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Compétitivité de l’industrie des États membres de l’Union: quelques progrès mais encore de nombreux défis à relever

Commission Européenne - MEMO/13/816   25/09/2013

Autres langues disponibles: EN DE ES IT

Commission européenne

MEMO

Bruxelles, le 25 septembre 2013

Compétitivité de l’industrie des États membres de l’Union: quelques progrès mais encore de nombreux défis à relever

Les États membres ont progressé pour ce qui est de l’amélioration de l’environnement des entreprises, des exportations et de la durabilité mais les problèmes restent nombreux. La convergence entre les pays les plus compétitifs et le groupe de pays intermédiaires est au point mort. En outre, les coûts de l’énergie augmentent dans presque tous les États membres, contribuant à la désindustrialisation de l’Europe. Les autres pierres d’achoppement sont l’accès au financement et le recul des investissements dans la quasi-totalité des États membres. Pour que l’industrie européenne puisse renouer avec la prospérité, les performances des administrations publiques doivent être améliorées de façon significative.

Les principaux points à retenir du rapport 2013 sur les performances en matière de compétitivité des États membre et la mise en œuvre de la politique industrielle de l’Union européenne sont les suivants:

Les points positifs:

  • les exportations, principalement à destination du reste du monde, représentent le principal moteur de l’activité industrielle;

  • les résultats en matière d’innovation sont en hausse depuis 2008, mais la convergence semble avoir pris fin en 2012;

  • l’environnement des entreprises s’est amélioré dans la plupart des États membres, mais aussi dans le reste du monde;

  • la plupart des États membres ont rehaussé les compétences de leur main-d’œuvre.

Les points faibles:

  • l’investissement reste obstinément insensible aux mesures adoptées par l’Union européenne depuis le début de la crise;

  • les prix élevés de l’énergie posent un problème majeur pour l’industrie;

  • l’accès au financement s’est détérioré dans de nombreux États membres;

  • pour certains États membres, il est essentiel d’améliorer l’efficacité et l’efficience des administrations publiques pour rétablir la croissance.

Mise en œuvre de la politique industrielle

Le rapport sur la compétitivité constate également les progrès réalisés dans la mise en œuvre de la politique industrielle de l’Union européenne. Conformément à la mise à jour de la communication sur la politique industrielle de 2012, «Une industrie européenne plus forte au service de la croissance et de la relance économique»1, la Commission s’est attachée à établir un large partenariat entre l’Union européenne, ses États membres et l’industrie afin d’accroître l’investissement dans les nouvelles technologies. Pour y parvenir, des groupes de travail ont été créés pour chaque ligne d’action prioritaire recensée dans la communication. Ces groupes de travail élaborent un certain nombre de mesures d’exécution susceptibles de produire des résultats concrets pour chacune des lignes d’action prioritaires à court et à moyen terme.

Des mesures ont été adoptées à l’échelle européenne en vue de faciliter l’accès au financement et aux marchés ainsi que le développement du capital humain et des compétences. Toutefois, deux facteurs principaux compromettent le succès de la mise en œuvre de la politique industrielle de l’Union européenne, à savoir:

  • les obstacles au marché intérieur, l’assainissement budgétaire, le désendettement des banques et la faiblesse de la demande;

  • le faible niveau des investissements, dû en partie aux incertitudes économiques et politiques.

Performances des États membres

Le tableau de bord des performances industrielles, dans sa version actualisée, étudie les résultats des États membres dans cinq domaines clés: innovation et durabilité, environnement des entreprises, services et infrastructures, administrations publiques, financement et investissement ainsi que compétences.

Afin de faciliter l’analyse et la comparaison entre les États membres, le rapport s’est basé sur une analyse typologique des États membres répartissant ceux-ci en trois groupes:

  • les pays aux résultats stables affichent de bons résultats dans tous les domaines de la compétitivité. Il s’agit de l’Allemagne, de l’Autriche, de la Belgique, du Danemark, de l’Espagne2, de la Finlande, de la France, de l’Irlande, du Luxembourg, des Pays-Bas, du Royaume-Uni et de la Suède;

  • les pays aux résultats irréguliers obtiennent de bons résultats dans certains domaines de compétitivité, mais connaissent des difficultés et une évolution négative dans d’autres. Ce groupe comprend Chypre, la Grèce, l’Italie, Malte, le Portugal et la Slovénie;

  • les pays en voie de rattrapage sont confrontés à des difficultés significatives dans de nombreux domaines mais leurs progrès sont rapides. Sont concernés la Bulgarie, la Croatie, l’Estonie, la Hongrie, la Lettonie, la Lituanie, la Pologne, la République tchèque, la Roumanie et la Slovaquie.

Changes in shares of GDP (2000 – 2011), percentage points

Notes: Industry includes manufacturing, energy and mining; Polish data for 2001-2011

Source: IW Köln, EUROSTAT.

1. Les exportations, principalement à destination du reste du monde, sont le moteur de l’activité industrielle

Les efforts d’internationalisation ont donné leurs fruits, à en juger par les excellentes performances à l’exportation de l’industrie européenne. En particulier, les exportations de biens de haute technologie et de services à forte intensité de connaissances témoignent de la transition vers des activités et des emplois à haute valeur ajoutée.

Les pays en voie de rattrapage affichent des performances particulièrement bonnes, les exportations stimulant la croissance. En fait, la majorité de ces économies n’ont cessé d’accroître leur part de marché dans les exportations mondiales depuis 2007. Soulignons également que les pays aux résultats irréguliers ont davantage amélioré leurs performances à l’exportation que les pays aux résultats stables.

Bien que les États membres exportent encore davantage vers les autres pays de l’Union européenne que vers le reste du monde, les échanges intra-européens progressent plus lentement. En fait, les données indiquent que les pays les plus touchés par la crise jouent un rôle de plus en plus réduit en tant que fournisseurs du noyau économique de l’Union. Dès lors, le marché intérieur de l’Union perd de son importance dans les chaînes d’approvisionnement.

Commerce extérieur et intérieur de l’Union

Source: EUROSTAT, CPB World Trade Monitor

2. Les performances en matière d’innovation ont progressé depuis 2008, mais la convergence semble avoir pris fin en 2012

La grande majorité des États membre ont amélioré leurs performances en matière d’innovation depuis 2008, mais les résultats relatifs sont variables d’un pays à l’autre.

