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(Annex to P-15/94)

Titles                           Page

1.  Telematics                     2

2.  Advanced communications technologies          3

3.  Information technologies                4

4.  Industrial and materials technologies          5

5.  Measurement and testing              6

6.  Environment and climate              7

7.  Marine sciences and technologies            8

8.  Biotechnology                   9

9.  Biomedicine and health             10

10.  Agriculture and fisheries               11

11.  Clean and efficient energy technologies        12

12.  Nuclear fission safety             13

13.  Controlled thermonuclear fusion            14

14.  Transport                    15

15.  Targeted socio-economic research           16

16.  Cooperation with third countries and international     16
organizations

17.  Dissemination and exploitation of results       17

18.  Stimulation of the training and mobility of         18
 researchers

19. & 20.  JRC direct activities and support activities     19

         First area of activity

Information and communications technologies

The aim is to provide the European Union with an efficient infrastructure
forming the basis for the information society of the future. 

1.  Telematics

The applications of telematics,  combining information technologies and
telecommunications technologies, represent a comparatively new market with
considerable growth potential, and RTD can help to create jobs. The RTD will
build on the experience gained under the third framework programme but the
emphasis will shift to multimedia telematics and the requirements of users, in
particular elderly and handicapped people. 

The telematics programme will support RTD activities relating to the following
three topics: 

-   "Telematics for services of public interest" (administrations, health
care and transport); the research in question, which will account for
nearly 50% of the total programme budget, will concern in particular
exchanges  of  information between  administrations,  telemedicine,
multimedia medical records, and transport management systems;

-   "Telematics for knowledge" (research workers, libraries, and distance
education and training), the aim being to enable knowledge producers and
users to consult, share or update certain categories of knowledge;

-   "Telematics  for improving employment  and the quality  of life"
(disadvantaged  social categories,  urban  and  rural areas,  and
environmental protection); the activities in question will concern in
particular audiovisual aids and interfaces designed to enable elderly or
handicapped people to play a full part in the economy and society, the
development of teleworking and teleservices and environmental monitoring
and warning systems.

Research will also be carried out to facilitate user access to data bases and
improve the recognition of spoken and written languages and the presentation
of information.

The following accompanying measures are foreseen:  dissemination of results,
promotion of telematics, international initiatives (conferences, studies,
etc.) and training schemes. 

Examples of current projects: 

-   A project under the DRIVE programme has developed a telematics system
capable of warning motorists of offences and dangers (e.g. insufficient
distance between two vehicles).  The system, which is based on sensors
and receivers which react to signals emitted by beacons incorporated in
road signs, also detects driver fatigue.  Systems of this kind should
make it possible in the near future to reduce the number of road
accident victims in Europe (over 1.5 million people injured per annum).

-   The FEST project under the AIM programme is helping to develop
telemedicine services such as distance monitoring of cardiac patients,
remote consulting etc.  The purpose of the research in question is to
reduce health-care costs (in particular by reducing the number of days
spent in hospital) while providing high-quality health care. 

2.  Communications technologies

The development of advanced communication systems and services will contribute
to the emergence of an information society in Europe. RTD aimed at bringing
together telecommunications, television and media is essential for the
development of trans-European networks and services.  These activities are
therefore crucial not only for all economic activities but also for social
cohesion and cultural development.  Compared with the third framework
programme,  greater emphasis will  be placed  on the  applications of
technologies. To this end, six topics have been identified: 

-   "Interactive digital multimedia services" the aim of the research being
to develop systems and services combining sound, images and digital
data;

-   "Photonic technologies" in order to deploy fully optical networks by the
year 2000;

-   "High-speed networking"  in order  to develop  services such  as
videophones, teleworking and social care, thanks to efficient integrated
networks;

-   "Mobility and personal communications networks" the aim of which is to
offer the public a new generation of flexible and reliable cordless
transmission systems;

-   "Intelligence in networks and service engineering" the aim being to
provide intelligent communication systems and enable users themselves to
determine the type of services offered;

-   "Quality, security and safety of communication services and systems" in
order to ensure the reliability and security of information transmitted
(electronic signatures). 

The  socio-economic  consequences of  advanced  communications  and the
environmental impact of telecommunications and transport will be taken into
consideration. Provision is also made for international cooperation (given
the worldwide development of telecommunications) and the dissemination of the
results.

Examples of current projects:

-   The RACE programme is contributing to the development of digital
television and the establishment of a trans-European communications
network  by supporting  nearly  700  projects concerning  optical
communications, and the management of telecommunications, etc.  The
research in question has given 

rise to new services in the motor-vehicle, banking and aircraft sectors,
etc.  For example, the EURO-PUBLISHING project is examining the
possibility of combining desk-top publishing and digital communications
in order to create and distribute electronic documents.  The ARAMIS
project is studying the possibility of remote aircraft maintenance
thanks to multimedia communications.

