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Brussels, 27 May 2011

The Joint Africa-EU Strategy

Towards a strategic partnership between EU and Africa

The first EU-Africa Summit was held in Cairo in 2000. The African Union (AU) was established in 2002, enabling the EU to discuss pan-African issues with an international organization. In December 2005, the European Council adopted a new EU Strategy for Africa, which was the first European political framework to address Africa as a single entity and constituted a platform to improve coordination, coherence and consistency of the EU's policies and instruments towards Africa with those of its Member States.

The Lisbon Summit 2007: The Joint Strategy

80 Heads of State and Government from Africa and Europe adopted the Africa-EU Joint Strategy in Lisbon in December 2007. Both sides agreed to pursue common interests and strategic objectives together, beyond the traditional donor-recipient focus - the two continents started cooperating as equal partners. The Joint Strategy outlines a long-term shared vision of the future of Africa-EU relations in a globalized world. It goes:

  • beyond development cooperation by opening up the EU-Africa dialogue to issues of joint political concern and interest;

  • beyond Africa by moving away from a focus on African matters only and openly addressing global and European issues;

  • beyond fragmentation in supporting Africa’s aspirations to find regional and continental responses to some of the most important challenges;

  • beyond institutions in ensuring a better participation of African and European citizens, as part of an overall strengthening of civil society in the two continents.

Based on this shared vision and on common principles, the Africa-EU Joint Strategy defines eight specific partnerships :

  • Peace and security

  • Democratic governance and human rights

  • Trade, regional integration and infrastructure

  • Millennium development goals (MDGs)

  • Energy

  • Climate change

  • Migration, mobility and employment

  • Science, information society and space

The Tripoli Summit 2010: New impetus

Held under the theme of "Investment, Economic Growth andJob Creation", the 3rd Africa-EU Summit (November 2010) has emphasised the link between stronger economic cooperation and regional integration. It has highlighted the importance of increased private sector engagement in translating political objectives into concrete results. It has also called for increased cooperation in the fields of science and information society to create a more inclusive knowledge-based and globally competitive economy.

Summit Declaration

EU and African leaders at the 3rd EU-Africa Summit adopted a "Political Declaration", taking stock of developments since their last Summit in Lisbon and renewing their commitments towards economic development, peace and security and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015.

The Summit also adopted the second Action Plan (2011-2013) of the Joint Africa-EU Strategy, calling for reinforced cooperation in the eight thematic partnerships (see below) that were defined in the first Action Plan (2008-2010). In particular, the second Action Plan stresses the importance of a more dynamic private sector and states the leaders' readiness to cooperate with stakeholders across Europe and Africa as well as international partners to achieve progress in all areas of cooperation.

EU aid for Africa

Since the adoption of the Joint Africa-EU Strategy for Africa, the EU has created a number of new aid instruments. In 2010, the EU (27 Member States and the European Commission) was once again the largest provider of development aid in the world with more than half of global Official Development Assistance - € 53.8 billion (0.43% of GNI).

In the same year, the European Commission dedicated around 42% of its disbursed aid to Africa (EUR 4.1 billion).

Net disbursements (2010)

Africa, North of Sahara

534 million €

Africa, South of Sahara

3 554 million €


4 089 million €

This aid is made available through various instruments and channels (projects and sector wide approach, budget support, NGOs and multilateral institutions such as the World Bank and United Nations).

The European Commission works with financial instruments with either geographic or thematic coverage.

The European Development Fund (€22.7 billion for 2008-2013), is the main instrument for cooperation with Sub-Saharan African countries. It also covers Caribbean and Pacific countries. The European Development Fund supports the cooperation at national, regional and intra-ACP levels. The national and regional programming for Africa for 2008-2013 amounts to €13.9 billion.

Africa is also covered by the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (for the Mediterranean countries), the geographic part of the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) which applies to South African and by worlwide thematic instruments such as the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) or the thematic programmes of the DCI (Investing in people, Migration and Asylum).

In support of the Joint Africa-EU Strategy and its eight thematic partnerships, the European Commission alone has committed €24.4 billion through its various financial instruments for the period 2007-2013.

