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   Research  and  Development is crucial to improve the  efficiency  of  the
   transport  system in the Community.  The Commission  General  Directorate
   for  transport  recently  signed several  contracts  with  trans-European
   consortia  for  an  amount  of 20 million  Ecus  of  Community  financial
   contribution for transport shared-cost research projects.
   The  projects co-financed by the Community have started in the  framework
   of  the specific research and technological development programme in  the
   field  of  transport  - EURET (1990 - 93); which is part  of  the  second
   framework  programme.  The  aim  of  EURET  is  to  develop  a  Community
   transport system capable of responding to the increase in demand for  all
   modes  of transport resulting from the completion of the internal  market
   by the end this year.
   EURET  covers 11 themes of research in 5 modes of  transports:  maritime,
   railways,  road,  air  and  combined  transport  grouped  in  three  sub-
   programmes, the titles of which are self-explanatory.
   Sub-programme 1:  optimum transport network exploitation
   Theme 11*  Cost-benefit   and  multi-criteria  analysis  for   new   road
   Theme 12   European rail traffic management conception
   Theme 13   Design and assessment of vessel traffic management systems
   Theme 14   Trials  in automated air/ground data exchange for air  traffic
              management systems in Europe
   Theme 15   Study  of  the  controller working  position  in  air  traffic
              management systems in Europe
   Sub-programme 2:     logistics
   Theme 21*  Economic scenario and demand projections for freight transport
              in the Community
   Theme 22   Economic and technical research of the transfer of goods
   Theme 23   Design and evaluation of rapid transfer systems
   Theme 24   Optimization  of  manpower in maritime  transport  and  taking
              human factors into consideration in human/ship systems
   Sub-programme 3:     reducing harmful external effects
   Theme 31*  Improved  methods  for evaluating the road safety of  car  and
              trailer trains
   Theme 32*  Assessment   of   driving  safety  for   truck   and   trailer
   (*)  Concerted  actions.  The purpose of these concerted  actions  is  to
   coordinate  the  research in the member states  by  organizing  meetings,
   consultations  with national experts and the distribution of  information
   on  the  progress and results of the projects. The other  themes  contain
   projects of which the Community also contributes financially.
   The  breakdown of the Community shared-cost EURET projects  by  transport
   modes is as follows:
   Theme 13
   -     Design  and  assessment of a regional traffic management  system  -
         RTIS -
   -     Design and assessment of a vessel traffic management system - TAIE
   Theme 23
   -     Optimization  of  Manpower in Maritime  Transport;  Improvement  of
         competitiveness    in   Community   maritime   transport    through
         implementing advanced technology - ATOMOS
   Theme 24
   -     Human factors in the Man/Ship system for the European fleet - HFEF
   Theme 22
   The smart Intermodal European Transfer - SIMET
   Theme 12
   European Rail Traffic Management System - ERTMS
   Theme 14
   ATM European Group for Improvement of Scenarios - AEGIS
   European Aeronautical Telecommunications Network - EURATN
   Theme 15
   Specification for Working Positions in Future Air Traffic Control - SWIFT
                              MARITIME TRANSPORT
   Maritime Transport is still by far (+/- 90%) the most important tool  for
   the  Community's  international  Trade.  This  strategic  importance   is
   emphasized  by  both  the inter-Community transport  share  for  Maritime
   Transport  of  +/-  33% and by its role as a fundamental  segment  for  a
   combined transport network.  Unfortunately, the number and tonnage of the
   Community's  owned  and flagged fleet has been declining for  years  with
   serious  impact  on  the  safety of  operation,  the  protection  of  the
   environment and on social issues.
   Therefore  based  on  the  future  requirements  and  aims  for  Maritime
   Transport   in   the   Community;  developed   by   responsible   bodies,
   Administrations, Industry, Experts, Universities and Research  Institutes
   and on the results and experience acquired from other  R&D  international
   programmes, such as "COST" the following four contracts were signed for a
   three year period.
   RTIS  -  Design and assessment of a regional  traffic  management  system
   (Theme 13)
   RTIS is a pilot project for a Regional Traffic Information Service  whose
   main aim is to reduce maritime traffic costs.
   The  project will study the feasibility and if appropriate elaborate  the
   specifications  of an information service which would provide the  actors
   of maritime traffic with real time information intended to improve  their
   own decision making processes. The project will address the Mediterranean
   area and it is expected that most of its features will be transposable to
   other maritime zones in Europe.
   TAIE - Design and assessment of a vessel traffic management system (Theme
   The  TAIE project aims to increase the safety and efficiency  of  traffic
   flows  in North West Europe by improving the existing design  tools,  the
   operational benefits, the existing training schemes for VTS operator, the
   traffic  and casualty information.  The assessment of usefulness  of  new
   technology  for  application  in VTS and determining  basic  traffic  and
   casualty  information  as  the basis for  marine  safety  and  expediency
   decision making as well as for the determination of the nuisances to  the
   environment caused by vessels.
   ATOMOS  - Optimization of Manpower in Maritime Transport; Improvement  of
   competitiveness  in  Community maritime  transport  through  implementing
   advanced technology  (Theme 23)
   The  project  will determine the optimum crew composition  for  different
   types  of  vessel  and marine transport systems  according  to  different
   circumstances,   taking  into  account  an  increased  use  of   advanced
   technology and what should be done to improve the competitiveness of  the
   commercial  Community maritime fleet, as the Community shipping  industry
   has lost a lot of ground over the past years to fleets running under  the
   flag of third countries.
   HFEF  -  Human  factors in the Man/Ship system for the  European  fleet
   (Theme 24)
   The  improvement  of safety and the efficiency of shipping  in  terms  of
   reducing  losses  of  human  life, vessels  and  cargoes  preventing  the
   ecological  damage  to  which  they  may  lead,  and  also  in  terms  of
   operational cost.
