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European Commission

MEMO

Brussels, 26 March 2013

Comparing the innovation performance of EU Member States

This memo explains the objectives of the Innovation Union Scoreboard and provides an overview of the research and innovation performance of EU Member States and associated and neighbouring countries, as measured by the Innovation Union Scoreboard 2013.

What is the Innovation Union Scoreboard (IUS)?

The annual Innovation Union Scoreboard provides a comparative assessment of the research and innovation performance of the EU27 Member States and the relative strengths and weaknesses of their research and innovation systems. It helps Member States assess areas in which they need to concentrate their efforts in order to boost their innovation performance. In addition, the Scoreboard covers Croatia, Serbia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. On a more limited number of indicators, available internationally, it also covers Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Japan, Russia, South Africa, South Korea and the US.

Every two years the Innovation Union Scoreboard is accompanied by a Regional Innovation Scoreboard. This year, the Commission has also published for the first time a pilot European Public Sector Innovation Scoreboard.

What are the main indicators used for the Innovation Union Scoreboard?

The Innovation Union Scoreboard, following the methodology of the previous edition, captures a total of 24 different indicators (Figure 1 (below) and Table 1 (end of document)), distinguishing between eight innovation dimensions and three main categories of indicators:

Enablers: the basic building blocks which allow innovation to take place - human resources, open, excellent and attractive research systems, and finance and support.

Firm activities: which capture innovation efforts in European firms - firm investments, linkages and entrepreneurship, and intellectual assets.

Outputs: show how this translates into benefits for the economy as a whole - innovators and economic effects.

Figure 1: Framework of the Innovation Union Scoreboard

Main results of the Innovation Union Scoreboard 2013

Who are the innovation leaders in the European Union?

A measure for a country’s innovation performance is provided by the Summary Innovation Index, a composite indicator obtained by an appropriate aggregation of the IUS indicators (see Section 6 of the Scoreboard for a brief explanation of the calculation methodology). Based on the Summary Innovation Index, the Member States fall into the following four country groups (Figure 2):

  1. Innovation leaders: Sweden, Germany, Denmark and Finland, all show a performance well above that of the EU average.

  2. Innovation followers: Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, the UK, Austria, Ireland, France, Slovenia, Cyprus and Estonia all show a performance close to that of the EU average.

  3. Moderate innovators: The performance of Italy, Spain, Portugal, Czech Republic, Greece, Slovakia, Hungary, Malta and Lithuania is below that of the EU average.

  4. Modest innovators: The performance of Poland, Latvia, Romania and Bulgaria is well below that of the EU average.

Figure 2 European Countries’ innovation performance

The overall ranking remains relatively stable, with Sweden confirming its innovation leadership. However, several upward and downward movements took place within the performance groups. For example, the Netherlands became the top innovation follower. Bulgaria is now at the bottom of the ranking, having been outpaced by Latvia, last year's poorest performer. Two Member States changed their performance group: Lithuania advanced to the moderate innovators and Poland moved down becoming a modest innovator. It should be noted, however, that in both cases the change in performance group was due to marginal changes in their innovation performance.

Have Member States improved their innovation performance?

The EU is increasing its innovation performance at an annual average rate of 1.6% over the 2008-2013 period, with Estonia being the unquestionable innovation growth leader (7.1%). However the innovation divide between the Member States is widening. The lowest positive innovation growth rates were recorded in Poland (0.4%), Bulgaria (0.6%) and Sweden (0.6%). In Cyprus and Greece innovation performance declined over the 2008-2013 period.

Have Member States made progress since the launch of the Innovation Union flagship initiative?

Since the launch of the Europe 2020 Innovation Union flagship initiative in 2010, most Member States improved their innovation performance, in particular all innovation leaders and innovation followers except the UK. However, only few of the moderate innovators (Italy, Lithuania, Slovakia and Spain) and modest innovators (Latvia) managed to improve their innovation performance since the Innovation Union was launched. In total, the innovation index has worsened in 9 countries: with a slight decline in United Kingdom (-0.2%) and in Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Portugal, Romania, Greece. The most dramatic deteriorations were in Bulgaria (-18.7%) and Malta (-16.0%).

What progress has been made to meeting the Innovation Union goals in 2012?