3.  Information technologies

An information society and a digital industry are emerging.  Information
technologies, which are involved in most areas of human activity, are helping
to improve the quality of life and the competitiveness of European firms.
However, major RTD and transnational cooperation efforts are still needed
given the speed of technological advances, the scale of the investment needed
and the technical and economic risks involved. The information technologies
programme will focus less on "technology push" and more on the needs of users
and the market, and especially firms in the European Union.  To this end,
three research topics have been identified:

-   "Software technologies" the aim of which is to ensure that the Union has
a substantial software production capability (software being the major
cost component in IT systems), as a result of research into new
programming methods, and the design of intelligent systems, etc.;

-   "Technologies  for IT components and subsystems";  research into
components (semiconductors, integrated microsystems, peripherals, and
flat screens, etc.) is intended to prepare for forthcoming changes in
computer technology; 

-   "Multimedia technologies" the aim of which is to develop technologies
making  it possible to  create, manipulate and  store multimedia
information (image compression, optical storage, software, etc.).

Networks of excellence will be established in order to initiate long-term
research.  An innovation is the establishment of focused clusters of
activities grouping together different activities around four well-defined
objectives:   open microprocessor systems, high-performance computing and
networking,  technologies for  business processes,  and integration  in
manufacturing. These initiatives will help to develop recognized expertise in
Europe in promising areas such as microprocessor technologies, supercomputers
and neural networks, new business organization methods, and computer-assisted
manufacturing, etc. 

Examples of current projects:

-   The GOLDRUSH project under the ESPRIT programme has resulted in the
production of a computer specializing in the management of large data
banks.  Based on cooperation between ICL, Siemens and Bull, the new
system consists of a computer with a special parallel architecture and a
specific software. It is one of the fastest machines in the world for
the management of banking transactions. This system, which has just
been marketed, is a good example of what can be achieved by European
companies when they cooperate with one another.

-   The ESPRIT programme has also produced the PAYDIRT project, an expert
system specializing in the management of water resources. The programme
incorporates signals from several hundred sensors and rain gauges, and
it is capable of automatically managing a drainage system or a water
supply system.  The expert system also makes it possible to test the
behaviour of a sewerage system in the event of flooding.

Industrial technologies

4.  Industrial technologies and materials technologies

The environment, employment and means of transport are the three topics which
form the focus of this programme.  The overall objective is to help work
towards sustainable development, one of the major challenges of this century.
The intention is to prepare for the factory of the future to make the best
possible use of the new technologies, and especially clean technologies, and
provide a congenial working environment, to stimulate product innovation and
hence employment, and to reduce the pollution caused by transport.  The
research in question should help to make businesses more competitive and
promote economic growth by developing the market for clean technologies. 

Three research areas have been identified: 

-   "Production technologies for future industries";  the activities in
question will relate to the integration of new technologies into
production systems, the development of clean technologies, rational
management of raw materials and waste, safety of production processes
and sites, and improved business organization models and working
conditions (safety, ergonomics, cultural factors, etc.); 

-   "Technologies for product innovation";  research into traditional and
advanced materials and associated technologies (molecular engineering,
atomic  scale technologies, recycling, etc.) will be designed to
encourage the development of new products;

-   "Technologies for transport means" the aim being to develop vehicle
design tools and traffic control and management systems for the
aircraft, motor-vehicle, rail and maritime industries, and to improve
transport capacities, safety performance, quality, speed, comfort and
environment-friendliness.

Emphasis is placed on overall approaches taking into account technological,
economic and environmental considerations. There will also be accompanying
measures in order to maximize the spin-off from the programme, in particular
through a specific procedure (award covering the exploratory phase of the
project) designed to increase the involvement of SMEs, especially ones that do
not have the possibility of carrying out their own research. This procedure,
which is based on the successful CRAFT initiative, will also be part and
parcel of all the other programmes concerned by this aspect. 

Examples of current projects:

-   With support from the BRITE-EURAM programme a project has synthesized a

self-developing film: in the same way that an audio cassette can be
re-recorded, what is involved here is a polymer which enables images to
be 

read, recorded and erased. They are recorded on the polymer film using
a laser. Electronic devices have also been designed to read and erase
the images.  This invention should have applications in industrial
sectors in which images are used to a great extent.

-   A project supported by BRITE-EURAM has developed a new type of membrane
which helps to reduce pollution in the textile industry. It makes it
possible to purify effluent and recover chemicals used in dyeing. The
process is already in use in several factories.

