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European Commission - Fact Sheet

Annex – LIFE sub-programme for the Environment: 2014 projects

Brussels, 20 November 2015

The sums indicated refer to the total budget of the projects in euros.


AUSTRIA (AT) (2 projects – 11.4 million)

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (2 projects – 11.4 million)

LIFE Sterlet (Institute for Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna): The project will implement an innovative captive breeding and reintroduction programme for the autochtonous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) – the smallest species of Danube sturgeon and threatened by extinction. The aim is to reach the required population size for sustainable natural reproduction. The project also aims to identify vulnerable habitats and provide recommendations for their conservation.

Project summary

LIFE Salzachauen (Amt der Salzburger Landesregierung, Naturschutzabteilung): The project aims to significantly improve the condition of the Salzachauen, one of Austria’s most important alluvial forests. Demonstration actions will support the floodplain habitats and species of the river Salzach on 118 ha of alluvial forest ecosystem. The project will optimise natural processes and encourage the adoption of sustainable tourism practices.

Project summary

 

BELGIUM (BE) (2 projects – 7.8 million)

LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency (1 project – 2.7 million)

LIFE 'N GRAB HY! (WaterstofNet vzw): LIFE’N GRAB HY! will manufacture and demonstrate two hydrogen-electric hybrid refuse trucks as a zero-emission and low-noise alternative for waste collection in 10 different sites. This includes year-long trials of the vehicles in both urban and rural settings, as well as two-week trials in Antwerp, Cologne and Rotterdam. Over the three years of the project the vehicles will save 250 MWh of energy, 125 tonnes of CO2 emissions, 1.075 tonnes of CO, 2.5 tonnes of NO and 51 kg of particulate matter. The project will also raise public awareness of hydrogen energy as a sustainable energy carrier.

Project summary

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (1 project – 5.0 million)

LIFE IN QUARRIES (Federation des Industries Extractives SCRL – FEDIEX): The LIFE IN QUARRIES project aims to develop biodiversity in active quarries by trialling restoration and management actions and by increasing awareness of the ecological potential of areas in and around quarries. It will demonstrate management best practices at up to 24 quarries in Wallonia, Belgium and share this experience across the EU.

Project summary

 

BULGARIA (BG) (2 projects – 7.0 million)

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (2 projects – 7.0 million)

Vultures back to LIFE (Green Balkans Stara Zagora NGO): The project aims to facilitate the return of the Eurasian black vulture (Aegypius monachus) to Bulgaria. It seeks to establish a nesting population of the species in the country, translocating and releasing 48 vultures at specially-prepared sites. The project will develop habitat and food sources for the vultures and work to reduce threats such as poisoning and collision with electricity pylons. It will contribute to the implementation of the Balkan Vulture Action Plan.

Project summary

LAND for LIFE (Bulgarian Society for Protection of Birds): The project will focus on all Natura 2000 network sites that are crucial for the imperial eagle in Bulgaria, testing models for restoration and sustainable management of open-grassland habitats and restoring feeding habitats. It will also provide artificial nesting platforms and strengthen strategic planning and the national legal framework to secure the long-term protection of the species.

Project summary

 

CROATIA (HR) (1 project – 4.6 million)

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (1 project – 4.6 million)

DRAVA LIFE (Hrvatske vode): The project will pioneer inter-sectoral river management cooperation in Croatia in order to restore key functions of the Drava river ecosystem. Actions will increase pristine, dynamic river habitats, preserve and create new floodplain waters and improve water level dynamics. DRAVA LIFE will also reduce human disturbance of protected bird species and increase awareness of the Natura 2000 network in Croatia. The project will also contribute to the implementation of the Water Framework Directive.

Project summary

 

DENMARK (DK) (2 projects – 11.8 million)

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (2 projects – 11.8 million)

LIFEraisedbogs (Tønder Municipality): The aim is to achieve a 'favourable' conservation status for active raised bogs in eight Natura 2000 sites in Denmark by enhancing the peat-accumulating sites characteristic of such habitats. This will involve land consolidation, vegetation clearance and a restoration of the natural hydrology of the active raised bogs. Habitat improvements will benefit water beetles and dragonflies (Dytiscus latissimu, Graphoderus bilineatus and Leucorrhinia pectoralis).

Project summary

RigKilde LIFE (Thisted Municipality): The project’s aim is to ensure the 'favourable' conservation status of calcareous fens, petrifying springs and alkaline fens, and to increase the area of these habitats. Restoration will boost existing breeding grounds for the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) and improve breeding and foraging conditions for the moor frog (Rana arvalis).

Project summary

 

ESTONIA (EE) (1 project – 2.8 million)

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (1 project – 2.8 million)

LIFE Mires Estonia (Estonian Fund for Nature): The objective of the project is to secure a 'favourable' conservation status in Estonia of wetlands, especially mires and priority habitats protected by the Habitats Directive such as active raised bogs, bog woodland and Fennoscandian deciduous swamp woods. Hydrological improvements will be carried out and hydrology improved on around 5 800 ha, of which some 3 450 ha are Natura 2000 priority habitats.

Project summary

 

FRANCE (FR) (3 projects – 15.2 million)

LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency (1 project – 3.7 million)

LIFE STIMUL (Solvay): The project aims to develop an innovative seed treatment that will enable farmers to reduce their use of fertilisers and water by 15 %. The seed coating solution, based on a naturally-derived polymer, will enhance root growth at an early stage of plant development, to help plants obtain additional nutrients and water at this critical stage. Some 7 000 tonnes of seeds will be treated during the project.

Project summary

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (2 projects – 11.6 million)

LIFE GYPCONNECT (Ligue pour la Protection des Oiseaux (LPO)): The project will restore connections between the Alpine and Pyrenean populations of the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). To achieve this, it will create core bearded vulture populations in the Massif-Central and Drôme areas of France. The project will also facilitate the movement of birds from these core populations between the Alps and the Pyrenees to allow interbreeding and population exchange, thus increasing the genetic variability of bearded vulture populations. To support these aims, the project will increase food resources available to bearded vultures and reduce threats to the species.