More than 80% of the actions foreseen in the Innovation Union strategy are on track, as shows the State of the Innovation Union report published today by the European Commission. Progress made in 2012 included:

  1. An agreement on the unitary patent, which should allow the first European patent with unitary effect to be granted and registered in spring 2014;

  2. The adoption of a Regulation creating a "European Venture Capital Fund" label for investment funds which will make it easier for venture capitalists to raise funds across Europe for the benefit of start-ups and SMEs;

  3. The signature of the first Risk-Sharing Instrument agreements to encourage banks to provide more loans to innovative SMEs and small midcaps;

  4. The proposal of a new standardisation package and further steps to modernise EU public procurement law with the aim of helping innovative products and services reach the market faster;

  5. The launch of a pilot programme, the ERA Chairs initiative, to help universities or research institutions in less developed regions in Europe to attract outstanding academics to places that want to be on the international map for top research;

  6. The proposal of four additional European Innovation Partnerships (EIPs) to pool resources around key societal challenges (Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability, Raw Materials, Water, Smart Cities and Communities) and;

  7. The launch of a multi-dimensional and international ranking of higher education institutions.

The State of the Innovation Union report is accompanied by updated research and innovation country profiles for each of the EU Member States plus Croatia and other countries associated to the EU's research funding programme.

Is the innovation performance of Member States converging?

The growth in innovation performance has been calculated for each country and for the EU27 using data over a five-year period. The results for this year show that the process of convergence in innovation performance within the EU has come to a halt: less innovative countries as a group are no longer catching-up with the most innovative countries. In general, the innovation leaders and followers managed to increase their innovation growth rates over the crisis period 2008-2012 while growth rates plummeted in the groups of moderate and modest innovators. This indicates an emerging a trend of divergence in which the leading innovators are becoming even stronger while moderate and modest innovators fail to catch up. (Figure 3)

Figure 3: Growth in innovation performance 2008-2012

What have been the key drivers of and obstacles to innovation activity in Europe?

While SMEs and commercialisation of innovation have driven the innovation growth, business and venture capital investments have dropped the most (Figure 4)

Figure 4: EU27 growth performance (individual indicators)

When looking at individual indicators, the EU innovation performance was driven most by Innovating SMEs collaborating with others. Other key drivers of innovation performance were License and patent revenues from abroad as well as Community trademarks. Open, excellent and attractive research systems were another driver, notably due to growth in Non-EU doctorate students and International scientific publications.

The economic crisis has its harshest impact on Non R&D innovation expenditures, followed by Venture capital investments. The finance and support to innovation was cushioned by R&D expenditures in the public sector which increased at an annual average rate of 3.2%. In general, a performance decline or lack of progress was observed from indicators that are affected by short-term decisions, while performance continued to improve with indicators that reflect decisions taken a longer period ago.

How does the EU fare in comparison to its international partners?

Taking into account other European countries, Switzerland confirms its position as the overall innovation leader, continuously outperforming all EU27 countries. Iceland is one of the innovation followers, Croatia, Norway and Serbia are moderate innovators and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey are modest innovators.

Comparing the EU with a selected group of major global competitors, this year's IUS again confirms that the US, Japan and South Korea have a performance lead over the EU27. South Korea joined the US as the most innovative countries. The South Korean lead over the EU has been increasing, but the EU27 has been able to close almost half of the gap with the US and Japan since 2008. The global innovation leaders US, Japan and South Korea particularly dominate the EU in indicators capturing business activity as measured by R&D expenditures in the business sector, Public-private co-publications and PCT patents but also in educational attainment as measured by the Share of population having completed tertiary education.

The EU27 continues to have a performance lead over Australia, Canada and all BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). This lead has been declining with China, remained stable with the other BRICS countries and has been increasing compared to Australia and Canada.

Figure 5: EU27 Innovation performance compared to main global competitors

What is the situation at the regional level?

Every second year the Innovation Union Scoreboard is accompanied by a Regional Innovation Scoreboard, last published in November 2012 with data from 2011 (MEMO/12/834).

The Regional Innovation Scoreboard 2012 provides a comparative assessment of how European regions perform with regard to innovation. The report covers 190 regions across the European Union, Croatia, Norway and Switzerland.

The Regional Innovation Scoreboard is based on the methodology of the Innovation Union Scoreboard. Like the Innovation Union Scoreboard, the Regional Innovation Scoreboard 2013 classifies European regions into four innovation performance groups. There are 41 regions in the first group of "innovation leaders", 58 regions belong to the second group of "innovation followers", 39 regions are "moderate innovators" and 52 regions are in the fourth group of "modest innovators".