-   There are several projects under the BRITE-EURAM programme carrying out
research into high-temperature superconducting materials. One day they
may enable us to move by means of magnetic levitation, make considerable
energy savings and monitor brain activity in detail.

5.  Measurement and testing

Reliable standards and measurements are essential to the functioning of
society.  Without them, industries cannot operate, health care becomes
empirical and the environment cannot be protected effectively. The objective
is to harmonize measurement systems, written standards and reference materials
in order to facilitate the implementation of other European Union policies, in
particular concerning food, the common agricultural policy, the environment
and safety at work. This is also one of the keys to the success of the single
market. 

The programme will support RTD activities in the following three areas: 

-   "Measurements for quality European products" the objective of which is
to facilitate the emergence of new generations of  products, in
particular  through  research  into  measurement  methods  and
instrumentation, reference materials, raw  materials, and finished
products;

-   "Prenormative research and technical support to trade" in order to
produce the scientific or technical data needed for written standards,
and the drafting of appropriate legislation designed to facilitate world
trade while protecting consumers and the environment;

-   "Measurements related to the needs of society";  the research in
question is designed to help  improve the health and safety of
individuals and the quality of the environment (public and animal
health, food hygiene, development and harmonization of measurements used
in  criminal investigations, product safety, safety at work, and
preservation of Europe's cultural heritage).

RTD activities will also be carried out in conjunction with the Joint Research
Centre.  There will be various support measures ( promotion of results,
evaluation, conferences, etc.) to facilitate the implementation of the
programme, in  particular to  encourage the  involvement of SMEs  and
less-advanced regions.

Examples:

-   In the age of the single market, it is necessary to develop common
methods of analysis and reference materials. These "standards" make it
possible to 

compare measurements carried out in different places or at different
times and thus prevent conflicts arising because different methods have
been used.  The BCR programme has developed standards and measurements
in many areas (quality control for food, water, soil, etc.).

-   Eating seafood quite often causes food poisoning, probably as a result
of the toxins which build up in the organisms in question.  There is a
BCR programme which is trying to identify the toxins and devise a
measurement method in order to determine whether seafood is fit for
consumption.

Environment

One of the biggest challenges of the next century will be to organize all
human activities in accordance with the concept of sustainable global economic
development.  The objective is to understand the basic processes of the
climate and of natural systems (continental, oceanic and atmospheric), and
assess and deal with the effects of human activity on them.  The activities
will facilitate the establishment of a genuine European Union environment
policy. Ultimately, this should help improve business competitiveness and
create jobs. 

6.  Environment and climate

The environment and climate programme will continue the efforts to structure
European environmental research by establishing networks of excellence and RTD
in the following three areas:

-   "Research into the natural environment, environmental quality and global
change" the aim of which is to understand the basic mechanisms of the
climate and natural systems and to assess the impact of human activities
on these systems and on natural resources (water, forests, agriculture,
desertification, coastal areas); 

-   "Environmental  technologies"  in order  to  develop environmental
monitoring and protection technologies (biosensors, waste treatment,
etc.), the restoration of deteriorated sectors of the environment, and
the management of natural hazards (forest fires, seismic and volcanic
risks, flooding, etc.);

-   "Space  technology applied to Earth observation and environmental
research" in order to determine the planet's state of health from
satellite data, necessitating the  development of specific  space
instruments (advanced sensors). An Earth observation centre will be set
up.

Research will also be carried out into social and economic factors related to
environmental changes in order to take account of them in the formulation of
the Union's environmental policies and thus facilitate their implementation.
To derive maximum benefit from the efforts, the participation of the Member
States in the international global change programmes will be coordinated via
the ENRICH network (European Network for Research into Global Change). There
will also be measures in support of the programme in order to develop
exchanges of information, international cooperation and the participation of

SMEs.

Examples of current projects:

-   In 1992 a European Union initiative in conjunction with the Member
States made it possible to monitor for the first time changes in the
ozone layer above Europe in winter. It was the biggest environmental
project at the time, involving 250 scientists  from 17 European
countries.  The data gathered revealed an unusual reduction in the
concentration  of ozone,  partly due  to  man-made emissions  of
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).  This development may have adverse effects
on living systems.

-   The European Union  supports the biggest  international programme
concerning the effect of pollution on the cultural heritage (historic
monuments, books, megaliths, etc.).  The 30 or so projects accepted so
far are providing valuable information for restorers and politicians
about the measures to be taken to protect this heritage.  For example,
one project has developed a varnish to protect bronze statues exposed to
external influences. 