Tous les pays aux résultats stables enregistrent une amélioration de leurs performances en matière d’innovation entre 2008 et 2012, mais ce sont les pays en voie de rattrapage qui affichent la croissance la plus forte au cours de cette période, avec en particulier l’Estonie qui enregistre une croissance significative. Il existe toutefois des exceptions notables à cet égard, comme la Pologne et la Bulgarie, et surtout la Roumanie dont les performances en matière d’innovation se sont même détériorées. Parmi les pays aux résultats irréguliers, Malte et la Grèce connaissent une dégradation similaire.

Étant donné que certains États membres les moins innovants n’arrivent pas à suivre les plus innovants, les écarts dans les performances d’innovation ont commencé à se creuser au sein de l’Union, ce qui marque peut-être la fin de la convergence des États membres dans les performances en matière d’innovation.

Tableau de bord européen de l’innovation (0= pire performance possible / 1 = meilleure performance possible)

Source: Tableau de bord européen de l’innovation 2013

Remarque: UE = moyenne UE27; l’échelle de 0 à 1 résulte des performances des États membres de l’UE, ainsi que des pays suivants: TR, IS, NO, CH, RS et MK.

3. L’environnement des entreprises s’améliore dans la plupart des États membres, mais aussi dans le reste du monde

L’environnement des entreprises s’est légèrement amélioré dans l’ensemble de l’Union durant la période 2007-2012 mais à un rythme moins rapide que chez de nombreux concurrents. Un grand nombre d’États membres disposant d’un environnement relativement bon ont cessé de progresser, certains ont même reculé dans les classements. Mais il est toujours possible d’améliorer la situation, même quand celle-ci est déjà favorable, comme le montrent les exemples de l’Allemagne, de la Belgique, du Royaume-Uni et de la Suède.

Environnement des entreprises (0= le moins attrayant; 1 = le plus attrayant; en 2012)

Remarque: UE = moyenne non pondérée; pas de données disponibles pour HR et MT - DB 2008

Source: Calculs de la Commission basés sur les données du rapport «Doing Business» de la Banque Mondiale

4. La plupart des États membres ont rehaussé le niveau de compétences de leur main-d’œuvre

L’ensemble des États membres répondent de mieux en mieux aux exigences du marché, la plupart d’entre eux ayant renforcé la base de compétences de leur main-d’œuvre. Dans la plupart des pays aux résultats stables, l’industrie manufacturière occupe davantage de travailleurs qualifiés qu’en 2006. D’autre part, les pays aux résultats irréguliers et ceux en voie de rattrapage restent en dessous de la moyenne européenne même si ces derniers progressent depuis 2006.

Pourcentage de personnes occupées dans l’industrie manufacturière possédant des qualifications élevées

Source: Eurostat

5. L’investissement reste obstinément insensible aux mesures adoptées par l’Union européenne depuis le début de la crise

Le redressement économique nécessite une reprise des investissements. Les investissements européens ont chuté de plus de trois points de pourcentage du PIB de l’UE, passant de 21,1 % en 2007 à 18 % en 2012. La raison principale de ce recul réside dans l’effondrement des investissements dans la construction, ceux visant les biens d’équipement, les produits métalliques et les machines étant restés relativement solides durant la crise. Jusqu’à présent, les investissements restent insensibles aux mesures adoptées dans l’Union. Il est très difficile de savoir quand ils reprendront, mais les coûts et les incertitudes ont été identifiés comme les principaux freins.

Évolution des composantes de l’investissement au sein de l’UE (2005=100)

Source: Eurostat

6. Les prix élevés de l’énergie posent un problème majeur à l’industrie

Les prix comparativement élevés de l’énergie par rapport au reste du monde font partie des facteurs de désindustrialisation. Étant donné que les États membres s’appuient sur diverses combinaisons de combustibles et différentes infrastructures, les prix de l’électricité pour les consommateurs industriels varient fortement au sein de l’Union européenne: la plupart des pays aux résultats stables proposent des prix en dessous de la moyenne; une majorité de pays aux résultats irréguliers a connu des augmentations substantielles des prix de l’électricité depuis 2007, notamment Chypre, l’Italie et Malte; dans la quasi-totalité des économies en voie de rattrapage, les moyennes entreprises bénéficient de prix de l’électricité inférieurs à la moyenne.

Prix de l’électricité pour les moyennes entreprises (hors TVA)

Remarque: les données se réfèrent aux prix de la seconde moitié de l’année, taxes comprises sauf la TVA, exprimés en euros/KWh pour les consommateurs industriels

(500 MWh < consommation < 2 000 MWh); IT (2e semestre 2008 au lieu de 2007),

Source: Eurostat

7. L’accès au financement s’est détérioré dans de nombreux États membres

La crise a continué de produire des effets négatifs sur l’accès au financement dans de nombreux États membres. Le resserrement des conditions de crédit et le désendettement constant des banques ont diminué l’offre de crédit. Les différentiels de taux d’intérêts se sont accrus entre les pays, ainsi qu’entre les petites et les grandes entreprises, ce qui a particulièrement aggravé la situation dans les pays en crise. Cependant, la demande de nouveaux prêts a également chuté, de nombreuses entreprises ayant préféré reporter leurs investissements.

Tandis que l’accès au financement bancaire était relativement aisé et stable en Autriche, en Bulgarie, en Finlande, en Pologne, en Slovaquie et en Suède, il a continué de se dégrader dans d’autres pays, notamment en Espagne, en Grèce, en Irlande, en Italie, au Portugal et en Slovénie.

Évolution des prêts bancaires aux institutions non financières

Remarque: Flux annuels cumulés de prêts bancaires aux institutions non financières de mars (t) à février (t+2) en % de l’encours des volumes en mars (t)

Données manquantes pour le Danemark et le Royaume-Uni; données de 2007 manquantes pour la Roumanie et l’Estonie; les données disponibles pour les prêts dans les États membres ne faisant pas partie de la zone euro sont limitées (relatives uniquement à la zone nationale ou à la zone de référence).

Source: BCE - «Monetary Financial Institutions Balance Sheet Items Statistics»

8. Pour certains États membres, augmenter l’efficacité des administrations publiques est essentiel pour rétablir la croissance

Il s’avère que l’inefficacité de l’administration publique dans certains États membres constitue un obstacle à la croissance et à la compétitivité. Bien que les États membres réforment peu à peu leurs administrations publiques et leur système judiciaire dans les domaines visés dans les recommandations par pays du Semestre européen, un rythme plus soutenu serait souhaitable.

