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3rd Africa EU-Summit 29/30 November, Tripoli

Commission Européenne - MEMO/10/604   23/11/2010

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MEMO/10/604

Brussels, 24 November 2010

3rd Africa EU-Summit 29/30 November, Tripoli

The Joint Africa EU Strategy

80 Heads of State and Government from Africa and Europe adopted the Africa-EU Joint Strategy in Lisbon in December 2007. Both sides agreed to pursue common interests and strategic objectives together, beyond the traditional donor-recipient focus - the two continents started cooperating as equal partners. The Joint Strategy outlines a long-term shared vision of the future of Africa-EU relations in a globalized world. It goes

  • beyond development cooperation by opening up the EU-Africa dialogue to issues of joint political concern and interest;

  • beyond Africa by moving away from a focus on African matters only and openly addressing global and European issues;

  • beyond fragmentation in supporting Africa’s aspirations to find regional and continental responses to some of the most important challenges;

  • beyond institutions in ensuring a better participation of African and European citizens, as part of an overall strengthening of civil society in the two continents.

Based on this shared vision and on common principles, the Africa-EU Joint Strategy defines eight specific partnerships :

  • Peace and security

  • Democratic governance and human rights

  • Trade, regional integration and infrastructure

  • Millennium development goals (MDGs)

  • Energy

  • Climate change

  • Migration, mobility and employment

  • Science, information society and space

A partnership centred on people, not on institutions

A series of high-level side-events will take place in the margins of the Summit. African and European representatives of civil society, youth, the private sector, trade unions, researchers and scientists will discuss ways to strengthen the Partnership and to consolidate their active participation. They will provide an additional impetus to the Joint Strategy as a "people-centred partnership" and feed directly into the Summit discussions. (See programme of side events in ANNEX.)

About the Summit:

Held under the theme of "Investment, Economic Growth and job creation", the 3rd EU- Africa Summit will emphasise the link between stronger economic cooperation and regional integration. It will highlight the importance of increased private sector engagement in translating political objectives into concrete results. It will also call for increased cooperation in the fields of science and information society to create a more inclusive knowledge-based and globally competitive economy.

Tripoli Declaration

EU and African leaders at the 3rd EU- Africa Summit will adopt the "Tripoli Declaration", taking stock of developments since their last Summit in Lisbon and renewing their commitments towards economic development, peace and security and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015.

The "Tripoli Declaration" will present the second Action Plan (2011-2013) of the Joint EU-Africa Strategy, calling for reinforced cooperation in the eight thematic partnerships (see below) that were defined in the first Action Plan (2008-2010). In particular, the second Action Plan will stress the importance of a more dynamic private sector and state the leaders' readiness to cooperate with stakeholders across Europe and Africa as well as international partners to achieve progress in all areas of cooperation.

EU and African leaders will also adopt a joint declaration on climate change. They will agree to meet again in 2013 in Brussels.

Joint Declaration on Climate Change

Heads of States and Governments gathering in Libya will also adopt a Joint EU-Africa Declaration on Climate Change, stressing their commitment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, and the importance of concluding negotiations for the post-2012 climate change regime. At the bilateral level, the joint declaration will highlight the importance of swiftly implementing "fast start" finance commitments under the Copenhagen Accord in order to help African countries deal with climate change, acknowledging that adaptation must be given equal weight to mitigation.

EU strategy for Africa

The first EU-Africa Summit was held in Cairo in 2000. The African Union (AU) was established in 2002, enabling the EU to discuss pan-African issues with an international organization. In December 2005, the European Council adopted a new EU Strategy for Africa, which was the first European political framework to address Africa as a single entity and constituted a platform to improve coordination, coherence and consistency of the EU's policies and instruments towards Africa with those of its Member States.

Since the adoption of the EU Strategy for Africa, the EU has created a number of new aid instruments. In 2009, the EU (27 Member States and the European Commission) was once again the largest provider of development aid in the world with more than half of global Official Development Assistance - € 48.2 billion (0.42% of GNI).

In the same year, the European Commission dedicated around 42% of its disbursed aid to Africa (EUR 4.1 billion).

Payments (2009)

North Africa

610 million €

Sub-Saharan

3 501 million €

Total

4 111 million €

This aid is made available through various instruments and channels (projects and sector wide approach, budget support, NGOs and multilateral institutions such as the World Bank and United Nations).

The European Commission works with financial instruments with either geographic or thematic coverage.

The European Development Fund (€22.7 billion for 2008-2013), is the main instrument for cooperation with Sub-Saharan African countries. It also covers Caribbean and Pacific countries. The European Development Fund supports the cooperation at national, regional and intra-ACP levels. The national and regional programming for Africa for 2008-2013 amounts to €13.9 billion.