Project summary

LIFE SIRENIA (Parc National de la Guadeloupe): The goal of the LIFE SIRENIA project is to re-establish a West Indian manatee (Trichetus manatus manatus) population in Guadeloupe. The project will reintroduce 10 manatees in the first demonstration project of its kind, monitor the marine mammals, support related scientific and conservation initiatives, and raise awareness amongst local fishermen, tourist operators, other boat users, and the general public.

Project summary

 

GERMANY (DE) (4 projects – 12.4 million)

LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency (1 project – 1.4 million)

INADAR (Bayerische Elektrizitätswerke): The project aims to demonstrate a more nature-friendly approach to dam restoration that also meets the requirements of the Floods Directive and Water Framework Directive. It will install sediment and erosion control measures using recycled organic material on dams at Offingen and Oberelchingen. These will be evaluated in terms of dam stability and safety, ecological potential and economic efficiency. The project will define indicators and develop recommendations for approval procedures for the implementation of eco-berms.

Project summary

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (2 projects – 9.8 million)

LIFE Auenamphibien (Naturschutzbund Deutschland (NABU) Landesverband Niedersachsen e.V.): The project aims to increase the population size of three floodplain amphibian species listed in Annex II and Annex IV of the Habitats Directive: the fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina), tree frog (Hyla arborea) and great crested newt (Triturus cristatus), along with other endangered plant and animal species. The project will target 11 project areas in middle and southern Lower Saxony, creating and restoring 301 spawning ponds to increase the coherence of the protected areas and improve connectivity between amphibian populations.

Project summary

LIFE Flusserlebnis Isar (Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz): The aim of the project is to improve habitats in the Isar valley by restoring the river Isar and specific tributaries and by optimising habitats in the alluvial areas. It will focus on close cooperation between water management and nature conservation authorities.

Project summary

LIFE Environmental Governance & Information (1 project – 1.2 million)

CLEAN HEAT (Deutsche Umwelthilfe e.V.): The CLEAN HEAT project aims to significantly reduce levels of particulate matter (PM) and soot, both health and climate damaging pollutants, caused by wood burning stoves in seven EU Member States. To reach this goal, the project will increase awareness, promote better handling of stoves, promote eco-labelling to help increase the market share of less polluting stoves, and advocate more ambitious regulation of wood burning.

Project summary

 

GREECE (5 projects – 6.9 million)

LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency (2 projects – 3.0 million)

Life GreenYourMove (University of Thessaly): The project’s goal is to contribute to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe by introducing a sustainable mobility strategy and by promoting environmentally optimal co-modal options for commuting and travelling. It will develop tools to measure GHG emissions from vehicles in selected public transport networks (16 cities in Greece) and an online journey planner that indicates the most environmentally-friendly public transport option. A prototype pan-European version of this planner will be developed for selected routes in The Netherlands, Czech Republic, Romania and Slovakia. A reduction in GHG emissions of at least 2 699 000 tonnes CO2 eq. is expected during the lifetime of the project.

Project summary

LIFE: PAVEtheWAySTE (Municipality of Naxos and Small Cyclades Islands): The aim of the project is to facilitate the implementation of the Waste Framework Directive in remote areas by enabling local and regional authorities to improve their municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling performance and thus pave the way to high resource efficiency. The objective is to demonstrate an innovative and replicable system for separation and treatment at source of MSW in remote areas. The project will increase the MSW recycling rate to 50 % in Olympia (currently zero) and 60 % in Naxos (currently 9 %), in the process halving the amount of waste going to landfill. The project will also conduct studies into replicating the results in other municipalities in Greece and Spain.

Project summary

LIFE Environmental Governance & Information (3 projects – 3.9 million)

LIFE Natura Themis (University of Crete): The project aims to raise the awareness of stakeholders, targeted audiences and the public in Crete aboutenvironmental and wildlife crime, and about liability for preventing and remediating biodiversity damage. It is also aiming to encouragesupport and engagement in EU environmental law enforcement by providing stakeholders and target audiences with the appropriate skills to engage in theprosecution procedure for wildlife crime, to require measures for remediation of damage tobiodiversity and to integrate biodiversity issues in regional and local policy.

Project summary

LIFE ForestLife (The Goulandris Natural History Museum - Greek Biotope Wetland Centre (EKBY)): The project aims to support the exchange of best practice and the development of the skills of forest Natura 2000 managers in Greece. It will develop an online collaborative platform for forests and provide tools and training for reducing human disturbance of forests.

Project summary

LIFE DEBAG (University of Patras): The main objective of the LIFE DEBAG project is to develop and implement an integrated information and awareness-raising campaign for the prevention and reduction of plastic bag pollution in the marine environment. Demonstration actions will include a focused campaign on the island of Syros (Greece) to reduce the number of single-use plastic bags that can potentially become marine litter. This will include two ‘plastic bag free’ weeks to raise awareness on the island of the problem.

Project summary

 

IRELAND (IE) (1 project – 5.4 million)

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (1 project – 5.4 million)

LIFE Irish Raised Bogs (Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht): The objective of the project is to improve the conservation status of the Habitats Directive priority habitat ‘Active raised bog’, through restoration measures in 12 Natura 2000 sites in the Irish midlands. The project aims to secure local community cooperation, raise water levels to create the necessary conditions for active raised bogs, remove regenerating trees and shrubs, and put in place fire protection measures. Restoration work will improve a total of 2 649 ha of raised bog habitat.

Project summary

 

ITALY (IT) (21 projects – 39.3 million)

LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency (12 projects – 21.3 million)

LIFE ELECTRO-SLUDGE (AST): The project aims to demonstrate technology capable of increasing the dry solid content of sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants to at least 30 %. The innovative electro-osmotic dewatering system will also lower the concentration of some heavy metals in the dewatered sludge by 10-20 %, thus increasing the amount of sludge that meets safety requirements for use in agriculture.

Project summary

LIFE M&M Man and Metal (Metallurgica Abruzzese): The goal of the project is to replace zinc with lighter, thinner 'quasi-alloys' in the galvanised steel wire production process. These quasi-alloys will be made from recovered materials containing aluminium. The new process is expected to reduce zinc use (by 90 %), embodied energy and CO2 emissions. It will also increase the useful life of galvanised steel wire (by up to 800 % in industrial appliances).