Les grands domaines visés par les réformes des administrations publiques sont l’allègement de la charge administrative pour les entreprises, le renforcement des capacités de planification stratégique et budgétaire, une gestion des ressources humaines stratégique et efficace et une meilleure coordination entre les différents niveaux de l’administration.

Graphique: Efficacité des pouvoirs publics

Remarque: Le niveau de l’UE pour 2010 est le même que pour 2011.

Source: Banque mondiale – Indicateurs mondiaux de la gouvernance (2010; 2011).

9. Il est nécessaire d’investir pour augmenter la productivité

Dans la grande majorité des États membres, la productivité de la main-d’œuvre dans le secteur manufacturier a progressé depuis 2007. Cependant, dans un grand nombre d’entre eux, cette amélioration reflète le fait que la main-d’œuvre totale a diminué plus rapidement que la production manufacturière n’a reculé. La baisse des investissements dans les biens d’équipement et l’innovation risquent de compromettre les progrès dans de nombreux États membres.

Labour productivity in manufacturing

Note: expressed as gross value added, in 1000 PPS/employee, RO (2011), no data for HR and BG. Source: Eurostat

Member State analysis

Austria

Austrian competitiveness is based on solid performance in many areas, and in the short run it has no major bottlenecks. However, it faces relative structural weaknesses in some areas, which may harm the long-term potential of its economy.

The skills available in Austria's workforce are currently not fully utilised (e.g. women, workers with migrant background). Measures that increase the quantity and quality of the workforce and that optimise its utilisation are important. The need for action to support the knowledge triangle (education, research and innovation) has been recognised by the government and a strategy to address this challenge is being implemented.

The generally favourable business environment would, however, benefit from more streamlined administrative procedures for start-ups, and from an increased availability of non-bank financing.

Belgium

Belgium presents a competitiveness profile that reflects in many ways the average position of Western Europe. The relatively good competitive position of Belgium has eroded in recent years. Firstly, while in terms of productivity levels Belgium belongs to the top EU countries, in terms of productivity growth performance is weak. Secondly, Belgian exports are mainly composed of low/medium-tech goods, facing fiercer competition from lower-cost countries. In such a context, a key challenge for Belgium is finding ways to speed up the transition towards a more knowledge-intensive economy, and to implement further initiatives at the federal and regional levels in order to simplify and streamline administrative procedures.

Bulgaria

Despite the relative progress of Bulgaria between 2007-2011, it is still characterised by low productivity and dominance of low-tech and medium-low tech industries. The transition from a resource based to an innovation based economy is a challenge. However, high and medium-high technology firms produce 29% of the total value added and employ 21% of the labour force in manufacturing. Higher productivity should also be pursued in the services sectors, including tourism.

Some of the main issues that need to be tackled by Bulgaria are the structural labour market mismatches and substantial lack of graduates with engineering and technical skills. Moreover, Bulgaria is the most energy intensive and CO2 intensive Member States. Energy sector reform and strategic targeting of energy and resource efficiency, along with improvements in household energy intensity, are essential to economic development, competitiveness and political stability.

Investment in infrastructure could unlock wider growth and investment, particularly in railways and ports, but also in multimodal hubs, as these would allow Bulgaria to exploit its geographical location at the crossroads of the EU, the Balkans and Turkey.

On the positive side, a national strategy for SMEs 2014-2020 has gone through public consultation, indicating that the Bulgarian authorities are grasping the problem. Further trends in improving business environment is confirmed by recent measures taken to lower starting capital requirement; introducing e-government services to facilitate tax compliance; enabling tax payments using a single account and internet banking; and lowering bank charges. It is easier to start a business than last year, as both the time needed and the costs have fallen.

Croatia

Croatia continues to suffer from recession - its economy has not grown since 2008, contracting in 2012 by 2% and in 2013 by 1%. Access to finance for businesses, especially SMEs, remains constrained. FDI has fallen by 75% from 2008 levels. Exports were also hard hit, especially given that the EU is the destination for 63% of Croatia's exports.

On the other hand, Croatia's accession to the EU has been a major driver of reform. A number of reforms have aimed at improving the business environment, including the introduction of simplified schemes of company registration, major reforms to the judiciary, as well the formation of a Working Group whose aim is the removal of administrative barriers towards investment. Policy strategies are being developed, such as the National Innovation Strategy outlining 12 industrial sectors that are to become innovation priorities.

Competitiveness is still hindered by a number of factors, such as low innovation expenditure and a weak innovation infrastructure, constrained access to finance, an inefficient public administration and high levels of business corruption. One positive area is sustainability. Croatia is more energy efficient than the EU average. The use of renewable energy is high, mainly thanks to the use of hydroelectric power, and Croatia has adopted an ambitious target of increasing its electricity generation from renewable sources to 35% by 2020.

Cyprus

The role of manufacturing in Cyprus is less important than the EU average, measuring 6.1 % of value added against 15.4 % in the EU as a whole. It also employs slightly over 10 % of the total workforce, the lowest rate in the EU (EU average 17.5 %).

The financial crisis that hit Cyprus has revealed the risks of an economic model heavily dependent on financial services. The introduction of the economic adjustment programme in April 2013, which involves the downsizing and restructuring of the banking sector, will have an effect on day-to-day business transactions and could threaten the viability of many firms and further reduce confidence.

Still, there is now an opportunity to restructure and modernise the economy along more sustainable lines, in sectors that suit Cyprus’ infrastructure and human capital. The structural measures and reforms of the economic adjustment programme will support competitiveness and underpin sustainable and balanced growth in the long term.

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic is currently passing through a difficult economic scenario with growth contracting in 2012 and with further stagnation expected in 2013. The Czech Republic falls within the catching-up cluster of Member States. Manufacturing plays an important role in the Czech economy, accounting for approximately one-fourth of the value added, significantly higher than the EU average. Exports have been performing well with the annual growth rates being higher than the OECD and Eurozone averages.

Some of the major challenges facing the Czech Republic concern issues pertaining to public administration, such as an effective implementation of the anti-corruption strategy and a robust public servants act. Sustainable industry, improved transport infrastructure and improving the quality of education and skills are also areas where there are significant challenges which need to be overcome to enhance competitiveness.

