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  | Community funded research and development is be no means         |
  | limited to a few spectacular programmes with catching names      |
  | like JET, ESPRIT, BRITE and RACE.
  |
  | On the contrary, Community efforts in this field are made up of  |
  | a vast and complex variety of mutually interlocking research     |
  | actions and programmes for which the master plan is the          |
  | Community R&D Frame-work Programme 1984-1987 adopted by the      |
    Research Ministers of the Ten in July 1983.
  |
  | This is the picture emanating from a recent report on            |
  | assessment of achievements under the various Community           |
  | research, development and demonstration programmes, approved by  |
  | the Commission and submitted to the Council and the European     |
  | Parliament.
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  The Commission has as part of its work of preparing the second
  Frame-work Programme for the period 1987-1991, under the  auspices of
  Vice-President NARJES, Commissioner responsible for  research and
  science, reviewed the recent performance of the  current RD&D
  programmes. The present report is the result of a  single, broad-
  spectrum exercise quite distinct from the  independent evaluation to
  which each individual research  programme is periodically subjected,
  but results of such  evaluations have been taken into account where
  available.  The  Council and European Parliament may use this report
  in their  deliberations leading to the adoption of the new Frame-work
  Programme.
  The adoption of the first Frame-work Programme led to a  substantial
  advance in the RD&D activities of the Community  with the added
  benefit of developing and realigning the overall  effort.  The
  annexed table I shows the actual resource  allocations made in the
  period 1984-1985 to each of the seven  strategic goals of the Frame-
  work Programme as compared with  the target goals accepted as a
  planning guide by the Council in  1983 and with the situation in
  1982.
  (1) COM(86) 15.
             
                                - 2  -
   Significant features are a doubling of the resources allocated
   to promotion of industrial competitiveness (to which the
   Commission attaches particular importance), a reduction in the
   level of resources allocated to improvement of management of
   energy sources and a build-up of resources devoted to
   stimulation of R&D efficacy.
   Apart from the appearance of the major industrially oriented
   programmes like ESPRIT and BRITE which have led to the
   introcudtiton of important new management methods in order to
   ensure active participation of industry in the research
   programmes, new lines of action like biotechnology, medical
   research and public health, science and technology for
   developing countries and S/T stimulation have been successfully
   launched.  However, a number of actions have had to be
   terminated during the review period, like the Super Sara
   project, the hydrogen subprogramme, and some lines of work on
   solar energy.  A notable reduction has taken place in the work
   on reactor safety.
   The different research programmes have been carried out in the
   form of direct actions, indirect actions and concerted
   actions.  Direct actions signify that research takes place in
   establishments of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) importing on
   this Centre a key role in the execution of the Frame-work
   Programme.  Indirect actions signify cost-shared research
   taking place in national laboratories.  Concerted actions are
   those where the Community role is limited to that of
   inspiration and coordination.
   Pressure for diversification of modes of action have led to
   better focussing of disciplines and increased recourse to
   pilot-scale projects.  Finally, the arrangements for advice on
   management and coordination with national programmes have been
   substantially rationalized and streamlined at the beginning of
   1985, with a considerable reduction in the number of advisory
   committees.
   The report gives an account of the achievements of the
   individual programmes, grouped into a number of broad programme
   areas, including a programme summary and short assessment.
   Results of COST projects have been taken into account where
   appropriate.  The FAST programme has been the subject of a
   separate evaluation report recently (COM(86) 10).
   A brief overview is given below:
   PROMOTING AGRICULTURAL COMPETITIVENESS
   Reductions in production costs, improvements in the hygienic
   quality of consumer products and in availability of fodder
   resources in dry seasons, and demonstration of new and useful
   agricultural activities in the Mediterranean region are
   examples of socio-economic advantages opened through the
   results under this programme area which only got effectively
   underway in 1985.
               