EU Trade with Africa

The EU is by far the biggest trading partner for the African continent. In 2009, 36% of total imports to Africa originated in Europe. This compares to 12.7% for China, 6.2% for the USA and 3.2% for India.

In the same year, 37% of exports from Africa went to the EU. The USA were the second most important destination with 16.5%, followed by China (10.6%) and India (4.7%).

The eight thematic partnerships of the Joint Africa-EU Partnership

1. Peace and Security

The objective of this partnership is for Africa and Europe to work together to address global security challenges and improve the worldwide multilateral capacity to respond to crises. At the same time it focuses on the capacity of Africa to take its share in the management of crises and security threats. The partnership pursues two main objectives: a) building the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) and agenda; b) strengthening the dialogue between the EU and the AU on peace and security issues, such as counter-terrorism disarmament, post conflict reconstruction and weapons of mass destruction.

EU Missions in Africa

Within the framework of the Joint EU-Africa Strategy, the EU is committed to supporting African peace missions as part of its African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA). Africa-led peace support operations and capacity building programmes benefiting the African Union and sub-regional organisations are financed through the African Peace Facility.

Currently, the EU is engaged in four missions in Africa:

  • EUSEC RD Congo: The EU Security Sector Reform Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, set up in June 2005, advises the country on security sector reform.

  • EUPOL RD Congo: The EU Police Mission for the DRC was launched in July 2007 and took over from the EUPOL Kinshasa mission, the EU's first police mission in Africa. It supports the reform of the police and its interaction with the justice system.

  • EUNAVFOR Somalia: The EU Naval Force Somalia was set to combat piracy in Somalia.

  • EUTM Somalia: The EU Somalia Training Mission, based in Uganda, was set up in May 2010 to contribute to the training of Somali security forces.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

The primary beneficiaries of the Partnership are the African Union, the various Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and Regional Mechanisms (RMs) in their efforts to improve security and deal with conflicts. Peace in Africa also means a more secure environment for Europe – the consequences of conflicts do not stop at continental borders. Finally, the people of Africa will gain from this partnership: strengthening the capacities for peace and security will also benefit the victims of insecurity such as refugees and internally displaced persons.

What has been achieved so far?

The partnership pursues dialogue, networking and coherence among African and European stakeholders. Because of its financial capacity it can implement an ambitious agenda. The actions taken so far have significantly improved the interaction of sectoral expert groups and created a stronger overall sense of common purpose. Achievements include:

  • Systematic political dialogue between AU and EU on every crisis situation in Africa

  • Continued build-up of the elements of the APSA

  • Increased early warning capacities at the African Union Commission and Regional Economic Communities (RECs)

  • Support to the elaboration of an AU Strategy on Small Arms and Light Weapons, and support to the first pan-African project to fight trafficking of firearms in Africa (see info box)

  • Co-operation on the elaboration of an AU Security Sector Reform/Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration strategy fostering greater links between the African Union and RECs

Example: The African Peace Facility

Through the creation of the African Peace Facility, the EU provides financial support to the efforts of the African Union and other regional organisations to find ‘African solutions to African problems’. Operations financed by the facility are led and staffed by Africans. The peace facility was created in 2004 in response to a request from government leaders of the African Union. It focuses on three key aspects:

  • an enhanced EU-Africa dialogue on challenges to peace and security;

  • the creation of a more efficient African peace and security architecture;

  • a source of predictable funding for African-led peace support operations.

The budget of the facility was €440 million in 2004-2008 and €300 million for 2009-2011. Additional €300 million are about to be made available to finance relevant activities in 2011-2013. The main peace support operations it has funded have been in Somalia, the Central African Republic, Sudan and the Comoros Islands. Important capacity building programmes have also been funded.

Example: Action against small arms and light weapons

Small arms and light weapons (SALW) constitute a key problem for security in Africa. Cheap, easy to operate, mobile and highly lethal, they are the most easily acquired and used weapons in armed conflicts. The first action against trafficking of SALW was launched in early 2010, with EU funding of €3.3 million. The three-year initiative will support peace and security by actively fighting against the proliferation of firearms and explosive materials.