On the other hand, it is encouraging to note that a venture capital is being set up by the government which is an important move forward given the lack of such instruments in the past. There is keen interest in this by enterprise and thus such finance is likely to be taken up rapidly.

Denmark

Denmark is a small and wealthy open economy, ranked among the most competitive in Europe. The wider prospects for the EU economy will clearly influence this scenario.

The highly skilled workforce, strong research and innovation capacity, flexible labour rules and high-quality infrastructure are among the Danish economy’s strong points. Further improvements in the links between research and businesses could help investment in research and innovation to be more effective, while improved credit conditions should help innovative SMEs to invest.

The continuous attention on improving competitions conditions by dedicated policies could also be helpful to improve Denmark’s competitiveness, which is also influenced by the wage growth. Although wage growth was too strong in the boom years, it has slowed down and is not too far off a sustainable level. The need to improve competitiveness and productivity have been the topics of considerable debate in Denmark, and the government set up a productivity committee to identify the major drivers and the main barriers. The productivity committee outcomes are being delivered during 2013.

Estonia

Economic growth in Estonia has slowed down recently after an impressive export-led recovery from the crisis, even though it still outpaces the EU average thanks to stronger domestic demand. Manufacturing in particular seems in good health, also in qualitative terms, as the share of medium- to high-tech products is increasing. This positive trend is likely to be strengthened in the future by the substantial surge of the research and development expenditure.

Significant efforts are still needed to reduce the high energy intensity of the economy, which is due not only to the reliance on shale oil, but also to the low energy efficiency of residential buildings and businesses. Also high on the agenda are the skill shortages that constitute one of the mayor bottlenecks to grow and move up the value–added chain.

The administrative and regulatory burden on Estonian businesses is reasonable, and public administration is efficient, thanks in particular to the widespread use of well-developed e-government tools; however, the efficiency of local governments can be further improved. Estonian companies reduced their need for capital in reaction to the crisis and are thus able to cope with a still restricted access to finance, which however limits their capacity to invest and grow.

Finland

Finland continues to be among the most competitive Member States, but there are underlying problems that need to be addressed to preserve and enhance its position. The decline in the telecommunications and forestry industries means that productive resources should gradually move to other goods and services, in particular to those that have high added value. The speed and success of this transition is a crucial factor in determining the future competitiveness of Finland.

Although Finland provides a good environment for businesses, there are not enough innovative high-growth firms. The limited international exposure of the Finnish research and innovation system is likely to be one reason, and further efforts to create global links and exposure would be helpful. Also smaller Finnish firms need to enter into new markets and increase their exports, but for this many of them need managers and investors that have the experience and skills to support growth and internationalisation.

Further challenges facing Finland include the need to increase competition in retail trade and in some services markets, as well as to improve the energy and materials efficiency of Finnish industries that remain more energy-intensive than the EU average.

Lastly, in a global environment where many countries are rapidly reducing the administrative burden on business, no country can afford to stand still. Despite a relatively good starting point, Finland has potential to further reduce this burden, in particular as progress so far has been limited.

France

Although productivity levels in France remain high, the competitiveness gap vis-à-vis the best EU performers is widening, driven by both cost and non-cost factors, in the context of a deteriorating external position and high public debt. To restore competitiveness, the government has adopted in November 2012 a Pact for Growth, Competitiveness and Employment aimed at lowering taxes and business costs, facilitating access to finance, supporting innovation, and ensuring a simpler and a more stable regulatory, administrative and tax environment. In April 2013, a set of ten enterprise-friendly measures were announced following the "Assises de l’entrepreneuriat", most of which will take effect in 2014.

While the measures announced would represent steps in the right direction, the final impact depends on how effective this implementation is, and how well the measures are coordinated, with a view to avoid overlaps and further complexity, and to maximise synergies. Further steps would consist in supplementing these reforms with measures removing the structural weaknesses that slow down productivity growth and hamper the profitability of firms (in particular labour market rigidities, regulatory burden, complex taxation and limited competition).

Germany

Overall, Germany continues to be among the top performers in many of the competitiveness indicators of the Industrial Performance Scoreboard. The manufacturing sector remains one of the key drivers of value added and employment. Firms benefit greatly from a favourable and stable business environment, a strong competitive position, and the global reach of Germany’s external trade. While the regulatory environment is generally good, there is still room for improvement and SMEs in particular would benefit from further simplification.

Despite the currently favourable conditions, industry faces important challenges in securing its competitiveness in the medium and long term. In particular, demographic challenges may act as a brake on growth and innovation in the future. Moreover, the declining number of entrepreneurs could have an increasingly negative impact over time. At the global level, Germany is in danger of losing ground as emerging markets are catching up in its traditional areas of competence. In order to remain at the technological frontier and to secure its competitive position in the future, continued investments in education, R&D and innovation are essential. Lastly, the new energy strategy is creating growth opportunities for many sectors, but is also presenting considerable challenges in terms of energy costs and timely deployment of the required infrastructure.

Greece

Greece has started the process of transformation, from an economy based on consumption to one with a bigger focus on investments and exports. Exports have already increased over recent years but, as a result of the recession and the credit crunch, investment is still disappointing.

The regulatory environment has constrained businesses and entrepreneurship, and these, combined with the lack of competition, have led to lacklustre productivity and competitiveness. However, steps are being taken to tackle many of the structural barriers and regulatory failings. Encouragingly, many efforts are starting to show results, and the ranking of Greece in the World Bank’s ‘Doing Business’ indicators has improved. Further significant measures have been taken to ease the creation of companies, and to simplify licensing procedures and investment authorisations.

The difficult economic conditions, continuing uncertainty, and in particular the credit crunch, continue to make conducting business difficult, in particular for SMEs. Economic growth is one of the top priorities of the government, and in this context, reforming the public administration remains central in terms of securing the capacity and competence to implement newly adopted legislation and to improve the business environment. A dynamic corporate sector is crucial to re-starting the economy and achieving growth.

Hungary

Despite the economic crisis, Hungary’s export performance continues to be a main driver of the economy, especially in the transport vehicle and high tech sectors. In other areas, the country’s industrial competitiveness faces a series of challenges. Business environment continues to be a major obstacle, as recent reforms have not yet brought about a significant positive impact. Due to the rapidly-changing and unpredictable regulatory framework and government interventions, trust has been eroded. Investments have slowed down, especially among SMEs due to tight credit conditions.