7.  Marine science and technology

The seas and oceans now represent the new frontier of knowledge and human
activity; they also play an essential role in the regulation of the climate.
These two aspects are at the heart of the marine science and technology
programme the aim of which is to develop the scientific and technological
bases for the sustainable exploitation of marine systems and determine their
precise role in global change.  The following four areas of research are
considered:

-   "Marine science" in order to understand the fundamental processes
governing marine systems, including extreme marine environments (deep
sea floors, ice-covered seas, etc.) and specific European areas (Baltic,
Mediterranean, etc.);

-   "Strategic  marine research" to  ensure compatibility between the
exploitation and protection of marine resources.  Hazards and adverse
impacts liable to affect the marine environment will be identified; 

-   "Marine technology" the aim of which is to develop generic technologies
for  monitoring,  using  and  protecting the  marine  environment
(oceanographic observation,  underwater communication  and viewing,
analysis of natural substances, development of measurement instruments,
remote-controlled vehicles and benthic laboratories for deep-sea and
Arctic exploration);

-   "Supporting initiatives" in order to improve coordination and develop
European cooperation (training, SMEs, access to advanced experimental
facilities, etc.). 

Example of a current project:

-   the MERMAIDS project under the MAST programme has produced a model of

the circulation of water in the Mediterranean. This mathematical model
simulates by computer the basic phenomena (influence of wind, water
inflow, 

air-water exchanges, solar radiation, etc.). The work in question has
made it possible in particular to acquire a better understanding of the
overall system and to predict the impact of certain types of pollution
on the Mediterranean, one of the most vulnerable ecosystems in the
world. 

Life sciences and technologies

Life sciences and technologies will be one of the driving forces behind the
economy in tomorrow's world.  However, it is also an area in which the
European Union finds it harder than the United States or Japan to turn its
discoveries into applications, mainly because of the dispersion of efforts,
the high cost of investment, the existence of numerous rules and regulations,
and a degree of reticence on the part of the public.  Three RTD programmes
will be established to strengthen Europe's strategic position in the most
promising sectors, in order to develop scientific knowledge, respond to
industrial expectations and take into consideration public concern about
certain developments. 

8.  Biotechnology

Biotechnologies ("life technologies") are about to open up vast new markets in
sectors of the economy such as farming, food, pharmaceuticals, chemicals and
industrial equipment. The biotechnology programme will focus on the following
four research areas:

-   "Cell factories" the aim being to move on from bioscience (biochemistry,
genetics, bioinformatics, etc.) to bioprocesses (cell culture and
fermentation, etc.);

-   "Genome analysis" the aim of which is to develop methodologies for the
sequencing of genomes and identification of the biological functions of
genes;

-   "Plant and animal biotechnology" in order to develop plant molecular
engineering techniques, protein engineering, and animal genome mapping,
etc.;

-   "Cell communication in neurosciences" the objective of which is to
promote multidisciplinary research into nerve cell physiology and
communication in order to encourage the neurosciences.

In connection with these objectives, concertation networks will mobilize the
scientific community  on the four  following topics:   immunology and
trans-disease  vaccinology,  structural biology,  prenormative  research,
biodiversity and social acceptance, and infrastructures (bioinformatics,
etc.). The programme will also encourage demonstration activities, analysis
of the ethical, social and legal aspects, public perception surveys, and the
assessment of indirect socio-economic effects.

Example of a current project:

-   In 1992 a European project succeeded in establishing the complete
sequence of a chromosome of a living thing, i.e. chromosome III of
yeast. This was a world first, achieved under the biotechnology action
programme as a result of 147 scientists being mobilized within a network
of 35 laboratories. This result has made it possible to gain a better
understanding of the functioning of genes and to develop the methodology
in order to move on to more complex living things. Over and above the
immediate applications in the food industry, this research should make
it possible to understand how living cells function, and in particular
aging and cancer mechanisms.

9.  Biomedicine and health

The following priorities have been established for the biomedicine and health
programme: 

-   "Research into major illnesses":  cancer, AIDS, tuberculosis and other
infections diseases;

-   "Pharmaceuticals research" in order to evaluate new generations of
drugs; 

-   "Brain research" in order to improve our understanding and the treatment
of illnesses of the nervous system (pain mechanisms, addictions, brain
damage and cognitive sciences); 

-   "Human genome research" the aim being to participate in genetic mapping
and human genome analysis, to identify gene functions, to diagnose
genetic illnesses and to develop genetic therapy techniques (only on
somatic cells). 

Other activities will be carried out through cooperation among Member States,
covering in particular cardio-vascular diseases, chronic and age-related
illnesses  and rare diseases, public-health research and research into
biomedical technology and engineering.

In addition to the RDT, studies will be carried out in order to take account
of the opinion of Europeans about various bioethical issues.  Research
designed to make it possible to replace animal experiments by in-vitro or
other tests will also be encouraged. 