The initiative aims at:

  • Raising awareness among national and regional institutions and civil society about legislative and institutional aspects

  • Creating National Focal Points to develop and implement national action plans

  • Strengthening co-operation between African regional police chiefs' organisations and law-enforcement agencies at different levels

2. Democratic governance and human rights

This partnership promotes democracy, rule of law and human rights in Africa, Europe and globally, by establishing an open and comprehensive dialogue on governance and human rights. Through their dialogue, Africa and Europe try to better define the issues at stake, agree on issues of common concern, improve their influence at the global level and jointly undertake specific initiatives and actions. Cultural cooperation is also part of this partnership, focusing on the protection of cultural goods, including the fight against the trafficking of cultural goods.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

The partnership is beneficial to both the EU and Africa. A democratic environment, where the voice of the people can be heard and the rule of law and human rights are respected benefits all citizens, including the most vulnerable.. Democratic electoral processes give legitimacy to governments and contribute to stability, peace and security.

The African Union (AU) is currently formulating a new Governance Architecture for Africa, with the support of the EU. Together, the two partners are also working on a Human Rights Strategy, to be adopted in July 2011. The aim is to move towards implementing a number of existing international and African legal instruments. One example is the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance which promotes democracy, the rule of law and human rights.

As they develop joint positions, the EU and African States will be able to mutually strengthen each other and make their voice heard in international fora on issues such as non-discrimination, the right to life, the fight against torture, freedom of association, liberty and security, to name just a few.

What has been achieved so far?

Achievements include:

  • On 12 November 2010, the EU-Africa "Platform for dialogue" on governance was launched in Brussels. By creating an open space for key stakeholders, institutions governments and civil society it will contribute to enhancing democratic governance policies and respect for human rights on both continents.

  • The EU is supporting the AU’s Electoral Assistance Fund with €1 million.

  • Better coordination between EU and AU election observation missions in the countries in which they are deployed. Participation of AU observers during elections within the EU (in Germany for the federal elections, in Belgium for the European parliamentary elections, and in Sweden)

  • Two Civil Society Seminars on Human Rights were organised in 2009 and 2010

  • A biannual EU-AU human rights dialogue allows both parties to exchange views and envisage possible cooperation on matters of common interest

  • Joint event on women and conflict organised in the margins of the ministerial week of the UN General Assembly in 2009

  • The European Commission is contributing €2 million to the UNDP-managed Trust Fund to support the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) Secretariat and has provided support to national APRM Structures and the implementation of APRM recommendations. The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) is an instrument to which AU Member States voluntarily accede (currently 33 countries). Its objective is to ensure that policies and practices conform to agreed governance values, codes and standards, with a view to improving political stability, high economic growth etc.

3. Trade, regional integration and infrastructure

This partnership focuses on regional integration as a factor for peace, stability and economic growth. Trade and trans-national infrastructure are inseparably linked to this strategy, helping to build larger and more efficient competitive markets and creating a pro-business environment that attracts domestic and foreign investment. The partnership focuses on regional economic integration, reaching from policy making to implementation, from institutions to best practices and procedures. It spans across a number of priorities, such as trade agreements, trade in goods and services, harmonisation and cooperation regarding sanitary and phyto-sanitary rules. Following agreement in Addis Ababa in June 2010 between the Africa Union Commission and the EU Commission, a specific subject of cooperation relates to raw materials and will cover three areas: i) governance ii) infrastructure /investment and iii) geological knowledge /skills.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

The partnership benefits traders, investors as well as regional and national institutions in Africa and Europe. This in turn brings advantages to the African population at large, by increasing employment and revenues and providing access to more and better goods and services. The European Union stands to benefit from common political positions that the two continents establish, e.g. in international fora. Regional integration that furthers peace, stability and growth also has multiple positive affects for Europe since it is Africa's neighbouring continent.

What has been achieved so far?