More information about the Regional Innovation Scoreboard 2012: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/innovation/policy/regional-innovation/index_en.htm

What are the main conclusions of the Innovation Union Scoreboard 2013?

The most innovative countries in the EU share a number of strengths in their national research and innovation systems with a key role for business activity and the higher education sector. The business sectors of all innovation leaders perform very well, as measured by Business R&D expenditures and PCT patent applications. The innovation leaders also share a well-developed higher education sector as shown by very high scores in New doctorates graduates, International scientific co-publications and Public-private co-publications with the latter also signalling strong linkages between industry and science.

The overall strong performance of the innovation leaders reflects a balanced national research and innovation system. It indicates that the innovation leaders have the smallest variance in their performance across all innovation dimensions.

Figure 6: Country groups: innovation performance per dimension

Innovation situation per EU Member State

(In alphabetical order according to English version of country name)

Austria is one of the innovation followers with an above average performance.

Relative strengths are in Linkages & entrepreneurship and Intellectual assets. Relative weaknesses are in Finance and support, Firm investments and Economic effects.

High growth is observed for International scientific co-publications and Community trademarks. A strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditures and SMEs introducing marketing or organisational innovations. Growth performance in Open, excellent and attractive research systems, Linkages & entrepreneurship and Intellectual assets are well above average and in Firm investments and Innovators well below average.

Belgium is one of the innovation followers with an above average performance.

Relative strengths are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems, Linkages & entrepreneurship and Innovators. Relative weaknesses are in Finance and support and Intellectual assets.

High growth is observed for Community trademarks. A strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditure. Growth performance in Open, excellent and attractive research systems, Linkages & entrepreneurship and Intellectual assets is well above average and in Firm investments well below average.

Bulgaria is one of the modest innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources, Intellectual assets and Economics effects. Relative weaknesses are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems, Finance and support, Firm investments, Linkages & entrepreneurship and Innovators.

High growth is observed for Community trademarks and R&D expenditure in the business sector. A relatively strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditures and Venture capital investments. Growth performance in Intellectual assets is well above average and in Finance and support and Firm investments well below average.

Cyprus is one of the innovation followers with a close to average performance.

Relative strengths are in Linkages & entrepreneurship. Relative weaknesses are in Finance and support.

High growth is observed for International scientific co-publications and Community designs. A strong decline is observed for PCT patent applications in societal challenges and License and patent revenues from abroad. Growth performance in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Linkages & entrepreneurship is above average and in Innovators well below average.

The Czech Republic is one of the moderate innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources, Innovators and Economic effects. Relative weaknesses are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Intellectual assets.

For populations with a tertiary degree growth has been highest for all Member States and high growth is also observed for Community trademarks. A strong decline is observed for Venture capital investments and Non-R&D innovation expenditure. Growth performance in Human resources, Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Intellectual assets is above average and in Firm investments well below average.

Denmark is one of the innovation leaders with an above average performance.

Relative strengths are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems, Linkages & entrepreneurship and Intellectual assets. Relative weaknesses are in Human resources and Firm investments.

For sales of new-to-market and new-to-firm innovations growth has been highest for all Member States and growth was also high for New doctorate graduates. A relatively strong decline is observed for Community designs. Growth performance in Human resources, Open, excellent and attractive research systems, Linkages & entrepreneurship and Economic effects is well above average and in Innovators well below average.

Estonia is one of the innovation followers with a close to average performance.

Relative strengths are in Finance and support and Firm Investments. Relative weaknesses are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Economic effects.

For R&D expenditures in the business sector, PCT patents and PCT patent applications Estonia experiences the fastest growth in societal challenges and Community designs where growth rates for the first three are the highest among all Member States. A relatively strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditures. Growth performance in Finance and support and Intellectual assets is well above average and in Firm investments and Innovators well below average.

Finland is one of the innovation leaders with an above average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources and Finance and support. Relative weaknesses are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems.

High growth is observed for Community trademarks, Knowledge-intensive services exports and License and patent revenues from abroad. Growth for Knowledge-intensive services was the highest off all Member States. A relatively strong decline is observed for Innovative SMEs collaborating with others SMEs innovating in-house. Growth performance in Intellectual assets and Innovators is well above average and in Firm investments and Linkages & entrepreneurship well below average.

France is one of the innovation followers with an above average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources. Relative weaknesses are in Firm investments.