Project summary

LIFE HORTISED (Department of Agri-Food Production Sciences and of Environment): The aim of the project is to demonstrate the suitability of dredged remediated sediments as an alternative to peat in the preparation of growing media in horticulture. The sediments will be tested on pomegranate and strawberry plantations, these being representative fruit crops in Italy and Spain. The project will compare results with the typical cultivation of the same fruits using traditional peat-based growing media. It will also draw up guidelines for the safe and sustainable use of remediated dredged sediments. The project is expected to cut peat use by 10-20 %, equivalent to an 80-90 % reduction in CO2 emissions.

Project summary

REFIBRE-LIFE (Steca S.p.A): The aim of the project is to overcome the main existing barriers to recycling of fibre from end-of-life tyres (ELT). It will construct a pilot plant to convert ELT fibre into useful secondary raw materials as part of a ‘circular economy’ approach. The plant will process 1 200 tonnes/yr of ELT, producing reinforced plastic compounds and bituminous mix for new asphalts. It will conduct a life-cycle analysis (LCA) and life-cycle costing (LCC) of the process and new materials produced.

Project summary

LIFE TRIALKYL (Italmatch Chemicals S.p.A.): The project will demonstrate a more sustainable and efficient process for the production of trimethylphosphite (TMPi), a compound used in a wide range of applications, including pesticides, flame retardants, plastics, childcare products and pharmaceuticals. The new process will avoid use of toxic chemicals, using instead phosphorus trichloride, methanol and anhydrous ammonia as precursors. The new process will not produce contaminated wastewater because water use is largely avoided. It will also use less energy and generate ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) as a by-product, which is useful for other sectors such as agriculture.

Project summary

FRESh LIFE (Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali): The project will demonstrate the benefits of remote sensing for forest mapping. It will show that this technique could compile indicators quicker and cheaper than current data collection systems. The information generated is expected to help improve forest management decisions and the achievement of sustainable forest management goals and certifications. The project will also demonstrate the applicability of the methodologies at a wider scale at the European Forest Data Centre (EFDAC) and, subsequently, in the European Commission's Forest Information System for Europe (FISE).

Project summary

LIFETAN (ENEA): The project will substitute natural products and technologies for toxic chemicals during five different phases of leather production: degreasing, fatliquoring, bating (softening), dyeing and tanning. It will seek to obtain the European Ecolabel for the new degreasing and fatliquoring products, which will meet legal limits for hazardous substances in leather goods and reduce wastewater contamination. Recycled poultry waste will be used in the bating phase. The project will also design REACH-compliant natural dyes based on lactose from waste milk serum and apply an innovative chrome-free tanning technology. Some 50 hides will be tanned using the natural products and 100 sample leather products produced.

Project summary

LIFE FutureForCoppiceS (Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l'Analisi dell'Economia Agraria (CRASEL)): The project will evaluate existing and newly-collected data on consolidated sustainable forest management (SFM) indicators. The goal is to demonstrate the value of different approaches in ensuring the provision of forest ecosystem goods and services. The project will gather and evaluate data on the effect of three approaches to coppicing – traditional, natural evolution, and active conversion to high forest – at experimental plots in Sardinia and Tuscany. Using SFM indicators, it will draft maps showing the potential effects on three European forest types of the three forms of coppicing at local, regional, national and southern European level.

Project summary

LIFE-PLA4COFFEE (Aroma System S.r.l.): The project will develop a demonstration-scale compounding plant for coffee capsules made from polylactic acid (PLA), a substitute for polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate and aluminium. The project will test the performance of the compostable PLA coffee capsules which, if introduced on an industrial scale, could significantly reduce landfill waste and CO2 and other emissions. It will also use the coffee capsule to demonstrate performance of the PLA formulation to the whole plastics industry and to consumers.

Project summary

LIFE ECO TILES (   Università degli Studi di Camerino): The aim of the project is to produce terrazzo tiles made from up to 70 % recycled material. This includes 50-60 % recycled glass (in place of aggregates) and pozzolan cement containing up to 15 % construction and demolition waste (CDW). The manufacturing process will be 20 % less energy intensive than traditional processes. The project will also set up a CDW and waste glass collection network in the Marche region and evaluate the technical characteristics of some 6 000-8 000 sample tiles that it will produce.

Project summary

LIFE ECO-PULPLAST (SELENE S.p.A.): The objective of the project is to reduce to nil the amount of pulp waste from paper mills sent to landfills and incinerators. To this end, it will build a demonstration production line manufacturing euro-pallets from more than 50 % pulp waste and draft a business plan for a 30 000 tonne/yr industrial facility in the Lucca area, the hub of European tissue paper manufacturing and converting. Use of the pallets within the Lucca area would create a local circular economy for pulp waste recycled into new plastic compounds and products. The project will also draft guidelines to enable replication of the pallet production methodology in other paper manufacturing locations.

Project summary

LIFE REWAT (Consorzio 5 Toscana Costa): The project will take a participatory approach to the development of a strategy for integrated management of water resources at sub-catchment level. It will propose a governance model for sustainable development of the lower Cornia river (Val di Cornia). The water management strategy will incorporate measures such as water saving, groundwater banking and managed aquifer recharge. It is expected to reduce consumption of the civil water supply by 10 % and cut water use in agriculture by 20 %. Sustainable management of urban storm water will cut consumption by a further 20 %. Managed aquifer recharge and river restoration will increase water infiltration rates in the sub-catchment area.

Project summary

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (8 projects – 16.6 million)

LIFE EREMITA (Regione Emilia Romagna): The project aims to improve the conservation status in Emilia-Romagna of two species of saproxylic beetles: the hermit beetle (Osmoderma eremita) and Rosalia longicorn (Rosalia alpina). To achieve this goal it will increase the amount of available habitat for each species (by 200-900 % depending on the species), with a subsequent increase in population distribution (50-600 %) and size (80-400 %). The project will also produce a long-term management strategy and increase knowledge of the needs of the two species.