Key projects under the first Action Plan (2008-2010) address:

  • sanitary and phyto-sanitary rules which are key for consumers' health and for exporting agricultural and fishery products to European and world markets

  • the removal of technical barriers to trade which hinder exports of industrial products

  • the improvement of the quality of African statistics, as an important condition for defining sound public strategy

European Development Fund national and regional programmes contributed to the grant financing of missing links of the trans-African highway (TAH). The regional orientation of the partnership towards infrastructure tripled the contribution of the national and regional EDF programmes to the trans-African highway corridors, from about €100 million per year from 2002-2007 to approximately €300 million from 2008 onwards.

Example: EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund

The EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund (ITF) responds to the African demand for a more flexible delivery of grants to leverage loans for large-scale infrastructure projects with a regional dimension.

It is a successful example of an integrated EU instrument combining grants from the European Development Fund and EU Member States resources with loans from eligible financing institutions. The ITF is managed by the European Investment Bank on instructions of the Executive Committee Chaired by the European Commission and composed of the donor EU Member States. An overarching Steering Committee is made up of EU and African members. It currently comprises 12 Member States as donors with a total endowment of €392.7 million. The total allocation from the Commission now stands at €308.7 million with the remaining €84 million allocated by the participating EU Member States.

To date, 40 grant operations have been approved. The total project costs amount to over €2.5 billion – each euro of ITF grant funding is expected to generate €12 in total investment.

Examples of supported projects include:

  • hydro-electric schemes (e.g. Felou in West Africa);

  • electricity interconnection schemes (e.g. Benin-Togo; Namibia- Zambia);

  • roads, railways, airports and ports (e.g. Beira, Walvis Bay; Pointe Noire, Port Louis; Jomo ; Kenyatta International Airport, Kenya; Great Eastern Road, Zambia);

  • East African Submarine Cable system (EASSy), a fibre optic cable linking southern and eastern African countries into the international communications network.

4. Millennium development goals

The Millennium Development Goals which relate to the fight against poverty remain at the heart of EU-Africa cooperation. This partnership aims at creating the necessary policy and financial architecture to foster MDG progress. The main actors involved are African and European Governments and Parliaments, the African Union Commission and the European Commission, local authorities, civil society organisations, private actors and researchers.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

The beneficiaries are first and foremost the people of Africa. Over the last decade, encouraging progress has been achieved on certain MDGs, notably in terms of expansion of HIV/AIDS treatment, increases in agricultural productivity, rise in school enrolment and increased gender parity in primary education.

The EU is fully committed to achieving the MDGs. As the world's largest donor as well as the major trading and investment partner for Africa, the EU has contributed, not only through cooperation programmes directly targeting MDG-related sectors, but also through support and policy dialogue in crucial areas for sustainable development such as infrastructure, energy, climate change, private sector development, good governance and public finance management.

Examples of achievements:

MDG 1 – Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Besides humanitarian assistance – emergency aid to respond to disaster or conflict – the Commission provides over €600 million for food security per year. This means giving people both physical and economic access to the basic food they need. Between 2002 and 2009, 24 million people living in extreme poverty benefited from seeds and tools, direct cash transfers and food. Soaring food prices in 2007/8 led to the creation of an EU Food Facility, which made available €1 billion over three years to improve agricultural productivity and food supply in the 50 most affected countries.

MDG 2 - Achieve universal primary education

The European Commission supports education in more than 100 countries worldwide. Since 2004, more than 9 million pupils have been enrolled in primary education thanks to Commission support, and more than 720,000 primary school teachers have been trained.

The Education Enhancement Programme (EEP), set up in 1998, is supporting reforms in basic education in Egypt. Contributing €100 million to the EEP from its launch until 2006, the European Commission has helped build 148 schools and provide 1150 schools with ICT facilities and training. Net enrolment rates have increased by 12% since 1996 – and enrolment of girls has increased in many villages. Pupils are doing better in end of school tests. The Commission also supported the Effective School Project, which has encouraged parents to take a more active role in school life.

MDG 3 – Promote gender equality and empower women

Over the past five years, the Commission has supported the enrolment of around 85,000 female students in secondary education, in 10 countries of Sub- Saharan Africa.

MDG 4 – Reduce child ortality

At the international level, the Commission contributes to health initiatives such as the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation. The latter has through its vaccination programme prevented 5.4 million premature deaths. In the last five years, the Commission has also contributed to immunisations for more than five million children against measles.