Africa is also covered by the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (for the Mediterranean countries), the geographic part of the Development Cooperation Instrument (DCI) which applies to South African and by worlwide thematic instruments such as the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) or the thematic programmes of the DCI (Investing in people, Migration and Asylum…).

In support of the Joint Africa-EU Strategy and its eight thematic partnerships, the European Commission alone has committed €24.4 billion through its various financial instruments for the period 2007-2013.

EU Trade with Africa

The EU is by far the biggest trading partner for the African continent. In 2009, 36% of total imports to Africa originated in Europe. This compares to 12.7% for China, 6.2% for the USA and 3.2% for India.

In the same year, 37% of exports from Africa went to the EU. The USA were the second most important destination with 16.5%, followed by China (10.6%) and India (4.7%).

The eight thematic partnerships of the Joint Africa-EU Partnership

1. Peace and Security

Peace and security together with governance and human rights will be high on the agenda and a key focus of the second day of the Summit. Noting that 2010 is the African year of peace and security, leaders will renew their commitment to conflict prevention, reconciliation, justice and post-conflict resolution. In particular, the upcoming referendum in Sudan and the situations in Somalia are expected to be discussed at the Summit, which is held in the run-up to the Peace and Security Council of the African Union on 30 November. A major deliverable for 3rd EU- Africa Summit will be an EU contribution of EUR 1 billion of allocated funds in support of peace and security. The largest share of this has gone into the African Peace Facility, which is the major funds provider for Africa-led peace support operations (see below).

The objective of this partnership is for Africa and Europe to work together to address global security challenges and improve the worldwide multilateral capacity to respond to crises. At the same time it focuses on the capacity of Africa to take its share in the management of crises and security threats. The partnership pursues two main objectives: a) building the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) and agenda; b) strengthening the dialogue between the EU and the AU on peace and security issues, such as counter-terrorism disarmament, post conflict reconstruction and weapons of mass destruction.

EU Missions in Africa

Within the framework of the Joint EU-Africa Strategy, the EU is committed to supporting African peace missions as part of its African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA). Africa-led peace support operations and capacity building programmes benefiting the African Union and sub-regional organisations are financed through the African Peace Facility.

Currently, the EU is engaged in four missions in Africa:

  • EUSEC RD Congo: The EU Security Sector Reform Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, set up in June 2005, advises the country on security sector reform.

  • EUPOL RD Congo: The EU Police Mission for the DRC was launched in July 2007 and took over from the EUPOL Kinshasa mission, the EU's first police mission in Africa. It supports the reform of the police and its interaction with the justice system.

  • EUNAVFOR Somalia: The EU Naval Force Somalia was set to combat piracy in Somalia.

  • EUTM Somalia: The EU Somalia Training Mission, based in Uganda, was set up in May 2010 to contribute to the training of Somali security forces.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

The primary beneficiaries of the Partnership are the African Union, the various Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and Regional Mechanisms (RMs) in their efforts to improve security and deal with conflicts. Peace in Africa also means a more secure environment for Europe – the consequences of conflicts do not stop at continental borders. Finally, the people of Africa will gain from this partnership: strengthening the capacities for peace and security will also benefit the victims of insecurity such as refugees and internally displaced persons.

What has been achieved so far?

The partnership pursues dialogue, networking and coherence among African and European stakeholders. Because of its financial capacity it can implement an ambitious agenda. The actions taken so far have significantly improved the interaction of sectoral expert groups and created a stronger overall sense of common purpose. Achievements include:

  • Systematic political dialogue between AU and EU on every crisis situation in Africa

  • Continued build-up of the elements of the APSA

  • Increased early warning capacities at the African Union Commission and Regional Economic Communities (RECs)

  • Support to the elaboration of an AU Strategy on Small Arms and Light Weapons, and support to the first pan-African project to fight trafficking of firearms in Africa (see info box)

  • Co-operation on the elaboration of an AU Security Sector Reform/Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration strategy fostering greater links between the African Union and RECs

Example: The African Peace Facility

Through the creation of the African Peace Facility, the EU provides financial support to the efforts of the African Union and other regional organisations to find ‘African solutions to African problems’. Operations financed by the facility are led and staffed by Africans. The peace facility was created in 2004 in response to a request from government leaders of the African Union. It focuses on three key aspects:

  • an enhanced EU-Africa dialogue on challenges to peace and security;

  • the creation of a more efficient African peace and security architecture;

  • a source of predictable funding for African-led peace support operations.

The budget of the facility was €440 million in 2004-2008 and €300 million for 2009-2011. The main peace support operations it has funded have been in Somalia, the Central African Republic, Sudan and the Comoros Islands. Important capacity building programmes have also been funded.

Example: Action against small arms and light weapons

Small arms and light weapons (SALW) constitute a key problem for security in Africa. Cheap, easy to operate, mobile and highly lethal, they are the most easily acquired and used weapons in armed conflicts. The first action against trafficking of SALW was launched in early 2010, with EU funding of €3.3 million. The three-year initiative will support peace and security by actively fighting against the proliferation of firearms and explosive materials.