Examples of current projects:

-   According to the specialists, the EVA (European Vaccine Against AIDS)
project under the biomedicine and health programme is one of the biggest
hopes of one day providing a vaccine against AIDS.  Initially this
project studied the infection in monkeys caused by viruses of the SIV
type (similar to the HIV virus responsible for AIDS). Subsequently, the
project will test the effect of potential AIDS vaccines. 

-   Also under the biomedicine and health programme, there is a project
which aims to identify, through a study carried out among nearly 3 000
patients, the dietary, immunological and other factors responsible for

chronic gastritis, an illness which in some cases develops into stomach
cancer. In particular, the project will study the effect of certain
bacteria recently discovered in connection with chronic gastritis. It
could result in the development of an antibacterial treatment and
considerably reduce the incidence of stomach cancer in Europe.

-   In 1991 the European Commission published the second edition of the
European Atlas of Avoidable Deaths, i.e. deaths which would not have
occurred if there had been medical or public-health intervention in
time. This atlas helps to evaluate the performance of health systems in
the Member States. 

10.  Agriculture and fisheries (including agro-industry, food technologies,
forestry, aquaculture and rural development)

The challenge here is to optimize, through RTD, the production and utilization
of biological raw materials in Europe, by providing better quality food and
drink, responding to industry's demands, developing environment-friendlier
farming methods, and ensuring the harmonious management and development of
forests.  The RTD will help to underpin Union policies concerning in
particular agriculture, fisheries, and rural and coastal development.  The
research activities will cover the following areas: 

-   agriculture  (industrial  utilization  of crops,  development  and
diversification of production, etc.)

-   fisheries  and  aquaculture  (development and  diversification  of
production, study of marine ecosystems, socio-economic aspects, etc.)

-   food technologies (quality and safety of food, etc.)

-   biomass production and conversion 

-   forestry (sustainable development of forests, etc.)

-   rural development (animal and plant health, socio-economic aspects of
rural development, etc.)

There  will also be across-the-board activities, such as demonstration
activities and studies of ethical, social and legal aspects, and measures to
promote the involvement of SMEs.

Examples of current projects:

-   The aim of the SONCA project under the ECLAIR programme is to make use
of rapeseed and sunflower oil. Research is being carried out into the
selection of rapeseed and sunflower varieties which are more resistant
to disease and new outlets for the components of the oils produced.
Some of the components could be used by the chemical industry instead of
oil derivatives. 

-   the SENS project supported by the FLAIR programme is studying consumer
tastes and consumer behaviour vis-à-vis food.  The objective is to
establish correlations between subjective impressions (taste, attitude)
and objective measurements.  For example, it has been possible to
identify conditions for maturing cheese to suit different categories of
people in Europe. Another objective is to help develop a single market
for food, guarantee the quality of food and combat fraud.

Energy

11.  Clean and efficient energy technologies

The objectives of this programme are two-fold:  to reduce the environmental
impact of energy use and to carry out research into renewable energy sources
to supplement fossil fuels.  It will consist of research activities and
demonstration activities: 

-   where improved conversion and use of energy are concerned, the main aim
is to reduce polluting emissions and improve the efficiency of the
conversion and use of energy from fossil fuels (conversion of coal into
electricity by means of pressurized combustion and gasification, use of
fuel cells, reduction of polluting emissions, development of batteries
for electric vehicles and new motor fuels, energy saving, oil and gas
exploration and production);

-   where renewable energy sources are concerned, the activities will cover
various forms of energy (biomass conversion, photovoltaic electricity,
active and passive solar energy in buildings, geothermal energy, and the
new generation of windmills, etc.) and social and economic effects
(consequences for regions and urban areas, agriculture, industry, and
distribution networks, etc.). 

The demonstration activities will focus on rational use of energy, renewable
energy sources and fossil fuels.

Where appropriate, there may also be international, national or regional
cooperation, e.g. in order to promote energy technologies. 

Examples of current projects:

-   Denmark has the first wind-park in the world built at sea, a research
project which should contribute to the development of this form of
renewable energy in Europe.

-   The solar housing programme established in 1992 has selected 49
architectural projects aimed at altering or building housing which makes
maximum use of solar energy.  The projects selected include the
conversion of the Reichstag, the German parliament building in Berlin,
and the construction of a solar town in Greece.