MDG 5 – Improve maternal health

Since 2004, Commission support to improve maternal health resulted in more than 10 million consultations on reproductive health and more than 4 million births attended by health personnel. Examples of the Commission's contributions to improve maternal health includes increasing access to maternal and newborn care and emergency obstetric care, training midwives and skilled birth attendants, creating better working conditions for medical staff, and increasing availability and access to contraceptives.

MDG 6 - Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Through its contribution to the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the Commission gave access for 7.7 million people to insecticide treated nets since 2002. It also provided antiretroviral combination therapy to 750,000 people with advanced HIV infection.

MDG 7 – Ensure environmental stability

The Commission's water and sanitation programmes, which help build infrastructure for drinking and waste water systems, and provide basic sanitation and hygiene, amount to almost €400 million per year. Since 2004, this has resulted in more than 31 million people being connected to drinking water and 9 million to sanitation facilities.

MDG 8 – Develop a global partnership for development

The Commission is one of the largest donors in the transport sector worldwide, particularly in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. Since 2004, European Commission grants have helped build and rehabilitate over 7200 km of roads, led to the maintenance of more than 29,000 km of roads, and improved national road management capacities, resulting in reduced transport costs and better mobility for millions of people.

5. Energy

Energy is at the heart of development and an essential prerequisite for economic growth and reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). More generally, meeting growing energy needs will be one of the main challenges of the 21st century. Access to reliable and sustainable energy supplies will be essential both for Africa and Europe. The overall objectives of the Africa-EU Energy Partnership (AEEP) stress dialogue on energy access and energy security and improved access to reliable, secure, affordable, climate friendly and sustainable energy services for both continents. The partnership further focuses on increased energy infrastructure investments, including the promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

In many countries in Africa, less than 10% of rural populations have access to electricity. The majority of African households still depend on traditional methods of wood or charcoal use for cooking, thus suffering from health problems induced by indoor air pollution. Many schools and clinics in rural Africa lack modern energy services.

Renewable energy is emerging as a fundamental requirement for addressing the challenges posed not only by climate change, but also by the need to increase economic growth. There were over 580 million Africans who were without access to electricity in 2008. Only 12% of Africa's hydropower potential is currently exploited, compared with 70% in Europe, and there are many opportunities for solar, wind and geothermal energy.

Africa needs substantial investments in energy infrastructure to sustain its economic development and to reach the MDGs. This can only be achieved by creating conducive and reliable regulatory frameworks for attracting more private investment to the energy sector. The partnership is committed to scaling up investments and to mobilizing private capital. Diversification of energy supplies, with more use of local (often renewable) energy sources, in combination with increased regional power trade, is the main tool to increase energy security, which is crucial for both continents.

What has been achieved so far?

Among the numerous activities conducted in the framework of the Africa-EU Energy Partnership (AEEP), the following initiatives can be mentioned:

The First High Level Meeting of the AEEP (Vienna, September 2010) endorsed the Road Map of the partnership and approved a declaration including political targets to be achieved by 2020 on energy access, energy security, renewable energy and energy efficiency. Africa and the EU will take joint action to bring access to modern and sustainable energy services to at least an additional 100 million Africans by 2020. This will be a contribution to the African objective of giving access to modern and sustainable energy to an additional 250 million people. Further joint action includes:

  • building 10,000 MW of new hydropower facilities

  • building at least 5,000 MW of wind power

  • building 500 MW of solar energy and tripling the capacity of other renewables

  • raising energy efficiency in Africa in all sectors

The ACP-EU Energy Facility

This instrument focuses on local level access to energy services.

The first Energy Facility has co-financed 62 projects – most of them still ongoing - in 34 African countries at a total cost of €400 million, with a contribution from the European Commission of €180 million. For instance, in Mozambique, a project was financed with €1.9 million to provide electricity to 60 rural health centres and 120 medical staff house using solar energy. The ACP-EU energy Facility also funded with almost €10 million a project to improve access to electricity in peri-urban areas in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) member states, benefiting an estimated number of 57 000 households.