The initiative aims at:

  • Raising awareness among national and regional institutions and civil society about legislative and institutional aspects

  • Creating National Focal Points to develop and implement national action plans

  • Strengthening co-operation between African regional police chiefs' organisations and law-enforcement agencies at different levels

2. Democratic governance and human rights

This partnership promotes democracy, rule of law and human rights in Africa, Europe and globally, by establishing an open and comprehensive dialogue on governance and human rights. Through their dialogue, Africa and Europe try to better define the issues at stake, agree on issues of common concern, improve their influence at the global level and jointly undertake specific initiatives and actions. Cultural cooperation is also part of this partnership, focusing on the protection of cultural goods, including the fight against the trafficking of cultural goods.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

The partnership is beneficial to both the EU and Africa. A democratic environment, where the voice of the people can be heard and the rule of law and human rights are respected benefits all citizens, including the most vulnerable.. Democratic electoral processes give legitimacy to governments and contribute to stability, peace and security.

The African Union (AU) is currently formulating a new Governance Architecture for Africa, with the support of the EU. Together, the two partners are also working on a Human Rights Strategy, to be adopted in early 2011. The aim is to move towards implementing a number of existing international and African legal instruments. One example is the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance which promotes democracy, the rule of law and human rights.

As they develop joint positions, the EU and African States will be able to mutually strengthen each other and make their voice heard in international fora on issues such as non-discrimination, the right to life, the fight against torture, freedom of association, liberty and security, to name just a few.

What has been achieved so far?

Achievements include:

  • On 12 November 2010, the EU-Africa "Platform for dialogue" on governance was launched in Brussels. By creating an open space for key stakeholders, institutions governments and civil society it will contribute to enhancing democratic governance policies and respect for human rights on both continents.

  • The EU is supporting the AU’s Electoral Assistance Fund with €1 million.

  • Better coordination between EU and AU election observation missions in the countries in which they are deployed. Participation of AU observers during elections within the EU (in Germany for the federal elections, in Belgium for the European parliamentary elections, and in Sweden)

  • Two Civil Society Seminars on Human Rights were organised in 2009 and 2010

  • A biannual EU-AU human rights dialogue allows both parties to exchange views and envisage possible cooperation on matters of common interest

  • Joint event on women and conflict organised in the margins of the ministerial week of the UN General Assembly in 2009

  • The European Commission is contributing €2 million to the UNDP-managed Trust Fund to support the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) Secretariat and has provided support to national APRM Structures and the implementation of APRM recommendations. The African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) is an instrument to which AU Member States voluntarily accede (currently 33 countries). Its objective is to ensure that policies and practices conform to agreed governance values, codes and standards, with a view to improving political stability, high economic growth etc.

  • EU Commission-sponsored colloquium on culture and creativity as vectors for development in April 2009, with 38 African ministers participating

  • A travelling exhibition of African art will be launched at the Summit in November 2010

3. Trade, regional integration and infrastructure

This partnership focuses on regional integration as a factor for peace, stability and economic growth. Trade and trans-national infrastructure are inseparably linked to this strategy, helping to build larger and more efficient competitive markets and creating a pro-business environment that attracts domestic and foreign investment. The partnership focuses on regional economic integration, reaching from policy making to implementation, from institutions to best practices and procedures. It spans across a number of priorities, such as trade agreements, trade in goods and services, harmonisation and cooperation regarding sanitary and phyto-sanitary rules. Following agreement in Addis Ababa in June 2010 between the Africa Union Commission and the EU Commission, a specific subject of cooperation relates to raw materials and will cover three areas: i) governance ii) infrastructure /investment and iii) geological knowledge /skills.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

The partnership benefits traders, investors as well as regional and national institutions in Africa and Europe. This in turn brings advantages to the African population at large, by increasing employment and revenues and providing access to more and better goods and services. The European Union stands to benefit from common political positions that the two continents establish, e.g. in international fora. Regional integration that furthers peace, stability and growth also has multiple positive affects for Europe since it is Africa's neighbouring continent.

What has been achieved so far?

Key projects under the first Action Plan (2008-2010) address:

  • sanitary and phyto-sanitary rules which are key for consumers' health and for exporting agricultural and fishery products to European and world markets

  • the removal of technical barriers to trade which hinder exports of industrial products

  • the improvement of the quality of African statistics, as an important condition for defining sound public strategy

European Development Fund national and regional programmes contributed to the grant financing of missing links of the trans-African highway (TAH). The regional orientation of the partnership towards infrastructure tripled the contribution of the national and regional EDF programmes to the trans-African highway corridors, from about €100 million per year from 2002-2007 to approximately €300 million from 2008 onwards.