12.  Nuclear fission safety

The objective of this programme is to pursue an overall approach to nuclear
safety taking into account all the various aspects, ranging from the
utilization of nuclear energy to medical applications.  The RTD activities
will relate to the following six topics: 

-   "Exploring new concepts" in order to address the three main issues of
concern:  reactor safety, the management and disposal of long-lived
radionuclides, and the risk of diversion of fissile materials; 

-   "Reactor safety" the aim being to acquire a better understanding of the
mechanisms of severe accidents, in order to improve safety measures and
prevention; 

-   "Closing the nuclear fuel cycle" the objective of which is to address
issues relating to the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste (safety
aspects of geological disposal, retrieval of waste, and the safeguarding
of spent fuel, etc.);

-   "Radiological impact on man and the environment" in order to improve our
understanding of the mechanisms of radiation action (in-utero effects,
impact on DNA, etc.) in order to eliminate or at least reduce induced
effects on health and establish safety standards for the protection of
the public, especially in sectors such as industry, medicine and energy
production; 

-   "Historical liabilities" given that the situation in Central and Eastern
Europe and in the CIS remains a source of concern where nuclear safety
is concerned.  In view of the historical context and its geographical
proximity, the European Union will set up collaboration projects with
the Central and Eastern European countries and the CIS,  with the
emphasis on radiation protection, waste management and site restoration.

Examples of current projects:

-   Under the TELEMAN programme, several projects have developed robots
which can move, collect information or even make certain manipulations
or repairs in nuclear facilities. One of these projects has produced an
intelligent  camera which instantly  displays the distribution of
radioactivity in a room.

-   On the initiative of the European Commission, a research centre has been
set up at Chernobyl in order to study on the spot the consequences of
the accident for the environment and human beings and to help with site
restoration.

13.  Controlled thermonuclear fusion

The long-term objective of this RTD activity, embracing in a single programme
all the activities of the Member States (plus Sweden and Switzerland) in the
field of controlled thermonuclear fusion by magnetic confinement is the joint
production of safe, environmentally sound prototype reactors. As a result of
collaboration between fusion laboratories throughout Europe the Joint European
Torus (JET), the biggest installation of its kind in the world, was built,
enabling Europe to assume a leading position worldwide in the development of
fusion that no single Member State could have aspired to on its own.  Nor
would any individual Member State have been recognized as an equal partner in
the international cooperation on the international thermonuclear experimental
reactor (ITER) which has entered the engineering design stage and in which the
European Union has major responsibilities because of the quality of its
research.  The ITER is the international version of the "Next Step", the
successor to JET, the objective of which is to demonstrate the scientific and

technological feasibility of fusion energy for peaceful purposes.  The
subsequent stage will be a demonstration reactor (DEMO) capable of producing
significant quantities of electricity. The activities proposed for the period
1994-98 relate to the following three topics:

-   "Next Step activities" in order to finalize the design, construction and
operation of the Next Step, as a possible basis for the construction of
the ITER;

-   "Concept improvements" in order to support the Next Step and DEMO
projects by research into plasma physics and engineering (plasma-wall
interaction, heating and current drive, etc.);

-   "Long-term technology" bringing together research to develop the next
reactors, including safety aspects, environmental impact and the social
acceptance of fusion energy.

It should be noted that considerable encouragement will be given to industry
to participate in these programmes, and that the possibility of extending
international cooperation beyond the ITER will also be considered.

Example of current projects: 

-   Fusion is the nuclear process which produces the energy of stars such as
the sun: nuclei of light atoms combine to form heavier atoms.  At the
centre of the sun, hydrogen at temperatures of 10-15 million degrees
transforms into helium.  The gas temperature required in a fusion
reactor is in excess of 100 million degrees. 

With the Joint European Torus (JET) in Abingdon in the United Kingdom,
the European  Union has one  of the most  powerful experimental
thermonuclear fusion installations in the world. In November 1991 for
the first time in a laboratory fusion power of 1.7 megawatt was produced
in JET for 2 seconds. This performance was improved on last December by
the TFTR machine in Princeton in the USA. The new equipment recently
installed in JET should enable Europe to improve still further on its
performance in the course of the 1994-98 programme,. There is every
hope that one day fusion energy can be harnessed for electricity
production.

14.  Transport

There has been spectacular growth in the transport sector in the European
Union and elsewhere in recent years. In order to reconcile the growing demand
for transport with the need to improve the quality of life and protect the
environment, the Union is establishing a transport policy designed to
integrate each mode of transport into a coherent trans-European network, the
aim being to facilitate the movement of goods and people, and hence contribute
to economic growth and job creation. The research will therefore concern the
network as a whole and each of its components: 

-   "Strategic research for a trans-European multimodal network" the aim
being to improve the compatibility of the various modes of transport and
of the different national systems, by anticipating the development of
mobility in Europe and ensuring infrastructure provision, while taking
into account socio-economic constraints;

-   "Network optimization" in order to help to develop each individual
transport mode, in particular to improve the efficiency and safety of
the different modes of transport (rail, air, urban, road, maritime and
inland waterway transport) and develop genuine transport chains.