The second Energy Facility under its 1st Call for Proposals is already co‑financing 53 projects in Africa at a total cost of €120m with a contribution of €81m from the EU. These projects will start in 2011. Other projects will be co‑financed by 2013.

Example: The Renewable Energy Cooperation Programme

The Africa-EU Renewable Energy Cooperation Programme (RECP) was launched by the European Commission in coordination with the African Union and EU Member States in September 2010 and foresees an initial financial contribution of the EU of € 5 million. The Programme aims at bringing relevant renewable energy technologies to the market in Africa; this is expected to trigger new industrial, trade and business cooperation between Africa and Europe. The Renewable Energy Cooperation Programme will mobilise the European resource base, experience and innovation capacity in order to build expertise and capacity in Africa. Thus, it will contribute to the exploration of Africa’s vast, untapped renewable energy potential and support the development of a new industrial sector in Africa. Both continents stand to benefit from this through increased employment opportunities, energy security and improved energy access.

The RECP will focus on technologies such as: Electricity generation from renewable energy, Renewable energy for cooking, water heating, Renewable fuel production and use, Energy efficient architecture and building design; Integrated systems, smart grids.

Example: The Felou hydropower scheme

One of the joint goals of the Energy partnership is the building 10,000 MW of new hydropower facilities in Africa. The 63 MW Felou hydropower scheme will be harnessing the natural power of the waterfalls on the Senegal river to produce low‑cost, zero-emission hydroelectricity in an area suffering from chronic electricity shortages. Mali, Mauritania and Senegal are set to benefit enormously from this project. Power generated by the Felou project will help meet the three countries' growing demand. It will also provide an alternative to electricity produced by fossil fuel based thermal power stations, which is much more expensive, both in economic and environmental terms. The project is supported through the EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund with almost €10 million.

Example - The Caprivi Link Interconnector

The Caprivi Link Interconnector, which was inaugurated on 12 November 2010, links the electricity distribution grids of Namibia and Zambia, thereby increasing the capacity and stability of the Southern African Power pool. The €300 million project was mostly financed on the Namibian market and partially by loans of €35 million each from three European development finance institutions (AfD, EIB KfW). The project received a €15 million grant in the form of interest subsidies from the EU‑Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund, equally shared between the three European Finance Institutions involved.

The Interconnector has a high relevance for the infrastructure in the region, it is the first project completed under the Trust Fund in Southern Africa, and its financing model has a high potential for replication. The project is particularly important in view of the anticipated energy shortage in the region. It is a major showcase for regional integration, notably with a view to further investments in energy of regional importance foreseen.

6. Climate Change and environment

The African continent is particularly vulnerable to climate change. Food security, sustainable water supply and extreme weather phenomena (floods, drought desertification) are major issues that require an African-EU joint effort. The partnership aims at supporting a continental pan-African approach and response to climate challenges. It is spelled out through concrete flagship initiatives and within the current negotiations for a global and comprehensive post-2012 climate agreement. The two overarching priorities in the 2011-2012 Action Plan of this partnership are:

  • Building a common agenda on climate change policies and cooperation

  • Fighting against land degradation and aridity including the Green wall for the Sahara initiative

  • The partnership has also been renamed in order to better reflect the importance of other environmental issues closely linked to climate change such as biodiversity and forests. New actions in this field will be proposed and implemented

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

The EU-Africa partnership aims at reducing the impact of climate change on African populations and on their environment.

In particular, enhanced sustainable land management should help to increase economic growth and improve livelihoods of African rural populations. Farmers and the most vulnerable populations, with limited access to water and victims of food price volatility, will especially benefit from the partnership work.

What has been achieved so far?

  • Enhanced political dialogue and cooperation predominantly under the EU Global Climate Change Alliance (see example below)

  • Reinforcement of African negotiators' capacities in international climate negotiations.

  • Strengthening African possibilities to better exploit opportunities under the carbon market

  • Water resources management and adaption in the field of agriculture

  • Sustainable land management, fight against desertification and avoiding deforestation

The following concrete deliverables can be highlighted:

The joint EU–Africa declaration on climate change adopted on December 2008 in Addis Ababa has provided concrete opportunities for cooperation and dialogue in relation to the negotiations in the run-up to the Copenhagen conference. This is continuing in the run up to the Cancun Conference (November 2010) and beyond.