Low level of innovation, labour productivity and skill levels hamper the switch to a knowledge-intensive economy. New initiatives have been launched in these areas; the success of which is vital if growth-oriented innovative enterprises are to emerge.

Timely, effective and consistent implementation of reforms is crucial to improve competitiveness in the long term.

Ireland

Ireland is rebounding from its severe downturn and growth, and albeit slow, is becoming more broad-based. It remains on track to exit the economic adjustment programme at the end of 2013 and economic reforms are delivering improved competitiveness and attracting increased investment. Starting a business is now easier in Ireland than anywhere else in the EU and the surge of services exports, in particular, has contributed to a current-account surplus of 4.9% of GDP.

However, Ireland is tackling major challenges such as insufficient access to finance for SMEs, stubbornly high youth and long-term unemployment, high energy prices and skills mismatches resulting from recent structural changes in the economy. To that effect, Government initiatives such as the ‘Action Plan for Jobs’ need to deliver the right policies and actions to comprehensively and coherently address the key issues. On-going reforms and programmes to, for instance, train and re-skill the workforce and exploit the country’s innovative and green potential are also welcome.

Many of the building blocks are in place for a sustainable economic recovery in Ireland but significant headwinds and burdens remain. It is especially crucial that conditions allow normal credit flows and lending to resume so that indigenous businesses in particular can drive renewed growth, jobs and demand in the domestic economy.

Italy

Although the share of manufacturing in total value added in the economy remains slightly above the EU average, Italy is experiencing a real de-industrialisation, as the industrial production index has lost 20 percentage points since 2007. In terms of average unit labour costs, Italy’s competitiveness has eroded considerably over the last ten years, in particular due to an increase in gross hourly earnings combined with no productivity growth. However, real wages have remained almost stable, suggesting that the focus of reforms should be on productivity and reforming the tax wedge on labour.

Although the government has continued to pursue reforms to improve the business environment and making it more conducive to growth, this remains the main obstacle to the competitiveness of Italian industry. In particular, the public sector needs further coherent structural measures to evolve into a modern and efficient administration.

An important message for policy focus can be found in the performance of firms that have adopted a strategy of innovation and internationalisation. These firms have fared far better in the crisis. It appears that the choice to compete internationally is a key factor leading to innovation. From this point of view, the recent reform of the governance of the internationalisation system can prove a pivotal step for Italian competitiveness.

Latvia

Latvia has seen a fast economic recovery as a result of regained competitiveness driving investments, exports and private consumption. Construction and manufacturing are the fastest growing supply components of GDP. Despite some slowdown, the country’s economic growth is forecast to remain among the highest in the EU, at 3.8% in 2013 and 4.1% in 2014.

One of the main challenges for Latvia is the transition from low to medium and high technology sectors. The transition requires investment in research and innovation, but R&D funding and involvement from industry, and the current R&D intensity, are low.

The costs of starting a business are significantly lower than the EU average and licensing procedures are straightforward. However, for the construction sector obtaining licences and permits is still problematic. The World Bank ranks Latvia among the top performers for ease of getting credit and for the level of legal rights for borrowers and lenders. In this context, an important initiative is the creation of a single institute responsible for all support instruments; a one-stop shop for access to finance should be operational by the end of 2013.

Lithuania

The Lithuanian economy has rebounded quickly from the crisis mainly due to rising exports, helped by an improvement in price competitiveness. Industry is gradually shifting to higher value-added manufacturing and Lithuania is developing expertise in knowledge-intensive services, such as IT support.

Since 2010, the government has been undertaking a far-reaching reform of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). The objective is to restructure corporate governance, increase transparency and enhance competition and efficiency. Most aspects of the reform have been established. The government should continue monitoring progress on the implementation of the adopted resolutions.

The economy still faces competitiveness challenges in several areas. Electricity and gas prices for businesses remain high compared to the EU average and Lithuania is one of the most energy and carbon-intensive economies in the EU. Although the administrative burden for businesses has been reduced, there is still room to streamline business licences and building permits and to reduce the number of inspections by government agencies. Businesses still report a lack of technical and business skills and investment remains weak, particularly in research and development, which is restraining potential growth.

Luxembourg

Among the EU27 countries, Luxembourg still scores well in terms of overall competitiveness. Nevertheless, the cost competitiveness of the economy remains the main medium-long term challenge of Luxembourg, due to high wage increases and low productivity growth. Labour costs are increasing faster than in neighbouring Member States, especially in the manufacturing industry. Financial services have been a prime mover for growth in the past decades and good progress was made towards a more diversified, knowledge-intensive economy. The development of a more focused smart specialisation strategy could give stronger leverage to research and innovation funding, in particular through more support to clusters.

The situation for workers with low skills (in particular migrants and young resident people) remains difficult despite a large number of government and business initiatives. Greater adult participation in lifelong learning is needed to tackle the country’s structural unemployment. Luxembourg continues to face the challenge of achieving the national target for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

Malta

Malta continues to withstand the impact of the international crisis relatively well. Given the large size of its financial sector and the high exposure of domestic banks to the real estate sector, maintaining financial stability remains crucial.

In terms of structural reforms, medium and long-term sustainable growth will depend on the successful move to a more knowledge-based economy, further improving skills and the utilisation of human capital, and adopting more ambitious R&D targets.

Investment plans for improving the energy supply are encouraging as they promise to reduce dependency, improve cost competitiveness and boost efficiency. Policy measures to address the challenges involved in meeting climate and renewable energy targets need to be maintained and stepped up. Efforts to implement the Small Business Act with the support of the business community, a large majority of which are SMEs, should be maintained.

Netherlands

Overall, the Netherlands continues to be among the top performers in many of the competitiveness indicators of the Industrial Performance Scoreboard. The favourable business environment encourages the competitiveness of enterprises and the Netherlands has a tradition of efficient public services and light administrative burden for businesses. Other strengths include the quality of institutions, the education system and science base, the efficient goods market as well as the technological readiness.

Despite the favourable framework conditions, the Netherlands is likely to face challenges in maintaining and improving its competitive position in the future. While the Netherlands has managed to improve its innovation performance in some areas, the relatively low private R&D investments may weaken its competitiveness in the future. Moreover, skills shortages are emerging especially in engineering and technology-related professions, a situation which is becoming an increasing concern and a potential barrier to growth.