                                    - 3 -
   PROMOTING INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVENESS
   The encouraging achievements so far of the programmes ESPRIT,
   BRITE and RACE are well known, but work in important areas like
   standards and reference materials which are in constant demand
   for industrial purposes has continued in both the nuclear and
   non-nuclear field.
   Research on steel, high temperature materials and substitution
   materials has led to improvements in cost competitiveness and
   increased Community independence vis-a-vis imported raw
   materials.  An interesting example is the development of highly
   wear-resistant titanium nitride coatings which may increase the
   service life of cutting tools by a factor of ten.
   Under the programme of biotechnology, several achievements have
   been made in a short time-span, such as a methodology for new
   vaccines, development of a second generation bioreactor for the
   synthesis of valuable compounds, and establishment of
   techniques for genetic engineering methods in plants.  They
   contribute to the industrial as well as agricultural
   competitiveness and reveal new important interfaces between
   agriculture and industry.
   IMPROVING THE MANAGEMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
   Useful developments in exploration methods (revealing new
   occurences of valuable metal ores in EC regions), ore
   processing and mining technology, and recycling of non-ferrous
   metals have led to improved supply of European industry on an
   economically attractive basis.  Recycling of urban and
   industrial waste has resulted in no less than 26 patents and 18
   industrial applications.  The rate and quality of paper
   recycling has been increased.
   IMPROVING THE MANAGEMENT OF ENERGY RESOURCES
   Here the Community flagship is the JET Joint Undertaking, a
   major element of the Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion Programme
   the achievements of which place Europe in the forefront of
   worldwide fusion research.  JET and other specialised  medium-
   sized devices in operation or under construction in the
   associated laboratories contribute in a powerful way to the
   progress of fusion and are by themselves a demonstration of
   European high technology.  Other branches of science and
   European industry will benefit from the important spin-offs of
   this programme in the fields of superconducting magnet
   technology, robotics, high power microwave systems, etc.  At
   the same time the physics and technology basis needed for the
   detailed design of NET (Next European Torus), the device which
   will aim at demonstration the technological feasibility of
   fusion, is being established.
   Work on management and storage of radioactive waste, on
   safequarding of fissile materials and on decommissioning of
   nuclear installations has progressed with encourageing results
   in terms of methods and equipment.
 
                                - 4 -   Non-nuclear energy research (energy conservation, production
   and utilisation of hydrogen, solar energy, geothermal energy,
   systems analysis and modelling) has brought excellent results
   like thermodynamical optimisation of engines for motor cars
   (lean burn engine concept), development and industrial
   manufacturing of high performance silicon solar cells, and
   development of a new process scheme for pyrolysis of
   agricultural waste and wood residues, to name but a few.
   Energy demonstration activities (alternative energies, energy
   saving, oil substitution) show successful progress with   macroeconomically sizeable effects on the economy of the energy
   markets.
   REINFORCING DEVELOPMENT AID
   Here solid progress has been made in immunological methods of
   handling important tropical diseases and the development of new
   methodologies in the diagnosis of bacterial disease by using
   monoclonal antibodies (e.g. tuberculosis, leptospirosis,
   leprosy).
   Research of tropical agriculture allows to anticipate positive
   results such as the genetic improvement of sorghum for its
   culture in semi-arid regions, the improvements of fodder crops
   in arid regions, crop protection against noxious insects and
   weeds, protein enrichment in certain crops.
   IMPROVING LIVING AND WORKING CONDITIONS AND ENVIRONMENT
   Major research subjects are radiation protectiton and medicine
   and public health, based on concertation of ongoing research
   efforts in the member states and other European countries
   participating through COST actions.
   With a special view to the coal and steel industry, progress
   was made in epidemiological research of respiratory diseases,
   in ergonomics and rehabilitation, as well as in industrial
   hygiene and safety in mines, coking plants and steel plants.
   Worth mentioning among interesting achievements in
   environmental protection is the establishment of test systems
   for genetic and ecological effects of chemicals, and
   improvement of the understanding of critical environmental
   processes (biogeochemical cycles, acid deposition, trace gases,
   stratospheric chemistry).
   In climatology, remote sensing and industrial risks significant
   practical results have been achieved.
   IMPROVING THE EFFICICACY OF THE COMMUNITY'S SCIENTIFIC AND
   TECHNICAL POTENTIAL.
   More than 1000 transnational research linkages have been
   established demonstrating convincingly that it is possible to
   break down the barriers limiting the effectiveness of European
   science.
                              **********
    
   
                                - 5 -
   Taken overall, the review shows substantial progress being
   made, both in respect of policy goals and in respect of methods
   and implementation.  Only halfway through the 1984-1987  Frame-
   work Programme achievement of the goals is by no means
   complete.
   DISSEMINATIONS AND EXPLOITATION OF RD&D RESULTS
   A particular chapter of the report is devoted to the crucial
   question of dissemination and exploitation of RD&D results.  It
   is quite clear that the Community programmes can only attain
   their real value if the new information and results obtained
   are used well beyond the population of those carrying out
   particular projects.
   The measures undertaken by the Commission to promote efficient
   dissemination and exploitation fall in three broad categories:
   - diffusion of research and demonstration results (scientific
   reports, conferences, data bases),
   - protection of R&D result (patents),
   - actions to promote the use of inventions (licences).
   Table II gives an indication of the utilisation of RD&D
   results.

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