Project summary

LIFE UNDER GRIFFON WINGS (Università degli Studi di Sassari): The project is aiming to improve the conservation status of the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) population in Sardinia, the last autochthonous breeding population of the species in Italy. The project will address the shortage in available food and increase the carrying capacity of foraging areas. Restocking will increase the viability of the griffon vulture population. The project will also seek to reduce human disturbance in vulture breeding areas and combat the risk of poisoning.

Project summary

LIFE PonDerat  (Regione Lazio - Agenzia Regionale Parchi): The project aims to improve the breeding performance on the Pontine Archipelago of two native seabird species with an 'unfavourable' conservation status – Scopoli’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) and Yelkouan shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan). It will do this by controlling and eradicating alien fauna such as rodents and feral goats. The project will also fence off key areas of Zannone island in order to exclude wild alien ungulates (mouflons) and to restore habitats of Community interest.

Project summary

LIFE WetFlyAmphibia (Parco Nazionale delle Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna: The project will improve the conservation status of the populations of amphibians and moths living in open wet areas inside the Foreste Casentinesi National Park (Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany). It will improve habitats, establish breeding sites and reinforce populations of the yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata), spectacled salamander(Salamandrina terdigitata)and Italian crested newt (Triturus carnifex). The project will also improve the habitats of the Jersey tiger (Euplagia quadripunctaria) and eastern eggar (Eriogaster catax) moths.

Project summary

LIFE SILIFFE (Ente Parco Naturale Regionale del fiume Sile): The project aims to strengthen the ecological network of the river Sile in north-east Italy, adding new areas of preservation and protecting those areas at greatest risk of degradation. Restoring the functionality of humid ecosystems will help improve the conservation status of 11 endangered aquatic species. The project also seeks to integrate agriculture, one of the main human pressures, into sustainable rural development plans.

Project summary

LIFE Risorgive  (Comune di Bressanvido): The project’s goal is to restore and consolidate ‘blue infrastructure’ - a network of springs, irrigation ditches and canals - in the territory of Bressanvido (Vicenza, Italy), an area of intensive dairy farming. LIFE Risorgive will strengthen 26 spring systems in Bressanvido to improve water quality, preserve biodiversity and enable the development of tourism and recreational activities.

Project summary

LIFE ConRaSi (WWF Italia): The project’s objective is to increase the number of nesting pairs and area of distribution of Bonelli’s eagle (Aquila fasciata), Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) and lanner falcon (Falco biarmicus) populations on Sicily. To achieve this, the project aims to reduce nest predation by poachers by 80-90 % and carry out habitat improvement measures, including setting up feeding sites for the three species. It will monitor species behaviour and demography in order to produce guidelines for habitat management and draft a national action plan for Bonelli’s eagle.

Project summary

LIFE STOP VESPA (Università degli Studi di Torino): The aim of the project is to contain the spread of the Asian predatory wasp (Vespa velutina) in Italy. This invasive alien wasp species is a significant threat to European biodiversity, particularly native bees, wasps and butterflies. Invasive wasp colonies may also be a cause of public alarm. The project will develop a prototype harmonic radar to trace flying wasps back to their nests. It will remove all colonial nests in western Liguria and southern Peiedmont and establish an early warning and rapid reaction force at regional and national level to prevent further invasions. The tools and management models developed could be applied to invasive wasp species elsewhere in Europe.

Project summary

LIFE Environmental Governance & Information (1 project – 1.4 million)

LIFE GPPbest (Regione Basilicata, Dipartimento Programmazione e Finanze): The project’s objective is to contribute to the promotion of new patterns of sustainable consumption and to the development and dissemination of best practices and policy approaches, in order to highlight the benefits of green public procurement (GPP) and to favour its wider application. The project will produce a catalogue of transferable GPP best practices, draft regional GPP action plans for Basilicata and Lazio and implement a pilot action to support the adoption of a GPP policy in Romania.

Project summary

 

LATVIA (LV) (1 project – 4.5 million)

LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency (1 project – 4.5 million)

LIFE Fit for Reach (Baltic Environmental Forum - Latvia): The project aims to help SMEs in the Baltic States become compliant with EU REACH legislation. It will offer downstream user SMEs a full ‘chemicals management package’, building capacity to meet classification, labelling, packaging and material safety guidelines, providing information on chemical inventories and general management practices, and guidance on how to follow legal obligations on specific substances (SVHC). It will also propose ways to implement substitution to reduce environmental impacts from the use of chemicals in products and processes. To support its goals, the project will develop a web platform and online management tools for user SMEs. It will also publish substitution case studies from Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia on the SUBSPORT database.

Project summary

 

MALTA (MT) (1 project – 1.3 million)

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (1 project – 1.3 million)

LIFE Arcipelagu Garnija (BirdLife Malta): The aim of the project is to ensure the long-term recovery of the Yelkouan shearwater (Puffinus yelkouan) in the central Mediterranean islands of Malta, by increasing knowledge of colony sites, increasing the number of breeding pairs (by 10 %) and raising reproductive output (by 25 %). It will also reduce the threats posed by human activity (e.g. disturbance of nesting colonies by boat operators, light pollution) and draft a national species action plan for the Yelkouan shearwater.

Project summary

 

THE NETHERLANDS (NL) (3 projects – 15.7 million)

LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency (1 project – 11.7 million)

LIFE PCR (Attero): The goal of the LIFE PCR project is to prevent the use of ‘virgin’ copper by increasing the availability of upcycled copper on the European market. This will reduce the adverse environmental impacts of copper mining. The project will demonstrate an innovative process for the recovery of copper from the bottom-ash produced by Waste-to-Energy activities (‘WtE bottom-ash’). Traditional copper recovery rates are around 40 %, but laboratory tests with the new technology show recovery rates of around 90 %. The project will treat 124 500 tonnes of WtE bottom-ash, producing some 373.5 tonnes of copper.