Preparation of the implementation phase of the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel Initiative

The initiative will offer cross-border and integrated management of degraded/fragile lands, introduction of drought-resistant plant species of high economic value and creation of water ponds for agricultural production systems. This will be accompanied by other social infrastructure cross-sectoral actions aimed at sustainable management of natural resources.

Example: Support to the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA)

The EU provides significant support to African countries to help them adapt to the consequences and mitigate the risks of climate change. One of the key initiatives is "Support to the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA)", a programme covering all of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as all Caribbean and Pacific countries. €40 million of 10th European Development Fund have been allocated under this initiative to improve political dialogue on climate change, to foster a better exchange of knowledge and experiences in addressing its impacts and to provide concrete financial support for adaptation and mitigation measures. This regards especially water and agriculture sectors, forest degradation, investments to reduce CO2 emissions, disaster risk reduction and other sectors directly linked to human welfare.

€16 million of this programme are specifically earmarked for Africa, to support:

"ClimDev Africa" (in collaboration with the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, UNECA, EUR 8 million), a continental initiative which aims at increasing the climate resilience of Africa's population while addressing the need for improved climate information in Africa and strengthening the use of such information by decision-makers. Under ClimDev the EU is supporting the establishment of the African Climate Policy Centre at the UN-Economic Commission for Africa in Addis and the ClimDev Africa Special Fund to be managed by the African Development Bank. The expected outcome includes improved availability and use of quality climate information and services addressing needs of local, national and regional scale decision makers throughout the continent.

Regional Economic Communities in Africa, have an increasingly significant role to play in shaping and implementing regional policies and interventions relevant for climate adaptation and mitigation. In this spirit the EU is supporting capacity development for climate in two Regional Economic Communities, namely the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA; EUR 4 million) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS, EUR 4 million)). This is done through training measures and provision of climate expertise.

7. Migration, mobility and employment

Migration is a major political issue, both in the EU and in Africa. Where the public and political debate often focuses exclusively on the downsides of migration, there is a need for policy makers in both continents to identify challenges as well as opportunities, notably in connection to employment strategies and realities in Africa and in the EU. The partnership operates on two levels. The first is dialogue.

Topics for discussions include:

  • diasporas, remittances, brain drain, migrant rights, social consequences of migration

  • regular migration, including circular migration, mobility and visa issues

  • irregular migration, trafficking in human beings, smuggling of migrants, readmission, return

  • refugees, asylum and protection

  • job creation, inclusive growth, decent work, social protection, informal and social economy

  • mobility of students and scholars, higher education harmonisation process (such as the Nyerere programme, and Erasmus Mundus)

The second level of the partnership deals with concrete initiatives and actions. Here stakeholders can jointly identify priority actions.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

This partnership aims to bring benefits to people in Africa and the EU with a focus on poor and vulnerable people. It covers inter- and intra-continental migration and all types of migrants (economic, refugees, permanent, temporary, workers, students, scholars, etc).

What has been achieved so far?

The partnership has created a forum for open exchanges in a sensitive and complex policy area. The immediate results are difficult to measure, but the tone and nature of the debate has positively evolved over recent years. Today participants speak to a large extent the same language, and they increasingly share the same analysis.

Concrete projects and actions have been developed in the area of migration, employment as well as higher education (in connection to both mobility and the need to address brain drain). They include:

African Remittances Institute (see example below)

Human Trafficking Initiative. Through this initiative the AU Commission, in partnership with the EU Commission, will assist RECs to develop, implement and monitor regional action plans to fight trafficking in human beings.

Nyerere Programme. This five-year programme, was launched in autumn 2010, and will fund exchanges of initially 250 postgraduate students between participating African universities. It will promote links between ACP universities, to further the process of capacity building.

Pan-African University. The Pan-African University will be launched in 2011 as a network of African universities. Five specialised regional hubs will be established.