Poland

Poland's competitiveness profile is improving, although reform is slow in some areas. Economic growth continues, to which manufacturing exports are a large contribution. The value added of industry is rising, with high-tech manufacturing growing by 14.5% annually in the years 2005-2011. Labour productivity is still low, but it is slowly catching up.

Sustainability and innovation performance remain problem areas. In the area of innovation, greater participation of the private sector in R&D is needed. Reforms were delayed in the area of sustainability – a partial package of renewable energy legislation dating back to 2011 was finally passed in summer 2013 under threat of sanctions for non-enforcement of relevant EU directives. On the other hand, the business environment has seen improvement, in particular in relation to procedures for establishing a firm, where a one-day online procedure for single-ownership SMEs is widely used. The business environment is still hampered by an inefficient tax administration and lengthy procedures for construction licensing and permits. Infrastructure, especially for transport and energy, still needs to be improved.

Access to finance remains a relative strong point for Polish businesses. This can be traced back to financial stability, continuing FDI, a change in the national loan guarantee scheme introducing de minimis rules, as well as new programmes introducing private financing from sources including venture capital for start-ups and innovative enterprises.

Portugal

Portugal is implementing major structural reforms to restore the competitiveness of its economy. The government is rebalancing the economy towards export-led growth by putting exporting companies at the core of its policy initiatives.

Difficult credit conditions remain a major factor constraining the operations and growth of SMEs. The government is trying to ease these credit constraints by strengthening its existing instruments, e.g. state-guaranteed lines of credit, and fostering the use of alternative financing mechanisms.

Portugal has also streamlined its business environment, in particular in the area of licensing, and enhancing competition in services. As a result, starting up a businesses and obtaining the necessary licences is easier than in most Member States.

Lastly, the government has also adopted several measures to raise the quality of research and knowledge creation. However, there is still a significant gap between knowledge creation, knowledge transfer and its translation into economic value through innovation, which partially results from the low share of research-intensive sectors in the economy.

Romania

Romania’s declining competitiveness reflects the fact that major changes to improve the business environment have been postponed. As a result, the administrative burden remains substantial.

Comprehensive and effective efforts to foster structural change towards a more knowledge-intensive economy need to be implemented to improve the situation. An improvement in the business climate requires solutions and changes across the whole public administration. Similarly, considerable efforts would be needed to ensure that Romania is able to implement its commitments aimed at enhancing the independence of the judiciary.

Several national strategies are currently being drafted and efforts are being made to strengthen competitiveness in areas important for growth. However, effective implementation is required for visible and lasting results.

The sustainable and transparent exploitation of raw materials is another challenge for the country, as environmental and health damage will have a negative impact on the medium- and long-term competitiveness.

Slovakia

Based on unit labour costs, Slovak industry is among the most competitive in the ‘catching-up’ Member States. It has benefited from transfers of advanced technology based on foreign direct investment and manufacturing has become more productive in the past decade.

Improving productivity and competitiveness have made the Slovak economy more attractive. Indeed, the multinationals in the Slovak Republic are highly productive. However, the main policy challenge is to boost innovation and knowledge intensity in domestic firms, in particular SMEs. Moreover, challenges in the education and the R&D system limit its longer-term potential, as innovation capacity and the move towards a more knowledge-based economy can only take place relatively slowly.

Improvements in public administration and the judiciary are also important as this would help businesses and the investment climate in general. Further challenges are posed by the high energy intensity and rather high energy prices, in particular for some business segments.

Slovenia

Slovenia has slipped back into recession as its real GDP declined by 2.3 % in 2012. The recession and the associated credit crunch have created a very difficult situation for most SMEs. Financial instruments of the Slovenian Enterprise Fund and of SID bank have worked well but, as the banking system remains fragile and lending constrained, further measures might be needed for lending to SMEs to resume.

In this weak macroeconomic context with falling export market shares and low stock of foreign direct investment, facilitating investment through improving the business environment is crucial. An improved business environment could help in attracting foreign investment and boosting exports. Currently there are bottlenecks that hinder investment, such as long procedures, regulated professions, lengthy judicial proceedings and inefficiencies in insolvency procedures.

Slovenia’s performance in innovation is close to EU average. Slovenia has to preserve its relative performance but in order to do so it has to overcome some specific hurdles like the level of the budget financed investment which decreased significantly. Measures to promote research and innovation are essential in order to move the country to a more knowledge-intensive economy.

Spain

Spain is still undergoing a deep structural adjustment to correct the imbalances built up during the housing and credit booms. Structural reforms need to be completed before their full impact on growth and competitiveness is felt. The government’s reform agenda has focused on two key areas: easing access to finance, and improving the business environment.

The lack of access to finance is a major factor constraining the operations and growth of SMEs. Bank credit for SMEs is relatively costly and difficult to attain, and the interest rate differential is high compared to other Member States. The government has adopted a series of measures to facilitate access to credit, in particular loan guarantees, and to promote alternative financial instruments. But for now there are no signs of substantial improvement.

The legal and regulatory framework for businesses remains very burdensome. The government has adopted various measures to improve the current situation, but progress has been slow and some flagship reforms are not yet adopted, such as the law to support entrepreneurs and their internationalisation.

Sweden

Sweden is one of the most competitive economies in the world, with a strong corporate sector. It ranks fourth in the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2012-13, after Switzerland, Singapore and Finland. According to the 2013 Innovation Union Scoreboard, Sweden continues to be the EU innovation leader. A new Research and Innovation Bill, which was adopted in October 2012, contains priorities for 2013-16 aiming at strengthening the links between R&D investments and economic growth. A challenge for the Swedish innovation system is to ensure that the high R&D expenditure is translated into commercially viable products that yield economic growth in the future. In addition, Sweden needs to safeguard domestic R&D investments as there are signs of increased investment and relocations abroad.

Sweden’s public administration is considered to be efficient and performs well with regard to government effectiveness. The government has put forward a series of initiatives to simplify the administrative burden for businesses, taking into account companies’ day-to-day reality.

The size of the export market has helped the economy to perform well despite the euro-area downturn. However, Sweden’s export market shares are on a negative trend and companies are facing problems arising from weaker demand from traditional export markets. Exports fell by 4 % in 2012 due to weak external demand and the strengthening of the Swedish currency. The uncertain global economic situation has slowed economic growth and required a downward adjustment of the economic growth forecast.