Project summary

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (2 projects – 4.0 million)

LIFE RE-Vultures (Stichting Rewilding Europe): The aim is to reduce acute threats to the black vulture (Aegypius monachus) and griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) and thus allow them to recover in the Bulgarian/Greek cross-border area of the Eastern Rhodope mountains. The project will tag vultures to increase knowledge of their migration patterns and threats. It will also take steps to reduce disturbance, poisoning, direct persecution and collisions with power lines. Actions are expected to increase the population of black vultures to 35 pairs and griffon vultures to 80 pairs in the target area.

Project summary

LIFE RE-Bison (Stichting Rewilding Europe): The objective of the project is to enable the successful recovery of the European bison (Bison bonasus) in the Tarcu and Poiana Rusca Mountains in south-west Romania. It will reintroduce around 100 European bison to achieve a free-roaming, healthy and viable sub-population of 185 animals. To stimulate local support for the reintroduction, the project will create new economic activities based on the bison and increase awareness of the species.

Project summary

 

POLAND (PL) (1 project – 4.5 million)

LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency (1 project - 4.5 million)

LIFE EMU-NEW (FLUKAR): The goal of the project is to develop an innovative pilot technology for producing bitumen emulsion modified with polymer recyclate and mineral nonofillers that can be used to make asphalt. The pilot installation can be scaled up to industrial level with a modified bitumen output of 39 mg/day, nanofiber production of 32 kg/day, nono-emulsion production of 60 mg/day and polymer additive output of 1,119 mg/year.

Project summary

 

PORTUGAL (PT) (6 projects – 14.0 million)

LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency (4 projects – 4.8 million)

LIFE No_Waste (University of Aveiro): The project aims to demonstrate the sustainable use of waste materials to regenerate degraded soils in mining areas, in compliance with the EU’s Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection. It will combine ash from forest biomass combustion with sludge from pulp and paper manufacturing to replenish soil carbon content and neutralise acidity on 12 test plots (1.2 km2) in the Iberian “pyrite belt”.

Project summary

LIFE SWSS (Instituto de Soldadura e Qualidade): The project aims to demonstrate the use of a ‘smart water supply system’ (SWSS) to reduce water leakage, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The SWSS platform will be tested in real-world conditions on the supply infrastructure of three water companies. It is expected to cut energy consumption and CO2 emissions by 15 % and reduce average water losses from 2.6 % to 1 %.

Project summary

LIFE Impetus (Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, I.P.): Pharmaceutical compounds are resistant to conventional forms of wastewater treatment. LIFE Impetus will test their removal using eco-friendly adsorbents from local vegetal wastes (carob and cork) and biopolymer coagulants in conventional activated sludge treatment plants, the most common form of wastewater treatment in Europe. The project will carry out a three-year field test in activated sludge treatment plants in two water-stressed regions (Lisbon and Algarve), monitoring accumulation of pharmaceutical compounds and carrying out a cost-benefit analysis of the treatment methods used.

Project summary

FLAW4LIFE (Fruta Feia CRL): The project aims to change food consumption habits and create an alternative market for ‘ugly’ (or less than perfect-looking) fruit and vegetables. It will set up a nationwide network for the sale and consumption of such ‘misshapen’ food items, which it will purchase from local producers and retail to consumers at 10 distribution points. The project will reduce food wastage by 460 tonnes per year.

Project summary

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (2 projects – 9.1 million)

LIFE RUPIS (Sociedade Portuguesa para o Estudo das Aves (SPEA)): The project aims to increase the populations of Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) and Bonelli´s eagle (Aquila fasciata) in Douro Internacional valley, through improved breeding success and reduction of mortality. To achieve these goals, the project will reduce nest disturbance, increase food availability (particularly during breeding season) and improve habitat quality through better management of farming and grazing practices.

Project summary

LIFE LINES (University of Evora): The project aims to evaluate and disseminate practices to mitigate the negative effects that linear transport and energy networks (roads, railways, power lines) have on wild fauna. It will promote the creation of a demonstrative ‘green infrastructure’, based on ecological corridors and stepping stones, to improve connectivity and the conservation of local and regional biodiversity. As well as creating a network of corridors and micro-reserves in the vicinity of linear infrastructure, the project will create a national wildlife mortality database and test new deterrents to stop birds landing on power lines.

Project summary

 

SLOVAKIA (SK) (1 project – 6.0 million)

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (1 project – 6.0 million)

LIFE Danube floodplains Regional Association for Nature Conservation and Sustainable Development (BROZ): The project aims to restore natural habitats of the Danube floodplains and to introduce sustainable management. Restoration will be achieved by improving the water regime in the river branch system (some 1 850 ha in total) and by interventions to secure a 'favourable' conservation status for targeted habitats covering an area of some 745 ha.

Project summary

 

SLOVENIA (SI) (1 project – 3.9 million)

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (1 project – 3.9 million)

LIFE to Grasslands (Institute of the Republic of Slovenia for Nature Conservation): The LIFE to Grasslands project aims to restore 260 ha of semi-natural dry grasslands on calcareous substrates and 257 ha of species-rich Nardus grasslands on siliceous substrates in mountain areas. It will reintroduce mowing and grazing of the grasslands, establish a network of landowners and potential land-users to reduce land use fragmentation and draw up proposals for incorporating sustainable dry grassland management into agricultural and environmental policy in Slovenia.

Project summary

 

SPAIN (ES) (28 projects – 45.2 million)

LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency (23 projects – 34.3 million)

LIFE_IRRILIFE (Jap Energéticas Medioambientales S.L.): The project will develop a greener system for applying plant protection substances (pesticides and other phyto-regulators) to crops. It will test the system in the municipality of L’Alcudia (Valencia). The project will also carry out an environmental assessment of the new process, comparing it against current pesticide application techniques. The new dosing system is expected to reduce farmers’ exposure to pesticides and reduce the presence and persistence of pesticides in soil, air, water and on fruit.

Project summary

LIFE STO3RE (Sociedad de Fomento Agrícola Castellonense S.A. (FACSA)): The project will implement an innovative and cost-efficient technology to protect aquatic environments against pollution caused by diffusion of nitrates and micropollutants. It will build a demonstration plant in Tostana (Murcia) capable of converting 5-10 m3 of mixed manure and wastewater sludge substrate per day into a high-quality biofertiliser. This will reduce by 20 % the volume of waste generated by participating farms and wastewater treatment plants. The biofertiliser is expected to increase crop yields by 50 %.