Socio-economic impact  and technological  risks will  be assessed  and
encouragement will be given for the participation of SMEs in the programme. 

Examples of current projects:

-   A project  under the EURET  programme is trying to  ensure the
compatibility of the systems used by the Member States to control rail
traffic. The differences between the systems are hampering the movement
of high-speed trains since they cause stopages at borders and sometimes
changes of driver or locomotive. Companies are working together to try
and harmonize the systems used in order to establish an efficient
pan-European high-speed rail network.

-   Several projects under the THERMIE programme are trying to reduce the
environmetal impact of transport by promoting public transport, research
into improving the  efficiency of conventional engines,  and the
development of batteries for electric vehicles, etc. 

15.  Targeted socio-economic research

This will be one of the innovations of the fourth framework programme.  Its
two-fold aim is to facilitate the integration of technologies into society and
to anticipate tomorrow's priorities in preparation for the 21st century.  It
will cover the following three areas:

-   "Evaluation of science and technology policy options" with the aim of
developing a genuine science and technological development policy for
the European Union, in particular by strengthening the technology
forecasting and assessment system and developing decision-making aids.
Strategic analysis will be carried out to examine economic, industrial
and socio-cultural issues, drawing on the European technology assessment
network (ETAN) which will receive funding from the programme;

-   "Research on education and training" in order to improve education and
training systems and ensure that they keep up with technological
progress - a prerequisite for long-term economic and social development.
The research will concern in particular the knowledge basis for new
education and training technologies, the quality of education and
training systems, and new forms of teacher-pupil interaction, thus
working towards a genuine learning society in Europe;

-   "Research into social integration and social exclusion in Europe" in
order  to develop knowledge and instruments for combating social
exclusion, which is a particularly serious problem, especially in
cities. The mechanisms and causes, in particular the economic ones, of
social exclusion will be analysed and a comparison made of the various
integration policies pursued in Europe.  Special attention will be paid
to successful examples of integration in order to identify possible

solutions. 

It should be noted that economic and social research will be conducted under
all the other specific programmes, e.g. through socio-economic impact studies,
socio-economic analyses of the transfer of RTD results or the training and
mobility of economic and social science researchers.

         Second area of activity

16.  Cooperation with third countries and international organizations

In view of certain current scientific and technological problems, it can be in
the interest of the European Union to cooperate with industrialized countries,
developing countries and international organizations.  An innovation of the
fourth framework programme is that this form of cooperation will be grouped
together in a single programme. Three areas have been identified:

-   "Scientific and technological cooperation in Europe" the aim of which is
to  strengthen links with COST, EUREKA and certain international
organizations. In connection with PHARE and TEMPUS, there will also be
activities concerning the Central and Eastern European countries and the
new independent States of the former Soviet Union in order to safeguard
their scientific and technical potential;

-   "Cooperation with non-European industrialized third countries" in order
to optimize the European Union's RTD efforts while ensuring, in the long
term, that there is a better match between its RTD policy and potential
international markets.  This cooperation will concern for example the
human frontier programme and intelligent production systems; 

-   "Scientific and technological cooperation with the developing countries"
to enable them to find solutions to problems which affect them directly
(natural resources, health, agricultural production, etc.) and to enable
them to be involved in the quest for knowledge in relation to issues of
global importance (environmental protection, communicable diseases,
desertification, etc.). Another objective is to preserve the excellence
of European researchers in disciplines of relevance to developing
countries (development of agriculture and fisheries, etc.). 

Examples of current projects:

-   Since 1991, 16 projects supported by the European Union have involved
various Russian institutes in order to mitigate the consequences of the
Chernobyl accident.

-   A promising project being carried out in conjunction with the University
of Tunis is seeking to identify chemicals which inhibit the development
of locusts and limit their devastating effects on crops in Africa and
Asia. 

         Third area of activity

17.  Dissemination and exploitation of results

European science has considerable potential but finds it difficult to
translate research results into practical applications.  The aim of this
programme is to promote the industrial exploitation of the results of RTD
carried out by the Union and by the Member States, with special emphasis on
SMEs, which provide the backbone of Europe's industrial fabric, and the
less-favoured regions. Three topics have been identified:

-   "Dissemination and exploitation of the results of research", in order to
develop various appropriate services (VALUE relay centres to promote the
RTD activities carried out by the Union and the results of this RTD,
enlargement of the CORDIS information service,  dissemination and
awareness schemes, assistance with the exploitation of research results,
and the protection of industrial and intellectual property rights);

-   "Dissemination  of technology  to enterprises" and  in particular
industrial SMEs which need to have access to technological developments
but do not themselves have an R&D capability.  The proposed activities
concern support for innovation and the transfer of technology, the
promotion of cooperation between universities and firms and inter-firm
cooperation, the establishment of technology dissemination networks in
the less-favoured regions, the organization of training sessions,
meetings and information about best practice in the management of
innovation and the dissemination of technologies, etc.;

-   "The financial environment for the dissemination of technology" with a
view to encouraging technology funding schemes, improving communication
between financial circles and promoters of technological projects, and,
through technical  and management  assistance, enabling  financial
intermediaries to evaluate projects and exploit their results.