High growth is observed for New doctorate graduates, Community trademarks and Sales of new to market and new to firm innovations. A relatively strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditures. Growth performance in Economic effects is well above average and in Firm investments well below average.

Germany is one of the innovation leaders with an above average performance.

Relative strengths are in Innovators and Intellectual assets. Relative weaknesses are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems.

High growth is observed for Innovative SMEs collaborating with others, Community trademarks and License and patent revenues from abroad. A strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditure and Sales of new-to-market and new-to-firm innovations. Growth performance in Linkages & entrepreneurship is well above average and in Firm investments well below average.

Greece is one of the moderate innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Innovators. Relative weaknesses are in Finance and support and Intellectual assets.

High growth is observed for Community designs. A relatively strong decline is observed for Venture capital investments and Knowledge-intensive services exports. Growth performance in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Intellectual assets is well above average and in Finance and support and Economic effects well below average.

Hungary is one of the moderate innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources and Economic effects. Relative weaknesses are in Innovators.

High growth is observed for R&D expenditures in the business sector and Community trademarks. Growth in Venture capital investments has been the highest of all Member States. A strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditures. Growth performance in Human resources, Intellectual assets and Economic effects is above average and in Firm investments and Innovators well below average.

Ireland is one of the innovation followers with an above average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources and Economic effects. Relative weaknesses are in Finance and support and Firm investments.

High growth is observed for License and patent revenues from abroad. A strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditures. Growth performance in Firm investments is well below average.

Italy is one of the moderate innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Innovators and Economic effects. Relative weaknesses are in Finance and support and Firm investments.

High growth is observed for Sales of new-to-market and new-to-firm innovations and License and patent revenues from abroad. A strong decline is observed for Venture capital investments and Non-R&D innovation expenditure. Growth performance in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Economic effects is well above average and in Firm investments well below average.

Latvia is one of the modest innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources and Finance and support. Relative weaknesses are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems, Firm investments and Linkages & entrepreneurship.

For Non-EU doctorate students, Community trademarks and SMEs introducing marketing or organisational innovation growth rates for Latvia are the highest among all Member States. High growth is also observed for Community designs. A strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditures. Growth performance in Open, excellent and attractive research systems, Intellectual assets and Innovators is well above average and in Firm investments well below average.

Lithuania is one of the moderate innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources and Finance and support. Relative weaknesses are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Intellectual assets.

For Community designs and Employment in knowledge-intensive activities growth rates are the highest among all Member States. High growth is also observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditures, Community trademarks and License and patent revenues from abroad. A strong decline is observed for Sales of new-to-market and new-to-firm innovations. Growth performance in Firm investments and Intellectual assets is well above average and in Innovators and Economic effects well below average.

Luxembourg is one of the innovation followers with an above average performance.

Relative strengths are in Innovators and Open, excellent and attractive research systems. Relative weaknesses are in Firm investments.

Luxembourg has experienced the highest growth rates for International scientific co-publications and R&D expenditures of all Member States. Also Most cited publications have grown fast. A strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditure. Growth performance in Open, excellent and attractive research systems is well above average and in Firm investments well below average.

Malta is one of the moderate innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Economic effects. Relative weaknesses are in Human resources and Finance and support.

Malta has experienced the fastest growth of all Member States for Most cited publications, Public-private co-publications and SMEs introducing product or process innovations. High growth is also observed for New doctorate graduates. A strong decline is observed for PCT patent applications, Community designs, Sales of new-to-market and new-to-firm innovations and License and patent revenues from abroad. Growth performance in Open, excellent and attractive research systems is well above average and in Firm investments and in Economic effects well below average.

The Netherlands is one of the innovation followers with an above average performance.

Relative strengths are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and for Linkages & entrepreneurship. Relative weaknesses are in Firm investments.

The Netherlands has experienced the fastest growth Non-R&D innovation expenditures and SMEs innovating in-house of all Member States. A strong decline is observed for Knowledge-intensive services exports. Growth performance in Firm investments and Innovators is well above average and in Economic effects below average.

Poland is one of the modest innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources. Relative weaknesses are in Linkages & entrepreneurship and Innovators.

High growth is observed for Public-private co-publications, Community designs and License and patent revenues from abroad. A relatively strong decline is observed for New doctorate graduates and Innovative SMEs collaborating with others. Growth performance in Finance and support, Intellectual assets and Economic effects is well above average and in Human resources, Linkages & entrepreneurship and Innovators well below average.