   These objectives will not be completed without consideration of the  role
   of the human operator. In this framework, the research will incorporate a
   task analysis and human error analysis to provide a basis for  assessment
   of  all  credible operator errors at each step of the task, and  then  an
   evaluation of the probability of each error.
                              COMBINED TRANSPORT
   The  economic and technical research into the transfer of goods in  order
   to design and evaluate a rapid transfer system is the aim of the project.
   This  project  is  part  of the  overall  effort  to  promote  intermodal
   transport. The advantage of intermodal links is that they enable the most
   appropriate  mode of transport to be used for any particular  segment  of
   the transport.
   The  necessary unloading and reloading operations have a major impact  on
   the quality and total cost of distribution and impose limitations on  the
   efficient  combination  of  means of transport.  Research  into  ways  of
   improving  the  quality  and  cost of these  operations  should  make  it
   possible  to  increase  the productivity of all means  of  transport  and
   The smart Intermodal European Transfer - SIMET (Theme 22)
   The  study will provide results to reduce delivery time, reduce cost  and
   handling  time  in yards during goods transfer and  reduction  in  energy
   consumption for environmental protection.
   The future of intermodal transport will depend on the manner in which the
   different  operations  of  unloading/reloading  will  be  performed.  The
   development of systems using and adapting the most recent  automatisation
   technologies and robots will provide a highly efficient yard.
   The study will focus on the transfer of goods between different modes  of
   transport : rail, road, inland waterway and maritime.
                              RAILWAYS TRANSPORT
   The  Commission  takes  a  great interest in the  joint  study  with  the
   Community  of European Railways and the Industry for a new European  rail
   traffic  management  system involving, in particular,  the  main  control
   system.  The result of this study is to reinforce overall traffic safety,
   productivity  of  the  railways and  encourage  competition.  Indeed  the
   accomplishment of high speed train network involves serious changes  into
   the rail traffic control.
   The  move towards integrated trains and the requirement to alleviate  the
   unacceptable  time wastage problems, imposed by the  equipment  swapping,
   will  enhance  cross border traffic without  hindrance.  Double  or  even
   multiple equipments of rolling stock raises cumbersome problems which are
   costly.  Consequently,  it  is  necessary to find a  common  solution  to
   commission  high  speed trains operating on international  route.  It  is
   also  a unique opportunity to capitalise on the present progress  of  the
   technology in areas covering data processing and wireless transmission to
   lay the foundation of an innovative comprehensive train control system.
   The new system under consideration relies on a strong interaction between
   the  infrastructure and the rolling stock; is suitable as  an  extension,
   taking   into  consideration  the  implications  of  a   unified   system
   implementation  on new and existing railways in all Western  and  Eastern
   European  railways.  The  study will develop a general definition  for  a
   European  Traffic  Management and Control System which is a  large  scale
   integrated project as a whole.
   The Commission introduced a co-ordinated approach with several phases.
   European Rail Traffic Management System - ERTMS  (Theme 12)
   The   first  phase  of  the  European  Rail  Traffic  Management   System
   realisation  will be initiated by the ERTMS project.  This  project  will
   undertake  the overall design of the system, the evaluation  of  position
   location  and communication components for use in system design  using  a
   modular  implementation  approach  in order  to enable  each  railway  to
   select  best possible functionality.  It is important to  concentrate  on
   these issues as part of the first Euret programme.
   The  second  phase  of  the  ERTMS will  cover  the  development  of  the
   components, the implementation of the system and its experimentation.  As
   the  case  permits, the second phase will be initiated at a  later  date,
   depending  upon  the situation, or it will be run in  parallel  with  the
   ERTMS project.
   The Commission is moving in this direction by developing now the  EUROCAB
   and  soon  the  EUROBALISE  and EURORADIO  projects  in  accordance  with
   Council resolution issued on the 17.12.1990, of harmonised train  control
   Based  on  the  general concept description of the  Future  European  Air
   Traffic  Management  System developed by  the  responsible  international
   bodies,  the  Commission  has  taken  the  initiative  to  organise   and
   coordinate  the  necessary development and validation work  of  essential
   aspects  and  components of this future system with the  co-operation  of
   EUROCONTROL  -  within  the Harmonised Air  Traffic  Management  Research
   programme  PHARE.  Results  of this activity are  prerequisites  for  the
   success  of  the  various  initiatives taken in  Europe  to  address  the
   capacity problem in Europe's air transport system.
   The importance of this activity has been fully recognised when setting up
   the  EURET  Programme  by the inclusion of two topics  dealing  with  Air
   Traffic  Management  matters  as a complement to the  PHARE  programme  -
   The following projects have been signed with major consortia and starting
   in February 1992:
   ATM European Group for Improvement of Scenarios - AEGIS (Theme 14)
   The  project  will  develop Air Traffic Management  (ATM)  scenarios  and
   explore  new aspects of the ATM problem, taking advantage of  the  multi-
   disciplinary origins of the consortium.
   European Aeronautical Telecommunication Network - EURATN (Theme 14)
   A validation of the Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN)  concept
   and  demonstration  of  its  operability.  The  consortium  will  provide
   experimental ATN equipment to define and demonstrate the validity of  the
   ATM concept developed by the European aviation community.
   Specification for working Positions in Future Air Traffic Control - SWIFT
   (Theme 15)
   The  SWIFT  project  sets  to define the  general  requirements  for  the
   controller  position  in  two parts: first,  the  controller  workstation
   together with the network and external hardware and software plus the use
   of  the workstation trials, and second, updating the  requirements  using
   the results of the scenarios validation and human factors studies.
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