UK

The UK economic performance is uneven, and so is its competitiveness profile. Its service sector is extremely competitive: only the US export more services. On the other hand, its industrial performance is adversely affected by structural problems, such as inadequate infrastructure and shortage of the right skills among the workforce. In this regard, the policy priorities appear to have been targeted correctly. Priority has been given to the infrastructural projects capable of boosting growth, and numerous schemes have been created to provide workers with good vocational or technical skills, but time is needed for their impact to be felt.

British companies operate in a generally business-friendly environment, can rely on an efficient public administration, and have strong links with academia, which makes it easier to commercialise research and innovation. However, smaller companies have a harder time than larger ones. They find it particularly difficult to win public procurement contracts, and struggle much more to have access to finance. Namely, to see a bank loan approved is still difficult for small companies, as support schemes have benefited until now above all larger companies and the real estate sector, while the impact of the growing availability of alternative financial sources is still small.

Lastly, the UK is among the best performers in terms of sustainability, as it is well on track to meet its carbon emission targets and supports sustainable growth with a number of often creative and innovative schemes.

More information: The Competitiveness report on all Member States

Annex: Implementation of 2012 Industrial Policy Communication

In 2012, the Commission identified a series of actions to spur industrial competitiveness. The goal was to make sure that the impact of the reforms initiated by the Commission in 2010 would make themselves felt more quickly. To this end, the Commission focused on establishing a broad partnership between the EU, its Member States and industry to improve the conditions of doing business and to dramatically step up investments in new technologies. The attached table gives an overview of progress achieved.

Theme

Sub-theme

Action

Deliverable

State of play

Facilitating investment in technologies and innovation

Priority action lines

Advanced manufacturing technologies for clean production

Task Force

Task Force adopted Roadmap, priorities include support for market oriented pre-competitive research in manufacturing and process development via Public-Private Partnerships (e.g. “SPIRE”), and exploring stronger incentives for commercialisation. A first public hearing and workshops took place.

Key Enabling Technologies

Task Force

Task Force adopted Roadmap. High-Level Group and a Member States' group established, Commission reviewing recommendations. A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed with the EIB on 27 February 2013. This paves the way for improved access to finance for investments in KETs. Support for multi-KETs pilot lines of high industrial interest in four priority areas. Support for SME innovation capacity through KETs technological platforms.

Bio-based products

Task Force

Task Force adopted Roadmap, priorities include standardisation programme for bio-based products; communication strategy about the availability of standardisation documents, and information to public procurers. An Expert Group for Bio-based Products has been established.

Sustainable industrial policy, construction and raw materials

Task Force

Task Force adopted Roadmap, priorities include screening of national buildings regulations in order to elaborate an interpretative document on requirements for a sustainable use of natural resources, and mapping of skills needs for energy efficiency in building renovation.

Clean vehicles and vessels

Task Force

Task Force adopted Roadmap, priorities include follow-up of the PPP European Green Cars Initiative, which will leverage public funding in order to increase the investment in clean technologies. Development and harmonisation on global type-approval legislation for electric and fuel cells vehicles. Publication of guidelines on financial incentives, for demand-side measures.

Smart grids

Task Force

Task Force adopted Roadmap. Priorities include determining concrete needs of EU technology providers, and actions to promote investment in smart appliances.

Accompanying measures

Promote demand-led innovation

Action plan to boost the demand for innovative goods/services

The Commission will provide support for the completion of targeted market-specific roadmaps starting in 2014 and will launch an innovation demand-side monitoring system (to be finalised in 2016) to spread the knowledge about demand-side innovation policies and to facilitate the streamlining of these policies into EU research and industrial policy.

Skills promotion

Establishment of learning network on workplace innovation

European Workplace Innovation Network launched on 10 April 2013

Coordination of R&I efforts across the EU

Adoption of a set of legislation on Public Private Partnerships and Public-Public Partnerships referred to as the Innovation Investment Package

Set of legislation adopted on 10 July 2013. The inter-institutional process is on-going on those legislations; the process should be completed by the end of the first quarter of 2014.

Wider use of design, as well as other non-technological innovations

Implementation of action plan for accelerating the take-up of design in innovation policy

Building on the recommendations of the European Design Leadership Board, an Action Plan for Design-Driven Innovation is forthcoming. A call for proposals was launched on 2 July 2013 to accelerate the take-up of design in innovation policies at European, national and regional levels and to promote the increased use of design in European industry as well as in the public sector to promote value creation, competitiveness and efficient use of resource.

Creative industries

Implementation of proposals on fashion industries and high-end industries

Implementation of the Communication on Promoting cultural and creative sectors for growth and jobs in the EU – COM(2012)537 – ongoing.

Theme

Sub-theme

Action

Deliverable

State of play

Access to markets

Improving the Internal market for goods

Fitness checks

New generation of “horizontal” fitness checks and cumulative cost assessments for specific industrial sectors

Fitness check for petroleum refining sector: mandate discussed with stakeholders and quantitative assessment launched. Final results in Q3 2014.

Cumulative cost assessments for the steel (already completed) and aluminium sector (to be completed in 2013).

Better functioning of the internal market for products

Evaluation of the functioning and analysis of the Internal Market for industrial products

A public consultation took place. The Commission will prepare a Review of the internal market for industrial products by the end of 2013.

Improve the EU framework for Market surveillance

Adoption of a Product Safety and Market Surveillance Package

Package adopted on 13 February 2013. Includes proposed revision of the General Product Safety Directive and proposal for Regulation on market surveillance of products as well as multi-annual action plan for market surveillance -COM(2013)75, COM(2013) 76, COM(2013)78

Full internal market integration of security and space sectors

Implementation of the actions foreseen in the security industrial policy communication

Communication on space industrial policy adopted on 28 February 2013 – COM(2013)108.

Enhancing the efficiency of the defence market.

Communication on a comprehensive strategy to strengthen Europe's defence sector

Communication on a comprehensive strategy to strengthen Europe's defence sector adopted on 24 July 2013 (COM(2013) 542).

Encourage MS to introduce impact assessments and competitiveness proofing

Exploiting the potential of the 98/34 procedure to help guide EU legislative priorities

Discussions with Member States took place. New elements to be included in the procedure.

Coordination on methodologies for pricing/reimbursement of medicinal products

Launch of policy strategy agenda to strengthen the competitiveness of the pharmaceuticals industry

Possible Action Plan on the competitiveness of the pharmaceutical sector being considered.