Two workshops took place in Nairobi: a Joint EC-AUC Capacity Building Workshop on Social Protection in Africa - Sharing experience on the informal economy on 10-11 March 2011; and An African Higher Education Harmonization and Tuning Validation Workshop on 14-15 March 2011. A seminar with particular focus on the challenges in the informal econom will take place in September 2011. Three seminars / experts meetings are planned for 2011: a first one on the highly topical subject of the Human Rights of Migrants, a second on Trafficking of Human beings, and a third meeting on Female Migrants.

Example: The African Remittances Institute

Remittances constitute the most important source of incoming foreign currency in many developing countries and are therefore a core source for growth and development. The African Remittances Institute aims to strengthen capacities of all actors (African governments, banks, remittance senders and recipients, etc) to better use remittances as development tools for poverty reduction. The total budget is €2.1 million of which up to 1.7 million will be contributed by the EC and the rest by the World Bank. Activities will include, among other things, technical assistance, training, studies and dissemination of data. The preparatory phase project (both technical and consultative) started in 2010 under the leadership of the AU, in close association with the World Bank and the European Commission, and involving also the African Development Bank and the International Organization for Migration.

Example: The ACP Observatory on Migration

The ACP Observatory on Migration is a new body that will provide reliable data and information on migration flows in ACP countries. The Commission and the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries launched this initiative in October 2010 with the objective to design better policies to enhance the migration contribution to development. The Observatory will introduce an innovative approach to enhance research capacities in ACP countries and provide policy makers with the tools to improve their actions. Research will focus on key topics such as, labour migration, migration and health, remittances, brain drain/gain, forced migration and climate change. The Observatory will foster networking and cooperation between research institutions, private researchers and government agencies. The total budget for the project is around € 9.4 million. The European Union contributes with around €8 million financed from the 9th European Development Fund.

8. Science, information society and space

In today's world, scientific research and technology have become key to economic and social growth. Unfortunately, the scientific and digital divides on the African continent are hindering Africa's full participation in today's globalised knowledge society. Activities in this partnership therefore focus on this issue, including a high level political dialogue. Space applications can assist in effectively addressing many of the most pressing challenges facing the African continent such as natural resource management, environmental degradation, food security, monitoring impacts of climate change, healthcare and education.

Examples include:

  • Internet access will be boosted because broadband communication prices will drop drastically

  • New applications specifically dedicated to Africa will emerge

  • Employment will be created in the research, ICT and space sectors

  • R&D will provide crops that are insect- and bacteria resistant so that fewer insecticides need to be used

  • African indigenous plants will be increasingly used in the pharmaceutical sector

  • European citizens will also benefit since medicines developed from African raw materials can and will be used in the North

What has been achieved so far?

The partnership has led to a number of outcomes, including:

  • The 2011-12 African Research Grants scheme

  • The Kwame Nkrumah Science Awards

  • The Framework Programme 7 (FP7) special Africa Call for Africa

  • the African Internet Exchange project (see example below)

  • The GMES (African Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) & Africa process, setting-up an overall framework in Africa for earth observation applications (see example below)

The HIPSSA project (Support for Harmonization of ICT Policies in Sub-Sahara Africa) with 43 beneficiary countries should contribute to a level-playing field for the private sector to enter the telecom market, to lead to better service and lower costs

The extension of the AVICENNA project of which the final objective is to create an online African virtual campus network for Science and Technology (S&T) education

Example: GMES and Africa

A key element of the EU's space-based contribution to African sustainability is provided by the "GMES and Africa" (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) initiative which aims to strengthen space and ground-based infrastructure to allow Earth observation data to be used for environment and resource management, to monitor climate change and to contribute to peace and security in Africa.

Example: Africa-Connect

The EU funds the ACP Connect project, covering sub-Saharan Africa as well as Caribbean and Pacific countries. Under this project, €12 million from the 10th EDF have been granted to support the deployment of regional research and education networks in Africa and their interconnection with the European GEANT network, the pan-European data network connecting the research and education community across 40 countries. The objective is to provide the African scientific community with better access to research and education resources and higher capacity transit to the Internet. More specifically, the project notably focuses on the building and interconnection of "National Research and Education Networks" (NRENs) and the promotion of the use of existing and planned networks to the end-users (students, researchers, doctors).

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