Example: EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund

The EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund (ITF) responds to the African demand for a more flexible delivery of grants to leverage loans for large-scale infrastructure projects with a regional dimension. It is a successful example of an integrated EU instrument combining grants from the European Development Fund and EU Member States resources with loans from eligible financing institutions.

The ITF is managed by the European Investment Bank and jointly run through a steering committee of EU and African members. It currently comprises 12 Member States as donors with a total endowment of €388.7 million. The total allocation from the Commission now stands at €308.7 million with the remaining €80 million allocated by the participating EU Member States.

To date, 31 grant operations have been approved. The total project costs amount to over €2 billion – each euro of European funding is expected to generate €12 in total investment.

Examples of supported projects include:

  • hydro-electric schemes (e.g. Felou in West Africa);

  • electricity interconnection schemes (e.g. Benin-Togo; Namibia- Zambia);

  • roads, railways, airports and ports (e.g. Beira, Walvis Bay; Pointe Noire, Port Louis; Jomo ; Kenyatta International Airport, Kenya; Great Eastern Road, Zambia);

  • East African Submarine Cable system (EASSy), a fibre optic cable linking southern and eastern African countries into the international communications network.

4. Millennium development goals

The Millennium Development Goals which relate to the fight against poverty remain at the heart of EU-Africa cooperation. This partnership constitutes a platform for intensified continent-to-continent policy dialogue, cooperation and joint action at all levels with a view to achieving the MDGs in all African countries. It has so far concentrated on the education, health and agricultural sectors. It also aims at creating the necessary policy and financial architecture to foster MDG progress. The main actors involved are African and European Governments and Parliaments, the African Union Commission and the European Commission, local authorities, civil society organisations, private actors and researchers.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

The beneficiaries are first and foremost the people of Africa. Over the last decade, encouraging progress has been achieved on certain MDGs, notably in terms of expansion of HIV/AIDS treatment, increases in agricultural productivity, rise in school enrolment and increased gender parity in primary education.

The EU is fully committed to achieving the MDGs. As the world's largest donor as well as the major trading and investment partner for Africa, the EU has contributed, not only through cooperation programmes directly targeting MDG-related sectors, but also through support and policy dialogue in crucial areas for sustainable development such as infrastructure, energy, climate change, private sector development, good governance and public finance management.

Examples of achievements:

MDG 1 – Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Besides humanitarian assistance – emergency aid to respond to disaster or conflict – the Commission provides over €600 million for food security per year. This means giving people both physical and economic access to the basic food they need. Between 2002 and 2009, 24 million people living in extreme poverty benefited from seeds and tools, direct cash transfers and food. Soaring food prices in 2007/8 led to the creation of an EU Food Facility, which made available €1 billion over three years to improve agricultural productivity and food supply in the 50 most affected countries.

MDG 2 - Achieve universal primary education

The European Commission supports education in more than 100 countries worldwide. Since 2004, more than 9 million pupils have been enrolled in primary education thanks to Commission support, and more than 720,000 primary school teachers have been trained.

The Education Enhancement Programme (EEP), set up in 1998, is supporting reforms in basic education in Egypt. Contributing €100 million to the EEP from its launch until 2006, the European Commission has helped build 148 schools and provide 1150 schools with ICT facilities and training. Net enrolment rates have increased by 12% since 1996 – and enrolment of girls has increased in many villages. Pupils are doing better in end of school tests. The Commission also supported the Effective School Project, which has encouraged parents to take a more active role in school life.

MDG 3 – Promote gender equality and empower women

Over the past five years, the Commission has supported the enrolment of around 85,000 female students in secondary education, in 10 countries of Sub- Saharan Africa.

MDG 4 – Reduce child mortality

At the international level, the Commission contributes to health initiatives such as the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation. The latter has through its vaccination programme prevented 5.4 million premature deaths. In the last five years, the Commission has also contributed to immunisations for more than five million children against measles.

MDG 5 – Improve maternal health

Since 2004, Commission support to improve maternal health resulted in more than 10 million consultations on reproductive health and more than 4 million births attended by health personnel. Examples of the Commission's contributions to improve maternal health includes increasing access to maternal and newborn care and emergency obstetric care, training midwives and skilled birth attendants, creating better working conditions for medical staff, and increasing availability and access to contraceptives.

MDG 6 - Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Through its contribution to the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the Commission gave access for 7.7 million people to insecticide treated nets since 2002. It also provided antiretroviral combination therapy to 750,000 people with advanced HIV infection.

MDG 7 – Ensure environmental stability

The Commission's water and sanitation programmes, which help build infrastructure for drinking and waste water systems, and provide basic sanitation and hygiene, amount to almost €400 million per year. Since 2004, this has resulted in more than 31 million people being connected to drinking water and 9 million to sanitation facilities.