Project summary

LIFE HEALTHY FOREST (Neiker - Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development): The aim of the project is to design and implement methodologies for more sustainable forestry management at EU level. In particular, it will develop an innovative system for the early detection and evaluation of forest decline, particularly due to invasive and pathogenic agents, through a combination of expertise areas, from molecular biology to remote sensing techniques. LIFE HEALTHY FOREST will implement the early-detection system in large-scale forest plots, forming a knowledge base for EU forest and biodiversity policy.

Project summary

LIFE CELSIUS (ACCIONA AGUA S.A.U.): The project will demonstrate a low-energy wastewater treatment system that is designed to limit the threats of eutrophication and hypoxia in warm climates. The system combines an anaerobic membrane bioreactor, which removes organic matter, with partial nitrification/Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) treatment to eliminate nitrogen. The project will publish a technical assessment and economic analysis of the treatment system.

Project summary

SILIFE (Universitat Jaume I): The main aim of the project is to produce commercial quartz powders that have no (or very little) breathable crystalline silica toxicity, thereby reducing the threat of silicosis. This new coating technology would be replicable in any industry that uses separate dry quartz powders as raw materials (e.g. aggregates, cement, ceramics, glass and steel). The project will build a pilot plant capable of treating 500 tonnes of quartz per year. It will produce 10 tonnes of treated quartzes for at least five end-users from sectors other than ceramics to test in their manufacturing processes.

Project summary

LIFE FOUNDRYTILE (FUNDACIÓ CTM CENTRE TECNOLÒGIC): The project aims to reuse iron foundry sands and dust in the ceramic tile production process, thus contributing to the implementation of Waste Framework Directive and the goals of the roadmap for a resource-efficient Europe. After characterising the materials, the project will produce 60 tonnes of different types of ceramic tiles and perform quality tests to identify the best-performing foundry waste mixtures. These will be used to produce a sample of 800 m3 of wall and porcelain tiles. The project results will be used to revise Best Available Techniques Reference Documents for the foundry and ceramic sectors.

Project summary

LIFECITRUS (Centro Tecnológico Nacional de la Conserva y la Alimentación): The project aims to demonstrate on a semi-industrial scale an innovative industrial process for obtaining natural food ingredients from discarded parts of citrus fruits. It will install a mechanical processing line at a site in Murcia. This will convert 10 tonnes of citrus residue into a natural gelling ingredient for use in the food industry. The project will hold workshops about the gelling ingredient for potential food industry customers.

Project summary

LIFE In-BRIEF (AIMME): The goal of the project is to develop and implement an integrated management model for the resource-efficient use of biodegradable waste from agri-food enterprises and sewage sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The waste streams will be converted into biogas and fertilisers. The project will build an industrial-scale prototype capable of turning 10 m3 per day of digestate into fertilisers for agricultural and consumer use. These products will be tested for 12 months. It will also trial an organic liquid fertiliser made from humic substances extracted from biowaste.

Project summary

LIFE RECUMETAL (L’Urederra): The objective of the project is to recycle electronic flat panel displays to recover and re-use valuable metals such as indium and yttrium. This would reduce European dependence on imports of these critical raw materials (CRM), and help implement the WEEE Directive (2012/19/EU). The project will collect flat panel displays in the Navarre region and recycle some 100 tonnes in a pilot plant (capacity 200 kg per hour). This facility will be capable of recycling up to 80 % of the indium and yttrium in flat panel displays, achieving at least 95 % purity. It will also recover 80% of other valuable metals, such as silver.

Project summary

LIFE ECORKWASTE (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya): The project aims to demonstrate the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of several different options for the reuse of cork waste. It will construct a hybrid artificial wetland using cork waste as granular media to treat winery wastewaters. It will also test the potential of other types of cork waste (used cork stoppers and cork powder) as a substrate for syngas production by gasification in fluidised bed systems. To this end, the project will construct a gasification pilot plant based on a fluidised bed system with a treatment capacity of 10 kg/day and energy recovery capabilities. Results from these trials will enable the project to draft an integrated waste management plan for the cork industry.

Project summary

LIFE MULTIBIOSOL (FUNDACIÓN AITIIP): This project will develop innovative, economically-viable and fully-biodegradable plastic agro-films to replace the non-degradable polymers currently used in mulching film and fruit protection bags. The new films will completely eliminate this form of waste, reduce life cycle CO2 emissions from agro-films by 50% and improve soil quality through the addition of oligo elements.

Project summary

LIFE-ANADRY (DEPURACIÓN DE AGUAS DEL MEDITERRÁNEO SL): The project will demonstrate Dry Anaerobic Digestion technology under thermophilic (55 °C) and mesophilic (35 °C) conditions as a more effective treatment for the sewage sludge produced by wastewater treatment plants. The project will test the technology on a semi-industrial scale at a pilot plant in the municipal wastewater treatment plant in Mula (Murcia). The sludge produced will be suitable for biogas production or use as a fertiliser.

Project summary

LIFE DRAINUSE (Agencia Estatal - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas): The project will build and operate a pilot closed hydroponic system that could replace open hydroponic systems in most agricultural scenarios in southern Europe. Closed systems avoid the environmental hazards (pollution and eutrophication) caused by nutrient-rich drainage water from soilless production. The pilot system will be tested in a 500 m2 greenhouse at a governmental research facility in Murcia. The project will also propose a legal and regulatory framework for drainage recirculation to regulatory bodies in Mediterranean Europe.

Project summary

LIFE RAMSES (ACCIONA AGUA S.A.U.): The project will build a scalable pilot wastewater treatment plant in Blanca (Murcia) that is designed to enhance the quality of reclaimed water. The treated water will be able to be re-used for irrigating agricultural land. The pilot plant will consist of an anaerobic digestion phase using supported biomass growth followed by biological treatment. To boost biogas production and achieve energy self-sufficiency, the project will couple a co-digestion process using agro-food residues from regional canned food producers to the anaerobic reactor.