Current examples:

-   In 1993 the VALUE programme gave birth to a network of 27 relay centres
designed to improve the regional impact of RTD programmes by reinforcing
the transfer of the results of the programmes to organizations which may
benefit from them.  This initiative will help to facilitate the
transition from fundamental research to commercial applications, one of
Europe's weaknesses.

-   An analysis of the participation of companies in the BRITE-EURAM
programme has shown that projects involving at least two companies and a
fundamental research laboratory have, on average, generated profits five
times as high as the sums invested by the partners in the project.

         Fourth area of activity

18.  Stimulation of the training and mobility of researchers

The purpose of this programme is to respond to training and cooperation
initiatives proposed by researchers themselves (bottom-up approach).  In
stressing communication and cooperation between universities and firms, the
programme will also play an important role in the promotion of innovation,
especially in the less-favoured regions.  Four types of activities will be
covered:

-   "Research  networks" the aim of which is to establish "European
laboratories without walls" to mobilize the efforts of at least five
research teams on a common topic and to carry out work of high quality.
Meetings will be facilitated, experiments carried out and results
exchanged, etc.  The networks will be responsible for disseminating
their results, particularly to SMEs and the less-favoured regions; 

-   "Access  to large-scale facilities" for university and industrial
research scientists, especially those from the less-favoured regions;

-   "Training through research" to enable European researchers to spend a
training period of between three months and three years outside their
country of origin; 

-   "Accompanying measures" including the organization of Euroconferences,
practical courses and the evaluation of progress with the programme.

It should be emphasized that the programme will be open to all disciplines,
from exact and applied sciences to economic and social sciences.  As no
priorities are set, the bottom-up approach will guarantee, in the light of the
quality of the proposals, that the projects selected are a faithful reflection
of real demand. 

Current examples:

-   Under the SCIENCE  programme, the EJOB network  comprising eight
laboratories from five different countries has devised the first optical
microprocessor in the world. This system, which exploits the property
of certain materials of becoming opaque once light intensity exceeds a
certain threshold, may be the fundamental component of the fully optical
computer of the future. 

-   A project under the Human Capital and Mobility Programme is examining
the biological history of human populations. The central idea of the
project lies in the fact that the genetic diversity of human beings in
the final analysis reflects the history of our species. The objective
is therefore to analyse the genetic heritage of current populations in
order to obtain information about migrations in prehistoric times, the
structures of past societies, and the frequency of the natural changes
which our species has undergone.  To this end, the project aims to
assemble European biological archives to gather genetic materials
representative of the European population. 

19.  Direct action (Joint Research Centre)

The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the Community's research laboratory. It
comprises eight institutes at five sites: Ispra in Italy, Karlsruhe in
Germany, Geel in Belgium, Petten in the Netherlands and Seville in Spain. For
the period 1995-98 the work of the JRC will be divided into two categories: 

-   "Institutional research activities" in areas in which the JRC has
special, if not unique, expertise and installations in the European
Union.  The research in question will concern the following areas:
industrial materials  (ceramics and  composite materials,  surface
engineering, etc.), environment (remote sensing, atmospheric processes,
environmental  quality,  etc.),  non-nuclear  energy,  targeted
socio-economic research, nuclear fission safety (reactor safety, safety
of  fissile materials, etc.)  and controlled thermonuclear fusion
(participation in ITER activities);

-   "Institutional scientific and technical support activities" comprising
activities needed to implement European Union policies in the following
areas:  information and communications technologies (security and
reliability of information systems, etc.), environment (control of
chemicals, foodstuffs and drugs, organization of tests in order to
limit experiments on animals, major hazards, etc.), life sciences and
technologies (remote sensing to monitor the common agricultural policy),
targeted socio-economic research and nuclear fission safety (accident
prevention). 

Current examples:

-   In a vast study of pollution in the Alps, the JRC has shown that,
contrary to what  researchers had thought, polluting  gases from
neighbouring countries do not "fly over" the mountains but instead
"creep over" mountain ridges and sides, so that valley dwellers are not
protected against pollution from elsewhere.

-   The JRC is involved in the TREES project (Tropical Ecosystem Environment
Observation by Satellites) designed to map tropical forests from
satellite images and measure the extent of deforestation in order to
assess its impact on climate and biodiversity. 

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