MDG 8 – Develop a global partnership for development

The Commission is one of the largest donors in the transport sector worldwide, particularly in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. Since 2004, European Commission grants have helped build and rehabilitate over 7200 km of roads, led to the maintenance of more than 29,000 km of roads, and improved national road management capacities, resulting in reduced transport costs and better mobility for millions of people.

5. Energy

Energy is at the heart of development and an essential prerequisite for economic growth and reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). More generally, meeting growing energy needs will be one of the main challenges of the 21st century. Access to reliable and sustainable energy supplies will be essential both for Africa and Europe. The overall objectives of the Africa-EU Energy Partnership stress dialogue on energy access and energy security and improved access to reliable, secure, affordable, climate friendly and sustainable energy services for both continents. The partnership further focuses on increased energy infrastructure investments, including the promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

In many countries in Africa, less than 10% of rural populations have access to electricity. The majority of African households still depend on traditional methods of wood or charcoal use for cooking, thus suffering from health problems induced by indoor air pollution. Many schools and clinics in rural Africa lack modern energy services.

Renewable energy is emerging as a fundamental requirement for addressing the challenges posed not only by climate change, but also by the need to increase economic growth. There were over 580 million Africans who were without access to electricity in 2008. Only 12% of Africa's hydropower potential is currently exploited, compared with 70% in Europe, and there are many opportunities for solar, wind and geothermal energy.

Africa needs substantial investments in energy infrastructure to sustain its economic development and to reach the MDGs. This can only be achieved by creating conducive and reliable regulatory frameworks for attracting more private investment to the energy sector. The partnership is committed to scaling up investments and to mobilizing private capital. Diversification of energy supplies, with more use of local (often renewable) energy sources, in combination with increased regional power trade, is the main tool to increase energy security, which is crucial for both continents.

What has been achieved so far?

Among the numerous activities conducted in the framework of the AEEP, the following initiatives can be mentioned:

The First High Level Meeting of the AEEP (Vienna, September 2010) endorsed the Road Map of the partnership and approved a declaration including political targets to be achieved by 2020 on energy access, energy security, renewable energy and energy efficiency. Africa and the EU will take joint action to bring access to modern and sustainable energy services to at least an additional 100 million Africans by 2020. This will be a contribution to the African objective of giving access to modern and sustainable energy to an additional 250 million people. Further joint action includes:

  • building 10,000 MW of new hydropower facilities

  • building at least 5,000 MW of wind power

  • building 500 MW of solar energy and tripling the capacity of other renewables

  • raising energy efficiency in Africa in all sectors

The ACP-EU Energy Facility. This instrument focuses on local level access to energy services. The first Energy Facility is currently implementing 62 projects in 34 African countries at a total cost of €400 million, with a contribution from the European Commission of €180 million. For instance, in Mozambique, a project was financed with €1.9 million to provide electricity to 60 rural health centres and 120 medical staff house using solar energy. The ACP-EU energy Facility also funded with almost €10 million a project to improve access to electricity in peri-urban areas in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) member states, benefiting an estimated number of 57 000 households.

The EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund (ITF), an instrument that enables the financing of major infrastructure projects in the African continent through the blending of grants and loans. Eligible projects in transport, water, energy and ICT are aimed at facilitating interconnectivity and regional integration.

Example: The Renewable Energy Cooperation Programme

The Africa-EU Renewable Energy Cooperation Programme (RECP) was launched by the European Commission in coordination with the African Union and EU Member States in September 2010 and foresees an initial financial contribution of the EU of €5 million. The Programme aims at bringing relevant renewable energy technologies to the market in Africa; this is expected to trigger new industrial, trade and business cooperation between Africa and Europe. The Renewable Energy Cooperation Programme will mobilise the European resource base, experience and innovation capacity in order to build expertise and capacity in Africa. Thus, it will contribute to the exploration of Africa’s vast, untapped renewable energy potential and support the development of a new industrial sector in Africa. Both continents stand to benefit from this through increased employment opportunities, energy security and improved energy access.

The RECP will focus on technologies such as: Electricity generation from renewable energy, Renewable energy for cooking, water heating, Renewable fuel production and use, Energy efficient architecture and building design; Integrated systems, smart grids.

Example: The Felou hydropower scheme

One of the joint goals of the Energy partnership is the building 10,000 MW of new hydropower facilities in Africa. The 63 MW Felou hydropower scheme will be harnessing the natural power of the waterfalls on the Senegal river to produce low-cost, zero-emission hydroelectricity in an area suffering from chronic electricity shortages. Mali, Mauritania and Senegal are set to benefit enormously from this project. Power generated by the Felou project will help meet the three countries' growing demand. It will also provide an alternative to electricity produced by fossil fuel based thermal power stations, which is much more expensive, both in economic and environmental terms. The project is supported through the EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund with almost €10 million.