Project summary

LIFE SAVING-E (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona): The project will demonstrate how urban wastewater treatment plants can be redesigned so that they become energy producers rather than consumers. It will implement a process – biological treatment followed by two-stage autotrophic biological nitrogen removal - that allows most of the organic matter to be used for biogas production. This will be tested for 30 months at a pilot plant in Rubí (Barcelona). The pilot facility is expected to produce 50 % more biogas than current wastewater treatment technologies. It will also save energy, reduce nitrogen discharges and greenhouse gas emissions.

Project summary

LIFE Smart Fertirrigation (COPISO SORIA): The project’s objective is to implement a process for converting pig slurry digestate into solid and liquid bio-fertilisers. The digestate will be mechanically-separated into liquid and solid fractions. The liquid faction will be filtered so that it may be directly injected into irrigation systems as organic fertiliser; the solid fraction will be dried with excess heat from a biogas plant and then treated using ammonia a pilot biological treatment plant constructed by the project. By replacing mineral fertilisation in a cost-efficient way, LIFE Smart Fertirrigation will create opportunities for farmers and biogas producers.

Project summary

MIDWOR-LIFE (Associació Agrupació d'Empreses Innovadores Tèxtils): The aim of the project is to assess alternatives to existing textile-finishing products. Durable water and oil repellents (DWOR) made of long-chain fluorocarbon polymers are persistent and bioaccumulative. The project will assess the environmental impacts, toxicology and technical performances of two conventional fluorocarbon-based repellents (DWOR) and seven alternatives. Test results will be summarised and made available as a web tool. The project will also produce policy recommendations for the promotion of less toxic and more effective DWOR alternatives to fulfil the EU REACH Regulation.

Project summary

LIFE iCirBus-4Industries (Agrupación de Cooperativas de Regadío de Extremadura, ACOREX, S.C.L.): The project will demonstrate a two-stage treatment process for sewage sludge and forest biomass fly ash. In the first stage, the fly ash will be use as an adsorbent agent for heavy metals and other organic materials in the sewage sludge, which will then be suitable for use as a low-impact fertiliser. In the second stage, the heavy metal-containing fly ash will be used to manufacture recyclable building materials. The two-stage pilot plant will be able to process 100 kg/hr of sewage sludge. Over the course of the project it is expected to produce 500 kg of fertiliser and 17 tonnes of building materials.  

Project summary

LIFE FUTURE (AIMPLAS): The objective of the project is to develop a Green Public Procurement (GPP) tool for street furniture. The Green Urban Furniture tool will enable public authorities and managers of urban spaces to compare the environmental performance of more than 200 items of street furniture, based on a life-cycle assessment of these products. Public authorities in Spain and Croatia will test the applicability of the tool in real-life procurement processes.

Project summary

LIFE-SOUNDLESS (General Directorate of Infrastructures of the Regional Government of Andalusia): The project aims to demonstrate the noise-reduction potential of asphalt road surfaces made using recycled industrial waste materials (rubber, plastic and nylon fibre). Such mixtures are designed to reduce noise pollution from roads in densely-populated areas. The test surface is expected to cut noise levels by at least 3dB in comparison with reference asphalt surfaces. The project will conduct a life-cycle assessment of the LIFE-SOUNDLESS mix and conventional asphalt mixes and draft recommendations for the implementation of European specifications for noise-reducing surfaces in road construction.

Project summary

LIFE SIAMEC (Fundación Centro Gallego de Investigaciones del Agua): The objective of the project is to demonstrate a process for the anaerobic treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater at ambient temperature. It will use dissolved methane in the effluent as a source of carbon for denitrification in both membrane- and non-membrane-based post treatment. The treatment is expected to use half as much energy as conventional activated sludge systems and 30% less energy than conventional systems followed by tertiary treatment. It will also significantly reduce sludge, nitrogen and methane emissions.

Project summary

LIFE SEACAN (CETaqua): The project will show the feasibility of using biofilm-based processes to treat effluents from fish canneries. It will build a pilot wastewater treatment plant at a cannery on the coast of Galicia to test and compare two biofilm systems operating in parallel: a packed bed reactor and a granular sludge reactor. The project will also monitor environmental impact and biodiversity change around the cannery site. Results from the project will be used to produce a good practice manual for wastewater treatment in the fish canning industry.

Project summary

LIFE EFFIDRAIN (CETaqua): The project will demonstrate an integrated real-time control (RTC) strategy for urban drainage networks and waste water treatment systems to minimise the discharge of pollutants into receiving waters. The strategy will be tested in Bordeaux (France) and Badalona (Spain), demonstrating integrated RTC management during a range of rain events. This is expected to lead to a reduction of at least 40% in the total yearly polluting load of receiving waters caused by combined sewer overflows during heavy rain events.

Project summary

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (5 projects – 10.9 million)

LIFE+PINZON (TRAGSA): The objective of the project is to create a sustainable population of a blue chaffinch subspecies (Fringilla teydea polatzeki) that lives only in the pine forests of Gran Canaria. LIFE+PINZON will release captive-bred birds and improve habitat connectivity by planting 80 000 Canarian pines in ecological corridors, with the aim of doubling the population size.

Project summary

LIFE IrekiBAI (Diputación Foral de Gipuzkoa): The project aims to improve the conservation status of protected river habitats and species that are found in the Natura 2000 sites located in the Bidasoa and Oria river basins of Cantabria. It will remove or bypass obstacles in the rivers to improve habitat connectivity.

Project summary

LIFE Anillo Verde (FNYH): The project aims to develop a 'Green Belt' of green and blue infrastructure in the Bay of Santander. To restore estuarine ecosystems and the services they provide it will enhance 95 ha of degraded habitats, remove invasive alien flora and fauna from 150 ha, improve connectivity within and between the bay's nature reserves and raise public awareness of the its natural, cultural and social value.

Project summary

LIFE Olivares Vivos (Sociedad Española de Ornitología): The project aims to define an innovative model of olive growing that has a high demonstration value. The model will be agriculturally, economically and socially viable, as well as contributing to the policy goal of halting the biodiversity loss in the EU by 2020. It will also develop a science-based agrifood certification system linking olive oil production to the recovery of biodiversity.

