in
     the  employment  field,  to  ensure  that  the goals  of  equality  of
     opportunity and equal treatment continue to take priority, and  pursue
     with greater intensity the action already initiated."

(Adopted without discussion)

Legal protection of the Communities' financial interests

At its  meeting on  30 November and 1 December 1994,  the Justice and  Home
Affairs  Council  approved  the   text  of  the  Resolution  on  the  legal
protection  of the  Communities'  financial  interests (See  press  release
No 11321/94  Presse 252). Following  legal/linguistic editing,  the Council
has now formally adopted this Resolution.


The Council adopted the Regulation on the conclusion of a Protocol  setting
out the fishing opportunities  and financial  compensation provided for  in
the  Agreement between  the European  Community and  the Government  of the
Republic of  Angola on  fishing  off Angola  for the  period 3 May 1994  to
2 May 1997.

The Protocol,  the provisional  application of  which was  approved by  the
Council  on 19 September 1994,  defines the  fishing possibilities  for the
Community fleet off the coast of Angola as follows:

-  shrimp vessels: 6.550 GRT  per month, as  an annual average (maximum  22
-  demersal trawlers: 1.900 GRT per month, as an annual average;
-  bottom  set longliner, fixed  gillnet: 900  GRT per month,  as an annual
-  freezer tuna seiners: 19 vessels;
-  surface longliners: 5 vessels.

The financial compensation  laid down for  the duration of the  Protocol is
fixed at  13,9 MECU.  In  addition, the Community will  contribute 2,8 MECU
towards the financing of Angolan scientific and technical programmes.
[1]   OJ No C 49, 19.2.1993, p. 6.
[2]   OJ No L   45, 19. 2.1975,  p. 19.
[3]   OJ No L   39, 14. 2.1976,  p. 40.
[4]   OJ No L     6, 10. 1.1979,  p. 24.
[5]   OJ No L 359, 19.12.1986, p. 56.

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