Example - The Caprivi Link Interconnector

The Caprivi Link Interconnector, which was inaugurated on 12 November 2010, links the electricity distribution grids of Namibia and Zambia, thereby increasing the capacity and stability of the Southern African Power pool. The €300 million project is mostly financed on the Namibian market and partially by loans of €35 million each from three European development finance institutions (AfD, EIB KfW). The project receives a €15 million grant in the form of interest subsidies from the EU-Africa Infrastructure Trust Fund, equally shared between the three European Finance Institutions involved.

The Interconnector has a high relevance for the infrastructure in the region, it is the first project completed under the Trust Fund in Southern Africa, and its financing model has a high potential for replication. The project is particularly important in view of the anticipated energy shortage in the region. It is a major showcase for regional integration, notably with a view to further investments in energy of regional importance foreseen.

6. Climate Change

The African continent is particularly vulnerable when it comes to climate change. Food security, sustainable water supply and extreme weather phenomena (floods, drought desertification) are major issues that require an African-EU joint effort. The partnership aims at supporting a continental pan-African approach and response to climate challenges. It is spelled out through concrete flagship initiatives and within the current negotiations for a global and comprehensive post-2012 climate agreement. The two overarching priorities in the 2008-2010 Action Plan of this partnership are:

  • Building a common agenda on climate change policies and cooperation

  • Fighting against land degradation and aridity including the Green wall for the Sahara initiative

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

The EU-Africa partnership aims at reducing the impact of climate change on African populations and on their environment.

In particular, enhanced sustainable land management should help to increase economic growth and improve livelihoods of African rural populations. Farmers and the most vulnerable populations, with limited access to water and victims of food price volatility, will especially benefit from the partnership work.

What has been achieved so far?

  • Progress has been achieved in certain priority areas where Europe and Africa are already working together:

  • Enhanced political dialogue and cooperation predominantly under the EU Global Climate Change Alliance (see example below)

  • Reinforcement of African negotiators' capacities in international climate negotiations.

  • Strengthening African possibilities to better exploit opportunities under the carbon market

  • Water resources management and adaption in the field of agriculture

  • Sustainable land management, fight against desertification and avoiding deforestation

The following concrete deliverables can be highlighted:

The joint EU–Africa declaration on climate change adopted on December 2008 in Addis Ababa has provided concrete opportunities for cooperation and dialogue in relation to the negotiations in the run-up to the Copenhagen conference. This is continuing in the run up to the Cancun Conference (November 2010) and beyond.

Preparation of the implementation phase of the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel Initiative. The initiative will offer cross-border and integrated management of degraded/fragile lands, introduction of drought-resistant plant species of high economic value and creation of water ponds for agricultural production systems. This will be accompanied by other social infrastructure cross-sectoral actions aimed at sustainable management of natural resources .

Example: Support to the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA)

The EU provides significant support to African countries to help them adapt to the consequences and mitigate the risks of climate change. One of the key initiatives is "Support to the Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA)", a programme covering all of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as all Caribbean and Pacific countries. €40 million of 10th European Development Fund have been allocated under this initiative to improve political dialogue on climate change, to foster a better exchange of knowledge and experiences in addressing its impacts and to provide concrete financial support for adaptation and mitigation measures. This regards especially water and agriculture sectors, forest degradation, investments to reduce CO2 emissions, disaster risk reduction and other sectors directly linked to human welfare.

€16 million of this programme are specifically earmarked for Africa, to support:

"ClimDev Africa" (in collaboration with the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, UNECA, EUR 8 million), a continental initiative which aims at increasing the climate resilience of Africa's population while addressing the need for improved climate information in Africa and strengthening the use of such information by decision-makers. Under ClimDev the EU is supporting the establishment of the African Climate Policy Centre at the UN-Economic Commission for Africa in Addis and the ClimDev Africa Special Fund to be managed by the African Development Bank. The expected outcome includes improved availability and use of quality climate information and services addressing needs of local, national and regional scale decision makers throughout the continent.

Regional Economic Communities in Africa, have an increasingly significant role to play in shaping and implementing regional policies and interventions relevant for climate adaptation and mitigation. In this spirit the EU is supporting capacity development for climate in two Regional Economic Communities, namely the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA; EUR 4 million) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS, EUR 4 million)). This is done through training measures and provision of climate expertise.

7. Migration, mobility and employment

Migration is a major political issue, both in the EU and in Africa. Where the public and political debate often focuses exclusively on the downsides of migration, there is a need for policy makers in both continents to identify challenges as well as opportunities, notably in connection to employment strategies and realities in Africa and in the EU. The partnership operates on two levels. The first is dialogue.