Portugal is one of the moderate innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Innovators. Relative weaknesses are in Firm investments.

High growth is observed for International scientific co-publications, R&D expenditure in the public sector and Community designs. For Youth with upper secondary level education growth was highest of all Member States. A strong decline is observed for New doctorate graduates, Venture capital investments and Non-R&D innovation expenditures. Growth performance in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Linkages & entrepreneurship is well above average and in Firm investments and Innovators well below average.

Romania is one of the modest innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources and Economic effects. Relative weaknesses are in Linkages & entrepreneurship.

High growth is observed for Community trademarks, Community designs and License and patent revenues from abroad. Growth for License and patent revenues was the highest for all Member States. A strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditures and SMEs innovating in-house. Growth performance in Intellectual assets is well above average and in Firm investments and Innovators well below average.

Slovenia is one of the innovation followers with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources and Linkages & entrepreneurship. Relative weaknesses are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Firm investments.

High growth is observed for R&D expenditures in the business sector, Community trademarks and License and patent revenues from abroad. A strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditure. Growth performance in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Intellectual assets is well above average and in Firm investments well below average.

Slovakia is one of the moderate innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources. Relative weaknesses are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Intellectual assets.

High growth is observed for New doctorate graduates – the highest growth of all Member States -, PCT patents in societal challenges and Community trademarks. A strong decline is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditure and License and patent revenues from abroad. Growth performance in Human resources, Finance and support and Intellectual assets is above average and in Firm investments well below average.

Spain is one of the moderate innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems (in particular international scientific co-publications) and Economic effects (except License and patent revenues from abroad). Relative weaknesses are in Firm investments and Linkages & entrepreneurship.

High growth is observed for International scientific co-publications. The strongest decline is observed for Venture capital investments. Growth performance in Open, excellent and attractive research systems is well above average and in Finance and support and Firm investments well below average.

Sweden is one of the innovation leaders with an above average performance. Relative strengths are in Human resources. Relative weaknesses are in Firm investments and Economic effects.

High growth is observed for Non-EU doctorate students and Community trademarks. A strong decline is observed for Sales of new-to-market and new-to-firm innovations. Growth performance in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Innovators is well above average and in Finance and support and Economic effects well below average.

The United Kingdom is one of the innovation followers with an above average performance. Relative strengths are in Linkages & entrepreneurship. Relative weaknesses are in Innovators.

The highest growth of all Member States is observed for Innovative SMEs collaborating with others. A relatively strong decline is observed for SMEs introducing product or process innovations and Sales of new-to-market and new-to-firm innovations. Growth performance in Linkages & entrepreneurship is well above average and in Economic effects below average.

Non-EU countries

(In alphabetical order according to English version of country name)

Croatia is one of the moderate innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources and Economic effects. Relative weaknesses are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Intellectual assets.

High growth is observed for Non-R&D innovation expenditures, Community trademarks and Knowledge-intensive services exports. A strong decline is observed for PCT patent applications in societal challenges and Community designs. Growth performance in Firm investments is well above average and in Intellectual assets and Innovators below average.

Iceland is one of the innovation followers with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Finance and support. Relative weaknesses are in Human resources and Intellectual assets.

High growth is observed for New doctorate students and Community designs. A strong decline is observed for Community trademarks and Sales of new-to-market and new-to-firm innovations. Growth performance in Human resources is well above average and in Economic effects well below average.

Norway is one of the moderate innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Human resources and Open, excellent and attractive research systems. Relative weaknesses are in Firm investments and Economic effects.

High growth is observed for Community trademarks. A strong decline is observed for Venture capital investments and Community designs. Growth performance in Human resources and Open, excellent and attractive research systems is well above average and in Finance and support, Firm investments and Innovators well below average.

Switzerland is one of the innovation leaders with an above average performance.

Relative strengths are in Open, excellent and attractive research systems, Intellectual assets and Innovators. Relative weaknesses are in Finance and support and Linkages & entrepreneurship.

High growth is observed for Sales of new-to-market and new-to-firm innovations. A relatively strong decline is observed for Venture capital investments, SMEs innovating in-house and Innovative SMEs collaborating with others. Growth performance in Firm investments and Economic effects is well above average and in Finance and support and Linkages & entrepreneurship well below average.

Serbia is one of the moderate innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Finance and support and Innovators. Relative weaknesses are in Intellectual assets.