Project summary

CONVIVE-LIFE (Fundación Instituto de Hidráulica Ambiental de Cantabria): The project aims to integrate human activities into the conservation of estuarine habitats and coastal lagoons in Cantabria. The eradication of the invasive alien species, sea myrtle (Baccharis halimifolia) will enable the restoration of two coastal habitats of community interest to a ‘favourable’ conservation status. Other project actions will focus on restoring the natural hydrology of Cantabria’s coastal lagoons and preventing eutrophication of the aquatic environment, reducing direct pressure on biological diversity. CONVIVE-LIFE will promote sustainable development in estuarine ecosystems with the goal of minimising the effects of productive, educational-cultural and tourist activities and preserving biodiversity.

Project summary

 

SWEDEN (SE) (3 projects – 11.6 million)

LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency (2 projects – 5.8 million)

LIFE-GOODSTREAM (The Rural Economy and Agricultural Society of Halland): The project will take a holistic approach to catchment level agricultural management. This will include the use of drainage filters to reduce nutrient losses from drainage water, manage peak drainage flows from farmland and retain and re-circulate leaching nutrients. Data analysis and mapping will be used to identify suitable sites for the construction of integrated buffer zones, level wetlands and artificial wetlands and an urban storm water pond. This 'blue infrastructure' will reduce phosphorous levels and flood risk. To improve biodiversity, the project will create new ponds for amphibians and bypass a barrier on a stream, enabling salmonid migration.

Project summary

DURAPULP for LIFE (Södra Skogsägarna Ekonomisk förening): The project aims to use airlaid thermoforming processes to manufacture packaging materials from DuraPulp, a patented renewable and biodegradable fibre-based material. A pilot plant will produce and evaluate at least six products for different end uses. The project will also perform a life-cycle assessment of DuraPulp, compared its environmental impact against existing plastic packaging, and verify options for disposal, including incineration, industrial composting and reuse in pulp manufacturing.

Project summary

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (1 project – 5.8 million)

SemiAquaticLife (County Administrative Board of Skåne): The aim of the project is to restore and improve the conservation status of herptiles (reptiles and amphibians) and semi-aquatic insects in 40 Natura 2000 network sites in southern Sweden, Denmark, and Germany. Actions to ensure viable metapopulations of species listed in Annexes II-V of the Habitats Directive will include restoration and creation of wetlands, creation of places to hibernate, restocking of amphibians, removal of invasive aquatic plants and implementation of long-term habitat management through grazing. To transfer its know-how, the project will produce conservation guidelines for the species targeted.

Project summary


UNITED KINGDOM (UK) (7 projects – 33.6 million)

LIFE Environment & Resource Efficiency (2 projects – 5.6 million)

ECAP (Waste and Resources Action Programme - WRAP): The objective of the ECAP project is to divert clothing waste from landfill and incineration, to deliver a more resource-efficient clothing sector with a reduced carbon and water footprint. Using the principles of a proven UK scheme, the project will establish a European Sustainable Clothing Action Plan (ECAP) as a framework to encourage circular business thinking and economic growth.

Project summary

LIFE 2014 CRMRecovery (Waste and Resources Action Programme - WRAP): The objective of the project is to facilitate the recovery of critical raw materials (CRM) from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). It will collect 100 tonnes of WEEE (display and consumer electronics, computers and small household appliances) with the goal of increasing by 5% the recovery rate of the following types of CRM: graphite, cobalt, antimony, tantalum, rare earths, silver, gold and platinum group metals. The project will contribute to a European infrastructure plan for recovery of CRM from WEEE. It will also investigate the potential use of positive price mechanisms to reduce the amount of WEEE shipped to non-OECD countries.

Project summary

LIFE Nature & Biodiversity (4 projects – 26.9 million)

Bure LIFE (Natural England): The main aim of the project is to restore the naturally eutrophic lake habitat of Hoveton Great Broad and Hudson’s Bay in the Broads Natura 2000 network site (Norfolk, England) to a species-rich, clear-water state. The restoration work will consist of minimal carbon footprint project actions that also benefit EU priority habitats, such as calcareous fens with Cladium mariscus and Annex II-listed Habitats Directive species including the otter, wigeon, gadwall and shoveler.

Project summary

MoorLIFE 2020 (Peak District National Park Authority): The aim of the project is to protect the priority habitat ‘active blanket bog’ within the South Pennine moors. Actions will protect the integrity of around 9 500 ha of the target habitat and the ecosystem services it provides. The project will raise water tables, remove invasive species and introduce appropriate plant species to stop erosion of the peat body, reduce wildfire risk and increase habitat resilience. The carbon benefits of the capital works programme will be included in the project's accounting.

Project summary

LIFE14 Roseate Tern (Royal Society for the Protection of Birds): The goal of the project is to improve the conservation prospects of the roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) in the UK and Ireland by enhancing habitat management and reducing threats at three principal colonies. It will also provide the conditions needed for expansion of tern areas and identify long-term options for the management and establishment of tern colonies across north-west Europe, in view of predicted changes to the climate and coastlines. The UK roseate tern population is expected to increase from 73 to at least 100 breeding pairs and the population in Ireland from 1 413 to 1 710 pairs as a result of the project.

Project summary

SciuriousLIFE (Royal Society of Wildlife Trusts): The project aims to develop early warning/rapid response mechanisms to prevent the invasive grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) colonising (or re-colonising) areas of Wales, England and Northern Ireland where populations of the native Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) are found. ScuriousLIFE will also mitigate the impact of grey squirrels on urban woodlands with high biodiversity and tourism value and inform the development of a long-term management framework for the species in the UK.

Project summary

LIFE Environmental Governance & Information (1 project – 1.1 million)

ENPE (Environment Agency): The project aims to create a self-sustaining network of environmental prosecutors to facilitate the sharing of information on waste, wildlife and chemical crimes. It also aims to improve the capacity and consistency for combating transnational environmental crime, fostering a greater culture of cooperation between prosecutors and judges.

Project summary

MEMO/15/6082

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