Topics for discussions include:

  • diasporas, remittances, brain drain, migrant rights, social consequences of migration

  • regular migration, including circular migration, mobility and visa issues

  • irregular migration, trafficking in human beings, smuggling of migrants, readmission, return

  • refugees, asylum and protection

  • job creation, inclusive growth, decent work, social protection, informal and social economy

  • mobility of students and scholars, higher education harmonisation process (such as the Nyerere programme, and Erasmus Mundus)

The second level of the partnership deals with concrete initiatives and actions. Here stakeholders can jointly identify priority actions.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

This partnership ultimately aims to bring benefits to all migrants in Africa and the EU. It covers inter- and intra-continental migration and all types of migrants (economic, refugees, permanent, temporary, workers, students, scholars, etc).

Most of the benefits will arrive indirectly. The process of political dialogue aims to improve migration-related policies, in the EU and in Africa. Both sides aim to radically reduce human trafficking, to better ensure migrant rights, to strengthen the protection for asylum seekers and refugees, to advance the mobility of students and scholars, etc. Furthermore, specific actions under this partnership will produce immediate and concrete benefits.

What has been achieved so far?

The partnership has created a forum for open exchanges in a sensitive and complex policy area. The immediate results are difficult to measure, but the tone and nature of the debate has positively evolved over recent years. Today participants speak to a large extent the same language, and they increasingly share the same analysis.

Concrete projects and actions have been developed in the area of migration, employment as well as higher education (in connection to both mobility and the need to address brain drain). They include:

  • African Remittances Institute (see example below)

  • Human Trafficking Initiative. Through this initiative the AU Commission, in partnership with the EU Commission, will assist RECs to develop, implement and monitor regional action plans to fight trafficking in human beings.

  • Nyerere Programme. This five-year programme, to be launched in autumn 2010, will fund exchanges of initially 250 postgraduate students between participating African universities. It will promote links between ACP universities, to further the process of capacity building.

  • Pan-African University. The Pan-African University will be launched in 2010 as a network of African universities. Five specialised regional hubs will be established.

Example: The African Remittances Institute

Remittances constitute the most important source of incoming foreign currency in many developing countries and are therefore a core source for growth and development. The African Remittances Institute aims to strengthen capacities of all actors (African governments, banks, remittance senders and recipients, etc) to better use remittances as development tools for poverty reduction. The total budget is €2.1 million of which up to 1.7 million will be contributed by the EC and the rest by the World Bank. Activities will include, among other things, technical assistance, training, studies and dissemination of data. The preparatory phase project (both technical and consultative) started in 2010 under the leadership of the AU, in close association with the World Bank and the European Commission, and involving also the African Development Bank and the International Organization for Migration.

Example: The ACP Observatory on Migration

The ACP Observatory on Migration is a new body that will provide reliable data and information on migration flows in ACP countries. The Commission and the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries launched this initiative in October 2010 with the objective to design better policies to enhance the migration contribution to development. The Observatory will introduce an innovative approach to enhance research capacities in ACP countries and provide policy makers with the tools to improve their actions. Research will focus on key topics such as, labour migration, migration and health, remittances, brain drain/gain, forced migration and climate change. The Observatory will foster networking and cooperation between research institutions, private researchers and government agencies. The total budget for the project is around € 9.4 million. The European Union contributes with around €8 million financed from the 9th European Development Fund.

8. Science, information society and space

In today's world, scientific research and technology have become key factors to economic and social growth. Unfortunately, the scientific and digital divides on the African continent are hindering Africa's full participation in today's globalised knowledge society. Activities in this partnership focus on this issue, including a high level political dialogue and consultation on common positions in international conferences. Space applications can assist in effectively addressing many of the most pressing challenges facing the African continent such as water and food security, monitoring impacts of climate change, healthcare and education.

Who will benefit from the partnership and how?

Many different categories of African citizens will benefit from the partnership.

Examples include:

  • Internet access will be boosted because broadband communication prices will drop drastically

  • New applications specifically dedicated to Africa will emerge

  • Employment will be created in the research, ICT and space sectors

  • R&D will provide crops that are insect- and bacteria resistant so that fewer insecticides need to be used

  • African indigenous plants will be increasingly used in the pharmaceutical sector

  • European citizens will also benefit since medicines developed from African raw materials can and will be used in the North

What has been achieved so far?

The partnership has led to a number of outcomes, including:

  • The African Research Grants scheme

  • The Kwame Nkrumah Science Awards

  • The Framework Programme 7 (FP7) special Africa Call by the European Commission's Research and Development department

  • Africa, the African Internet Exchange project (see example below)

  • The GMES (African Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) & Africa process, setting-up an overall framework in Africa for earth observation applications (see example below)

  • The HIPSSA project (Support for Harmonization of ICT Policies in Sub-Sahara Africa) with 43 beneficiary countries. It should contribute to a level-playing field for the private sector to enter the telecom market, to lead to better service and lower costs

  • The extension of the AVICENNA project of which the final objective is to create an online African virtual campus network for Science and Technology (S&T) education

Example: GMES and Africa

A key element of the EU's space-based contribution to African sustainability is provided by the "GMES and Africa" (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) initiative which aims to strengthen space and ground-based infrastructure to allow Earth observation data to be used for environment and resource management, to monitor climate change and to contribute to peace and security in Africa. The Action Plan for GMES and Africa is being drafted by representatives of the European Commission, EU Member States, the European Space Agency and EUMESTSAT together with their African Union counterparts. The Action Plan should be finalised in 2011 so that services under the GMES and Africa Programme can be better designed to serve African needs.