Improve the internal market in Business services

High Level Group on Business services

HLG launched on 14 March 2013. Second meeting took place on 18 June. The Group is focusing on innovation, internationalisation, skills, internal market and other regulatory instruments. The final report will be delivered in March 2014.

Theme

Sub-theme

Action

Deliverable

State of play

Access to markets (continued)

Fostering entrepreneurship to render the Internal Market more dynamic

Foster growth of start-ups and provide support for early-stage businesses, transfer of businesses and efficient bankruptcy procedures.

Entrepreneurship action plan

Action plan adopted on 9 January 2013 – COM(2012)795.

Stimulating uptake of digital technologies and e-commerce

Revision of legislation on cross-border online sales

On 23 April 2013, the Commission published a report outlining the state of play on the implementation of the e-commerce action plan 2012-2015. In 2013, the Commission intends to bring forward proposals to remove further obstacles to the Digital Single Market, in particular as regards payments and delivery.

Proposal for a Directive on electronic invoicing in public procurement adopted on 26 June 2013.

Digital Entrepreneurship Monitor started in January 2013.

The European Multi-stakeholder Forum on e-Invoicing will issue reports in October 2013.

Internal Market for technology, the unitary patent and protection of IPR

Creation of a uniform, EU-wide patent protection

European patent with unitary effect

The unitary patent protection regulations were adopted in December 2012 in the framework of enhanced cooperation and will apply from the date of entry into force of the Agreement on a Unified Patent Court. Preparatory measures for the unitary patent are being taken by the participating Member States in the select committee in the framework of the European patent office.

Explore accounting methods to value patents

Expert group conclusions

An expert group for Intellectual Property Valuation will issue a report at the end of 2013.

Optimising the use and protection of trade secrets

Examination of legal framework for trade secrets protection

In July 2013 the Commission published the results of a public consultation on trade secrets as well as a study on the economic and legal aspects of trade secrets in the Internal Market, which includes a survey to more than 500 companies. Both the survey and the consultation show a strong support from the industry for an EU initiative on trade secrets.

The Commission is considering the adoption of an initiative (legislative or non-legislative) in the last quarter of 2013.

Improving incorporation of IPR in standards

Measures increasing transparency and improving the treatment of IPR in standardisation

The Commission has initiated in 2012 a wide-ranging fact finding exercise, aimed at identifying further areas of possible improvement of the current framework governing IPR in standardization. A study has been commissioned and will bring results in late 2013. This work will feed into the independent review of the European standardization system which the Commission will launch by the end of 2013.

Developing the "raw materials diplomacy" / Promoting international regulatory cooperation and convergence

Missions for growth in third countries

Promoting international regulatory cooperation and convergence

Since October 2012, VP Tajani led Missions for Growth to Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Peru, Russia and China, with the signature of letters of intent to reinforce bilateral cooperation and dialogue. Before the end of the year, new missions foreseen to Vietnam/Myanmar/ Thailand and to Israel. Follow-up missions by DG Calleja to Mexico and Colombia.

Support the enforcement of IPR in third countries

SME IPR Helpdesks in ASEAN and Mercosur

ASEAN IPR SME Helpdesk established. Mercosur Helpdesk to be launched before the end of 2013.

Theme

Sub-theme

Action

Deliverable

State of play

Access to finance and capital markets

Public sector support to facilitate access to capital

Facilitate access to EU finance

Launch a single portal providing information on how to access finance from the different EU programmes

Single portal on EU finance launched and expanded in June 2013 to cover Structural Funds.

Improve access to finance for SMEs

New initiatives to restore access to finance for SMEs

In June 2013, the EIB and the Commission presented a joint report to the European Council setting out 3 options to better support SMEs, notably by better combing resources under the 2014-2020 MFF. Also, The EIB, the Commission and the European Central Bank are analysing the best ways of enhancing funding to SMEs and revitalising the securitisation market.

Access to capital markets

Improve financing framework conditions

Green Paper on long-term financing of the economy

Green Paper adopted on 20 March 2013 – COM(2013)150, launching a public consultation. To be followed by a Communication.

Create a Single Market for Venture Capital funds

Review of the operating environment of venture capital markets

Complete the examination of tax obstacles to cross border VC investments

Regulation 345/2013 on European venture capital funds was adopted by the European Parliament and the Council in April 2013 and applies from 22 July 2013.

The public consultation on tax problems linked to cross-border venture capital investment was closed in November 2012. The Commission is considering possible initiatives.

The crucial role of human capital

Job creation

Reform of the network of European employment services

Transforming EURES into a European placement and recruitment tool

Decision to reform and modernise EURES adopted on 26 November 2012 and due to be implemented by 1 January 2014.

Promoting traineeships

Providing a Quality Framework for Traineeships

Communication with second-stage consultation adopted on 5 December 2012. Commission will adopt Quality Framework by the end of 2013.

Investment in skills and training to accompany structural change

Improve the matching of skills and jobs

Develop a European classification of Skills/ Competences, Qualifications and Occupations (ESCO)

Development of multi-stakeholders partnerships in the ICT sector to address the skills shortage in that sector

The Commission is developing ESCO in collaboration with stakeholders, as a semantic asset to support applications on the labour market and in education/training (e.g. tools for competence-based online job matching, career guidance applications). It will become available in October 2013.

EU Skills Panorama launched on December 2012.

Sector Skills Alliances launched in jan. 2013 (covering Automotive industry, Health-care, Sustainable construction, and Tourism).

“Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs” launched by the Commission on 4 March 2013.

The ‘EURAXESS – Researchers in Motion’ jobs portal is further developed to improve the matching of skills and jobs for researchers.

Providing better skills supply

Communication on implementing efficient reforms and effective education and training systems

“Rethinking education” strategy adopted on 20 November 2012 – COM(2012)669.

To improve the quality and supply of apprenticeships in Europe, the European Alliance for Apprenticeships was launched by the Commission on 2 July 2013.

The "Erasmus +" programme, which fosters cross-border vocational training, will be fully operational by January 2014

1 :

COM (2012)582

2 :

L’Espagne est un cas limite: elle a des capacités d’innovation relativement faibles, des conditions de financement difficiles mais affiche de très bons résultats pour ce qui est des autres indicateurs de compétitivité (intensité de l’énergie, parts de marché à l’exportation, qualité des infrastructures, niveau de compétences et productivité de la main-d’œuvre).


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