High growth is observed for R&D expenditure in the public sector, Innovative SMEs collaborating with others, SMEs introducing product or process innovations, SMEs introducing marketing or organisational innovations and License and patent revenues from abroad. A strong decline is observed for R&D expenditures in the business sector and Knowledge-intensive services exports. Growth performance in Finance and support and Innovators is well above average and in Open, excellent and attractive research systems below average.

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is one of the modest innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Innovators and Economic effects. Relative weaknesses are in Finance and support, Linkages & entrepreneurship and Intellectual assets.

High growth is observed for New doctorate graduates and Population aged 30-34 with completed tertiary education. A strong decline is observed for Public-private scientific co-publications. Growth performance in Human resources and Open, excellent and attractive research systems is well above average and in Linkages & entrepreneurship well below average.

Turkey is one of the modest innovators with a below average performance.

Relative strengths are in Innovators and Economic effects. Relative weaknesses are in Human resources and Firm investments. High growth is observed for new doctorate graduates and Community trademarks. A strong decline is observed for Community designs. Growth performance in Human resources, Open, excellent and attractive research systems and Intellectual assets is well above average and in Linkages & entrepreneurship below average.

Table 1: Indicators for the Innovation Union Scoreboard 2013

Main type / innovation dimension / indicator

Data source

Years covered

ENABLERS

Human resources

1.1.1 New doctorate graduates (ISCED 6) per 1000 population aged 25-34

Eurostat

2006 – 2010

1.1.2 Percentage population aged 30-34 having completed tertiary education

Eurostat

2007 – 2011

1.1.3 Percentage youth aged 20-24 having attained at least upper secondary level education

Eurostat

2007 – 2011

Open, excellent and attractive research systems

1.2.1 International scientific co-publications per million population

Science-Metrix (Scopus)

2007 – 2011

1.2.2 Scientific publications among the top 10% most cited publications worldwide as % of total scientific publications of the country

Science-Metrix (Scopus)

2004 – 2008

1.2.3 Non-EU doctorate students1 as a % of all doctorate students

Eurostat

2006 – 2010

Finance and support

1.3.1 R&D expenditure in the public sector as % of GDP

Eurostat

2007 – 2011

1.3.2 Venture capital investment as % of GDP

Eurostat

2007 – 2011

FIRM ACTIVITIES

Firm investments

2.1.1 R&D expenditure in the business sector as % of GDP

Eurostat

2007 – 2011

2.1.2 Non-R&D innovation expenditures as % of turnover

Eurostat

2006, 2008, 2010

Linkages & entrepreneurship

2.2.1 SMEs innovating in-house as % of SMEs

Eurostat

2006, 2008, 2010

2.2.2 Innovative SMEs collaborating with others as % of SMEs

Eurostat

2006, 2008, 2010

2.2.3 Public-private co-publications per million population

CWTS (Thomson Reuters)

2007 – 2011

Intellectual assets

2.3.1 PCT patents applications per billion GDP (in PPS€)

Eurostat

2005 – 2009

2.3.2 PCT patent applications in societal challenges per billion GDP (in PPS€) (environment-related technologies; health)

OECD / Eurostat

2005 – 2009

2.3.3 Community trademarks per billion GDP (in PPS€)

OHIM2 / Eurostat

2007 – 2011

2.3.4 Community designs per billion GDP (in PPS€)

OHIM / Eurostat

2007 – 2011

OUTPUTS

Innovators

3.1.1 SMEs introducing product or process innovations as % of SMEs

Eurostat

2006, 2008, 2010

3.1.2 SMEs introducing marketing or organisational innovations as % of SMEs

Eurostat

2006, 2008, 2010

3.1.3 High-growth innovative firms

N/A

N/A

Economic effects

3.2.1 Employment in knowledge-intensive activities (manufacturing and services) as % of total employment

Eurostat

2007 – 2011

3.2.2 Contribution of medium and high-tech product exports to the trade balance

UN

2007 – 2011

3.2.3 Knowledge-intensive services exports as % total service exports

UN / Eurostat

2006 – 2010

3.2.4 Sales of new to market and new to firm innovations as % of turnover

Eurostat

2006, 2008, 2010

3.2.5 License and patent revenues from abroad as % of GDP

Eurostat

2007 – 2011

1 :

For non-EU countries the indicator measures the share of non-domestic doctoral students.

2 :

Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market


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