Example: Africa and EGNOS

The African Union and European Union are cooperating on how to improve satellite navigation in African skies to enhance safety and contribute to Africa's economic development. For this purpose the EU and AU are working together to extend to the whole of the African continent the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS). This system which has been operational in Europe since 2009, could be deployed across Africa from 2014. EGNOS would dramatically improve air and maritime transport safety in Africa. It will bring significant benefits for African sustainability in other areas, notably in agriculture, mining, energy and land management.

Example: AfricaConnect

The EU funds the ACP Connect project, covering sub-Saharan Africa as well as Caribbean and Pacific countries. Under this project, €12 million from the 10th EDF have been granted to support the deployment of regional research and education networks in Africa and their interconnection with the European GEANT network, the pan-European data network connecting the research and education community across 40 countries. The objective is to provide the African scientific community with better access to research and education resources and higher capacity transit to the Internet. More specifically, the project notably focuses on the building and interconnection of "National Research and Education Networks" (NRENs) and the promotion of the use of existing and planned networks to the end-users (students, researchers, doctors).

Related Links:

Website of the Africa-EU Partnership: http://www.africa-eu-partnership.org/

Website of DG Development: http://ec.europa.eu/development/index_en.cfm

Website of EuropeAid (AidCo): http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/index_en.htm

Website of Commissioner for Development Andris Piebalgs:

http://ec.europa.eu/commission_2010-2014/piebalgs/index_en.htm

ANNEX

3rd Africa-EU Summit: Side Events

The EU-Africa Business Forum (EABF)

This event will bring together African and European CEOs and representatives from the private sector. It will focus on the private sector's role notably referring to linking markets, facilitating business activity, the green economy and the role of the private sector in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). A Round Table for Africa bringing together African and European CEOs will more specifically discuss the Africa-EU Strategy and will deliver political messages to the summit. Date & Venue: 26-27-28 November. Tripoli, Libya.

The parliamentary pre-summit

This joint meeting between the Pan-African Parliament and the European Parliament will be an opportunity for parliamentarians to launch a political debate on certain crucial issues (including peace and security, MDGs, food security, human rights and good governance) and shape the upcoming discussions of Heads of State and Government by proposing recommendations for the summit. Date & Venue: 27 November. Tripoli, Libya.

Africa-EU Youth Event

The Youth Event is designed for African and European young people and youth organisations to strengthen their dialogue and co-operation on regional and global issues and to fully participate in the Euro-African strategic partnership. Youth representatives from Europe and Africa are expected to discuss various thematic areas of concern. Date & Venue: 26-27-28 November. Tripoli, Libya.

Urban Exhibition of Contemporary African Artistic Practices – Artists’ residencies – Workshops : Visionary Africa

An urban itinerant multidisciplinary project will travel to different African capitals in 2010 and 2011 marking the 50th anniversary of independence of 22 African countries. This exhibition – jointly organised by the European Commission and BOZAR, the Brussels centre of fine arts with the support of the African Union - includes an itinerant urban exhibition of contemporary African artistic practices, artists’ residencies and workshops. It also aims at raising public awareness regarding the Joint Africa EU Strategy. Date & Venue: 29 November 2010 in Tripoli, Libya. 10-31 January 2011 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 19 February-13 March 2011 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Three other African capitals to be designated.

Conference on higher education

This conference will identify and put forward policy, regulatory and capacity building recommendations for the support of higher education and academic mobility in Africa. On this occasion, the contribution of the EU to the Nyerere programme will be announced. This programme aims to support intra-African mobility. Date & Venue: 23-24 November. Cape Town, South Africa.

High Level Conference on Better Training for Safer Food (BTSF)

The BTSF Conference will report and build on the successes of activities that have aimed at improving the Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary frameworks in Africa, focusing on improving veterinary services, laboratory capacities, food hygiene inspections and authorisation of food establishments. Date & Venue: 18-19 November. Brussels, Belgium.

Post Summit Event

2010 Euro-Africa Week on ICT Research & e-Infrastructures

This event will start with the 3rd Euro-Africa Forum on Information Communication Technology Research and continue with the 1st Euro-Africa Conference on e-Infrastructures. Science and information play an essential role for economic transformation in Africa and enhanced dialogue must be consolidated. Date & Venue: 7-10 December. Helsinki, Finland.


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