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MEMO/07/197

Brussels, 16 May 2007

Circular migration and mobility partnerships between the European Union and third countries

Content of the communication

In December 2006, the European Council invited the Commission to propose ways to integrate legal migration opportunities into the Union's external policies in order to develop a balanced partnership with third countries adapted to specific EU Member States' labour market needs; to suggest ways and means to facilitate circular and temporary migration; and to present detailed proposals on how to better organize and inform about the various forms of legal movement between the EU and third countries. The Communication that was adopted today constitutes the Commission's response to this invitation.

This Communication deals with two main issues.

A. Mobility partnerships

First, it proposes the negotiation of mobility partnerships between the EU and third countries ready to work actively to better manage migration flows, and in particular to fight illegal migration, in partnership with the EU, in exchange for enhanced possibilities of mobility between their countries and the EU for their citizens, in terms of legal migration opportunities and of short term movements (short stay visa issues). The Communication proposes to start rapidly the negotiation of a limited number of pilot partnerships so as to test the feasibility of the concept. Mobility partnerships will require close cooperation between the EC and interested Member States, as some of their components (in particular the opening up of legal migration opportunities for citizens of the relevant third countries) fall within the remit of Member States. Negotiation of any mobility partnership would need to be based on clear political guidelines from the Council, on the basis of a recommendation from the Commission. Mobility partnerships can make a major contribution to joint management of migration flows in a spirit of shared responsibility, in line with the principles of the 'Global Approach to Migration'. The Commission will recommend that exploratory contacts be initiated with a limited number of potentially interested third countries.

Mobility partnerships will be tailored to the specifics of each relevant third country, to the ambitions of the country concerned and of the EU, and to the level of commitments which the third country is ready to take on in terms of action against illegal migration and facilitating reintegration of returnees, including the availability of employment opportunities. Possible components of a mobility partnership will depend on the specific situation. A typical mobility partnership could include:

(1) Commitments expected from the third country concerned, as for instance

  • A commitment effectively to readmit its own nationals and to cooperate fully in identifying them;

• An additional commitment to readmitting, under clearly defined circumstances, third country nationals and stateless persons who arrived in the EU through the territory of the country concerned, where appropriate in the framework of an EC readmission agreement;

• Initiatives to discourage illegal migration through targeted information campaigns;

• Efforts to improve border control and/or management, supported as appropriate by operational cooperation with Member States and/or FRONTEX;

• Efforts to improve the security of travel documents against fraud or forgery, notably by using biometrics and, where relevant, the security of the documents used as a basis for issuing them (e.g. national identification documents);

• A commitment to cooperating and exchanging information with relevant authorities in EU Member States with a view to reducing the security risks linked to international movements of people;

• Specific measures and initiatives seriously to combat migrant smuggling and human trafficking;

• Commitments to promote productive employment and decent work, and more generally to improve the economic and social framework conditions, should also be sought from the third country concerned as they may contribute to reducing the incentives for irregular migration.

Third countries could possibly benefit from specific financial and/or technical assistance provided by the EC and/or participating Member States, for example to facilitate the economic and social reintegration of returning migrants.

(2) Commitments to be given by the EC and Member States participating, including for example:

(a) Improved opportunities for legal migration for nationals of the third country

Mobility partnerships could cover economic migration exclusively or extend to other forms of legal migration such as migration for study or other forms of training. Mechanisms to facilitate economic migration should be based on the labour needs of interested Member States, as assessed by them, and taking into account the principle of Community preference.

• Mobility partnerships could include a consolidated offer by several Member States, on a voluntary basis, to facilitate access to their labour markets to the nationals of the third country in question;

• The mobility partnership could also include a more favourable treatment of the nationals of the country in question as far as the conditions for admission of certain categories of migrants are concerned.

(b) Assistance to help third countries develop their capacity to manage legal migration flows.

Financial and/or technical assistance could be provided by the EC – in particular in the framework of the thematic programme on migration and asylum – and/or Member States participating in a given partnership:

• providing information on the labour market needs of EU Member States, on their values and on the conditions for emigrating there;

• additional efforts to support the mobility of students, researchers, young professionals, volunteers and those involved in youth organisations from the country in question;

• providing pre-departure linguistic or technical training for persons with a concrete employment perspective abroad; and

• job-matching services.

The EC has already acquired certain experience of providing this sort of assistance to third countries and the Commission can envisage to extend it on a more systematic basis to third countries participating in mobility partnerships. The MEDA project to support the Moroccan National Agency for Employment and Skills (ANAPEC) and the Migration Information and Management Centre which the EC is helping to set up in Mali to perform some of the above-mentioned tasks could serve as models for similar initiatives that could form part of mobility partnerships.

(c) Measures to address the risk of brain drain and to promote circular migration or return migration

Mobility partnerships could include, at the request of the third country in question, measures to help address the risk of brain drain. They could also include mechanisms to facilitate circular migration, which by nature can help mitigate brain drain.

(d) Improvement and/or easing of the procedures for issuing short stay visas to nationals of the third country.

Such improvements could be considered at two different levels:

(i) Better organisation of the consular services of EU Member States in the country in question.

• Member States participating in the mobility partnership could give a commitment to the relevant third country to bring about practical improvements in the application procedures such as longer opening hours, a reinforcement of human resources, etc.;

• In parallel, they could also agree to improve consular cooperation locally. Commission Delegations in third countries party to a mobility partnership could play a useful role in fostering such cooperation;

• Member States could also make fuller use of the flexibility in the existing Community acquis (amended common consular instructions), which provides for instance that multiple entry visa valid for a long period (up to five years) can be issued to bona fide persons who need to travel frequently. Member States can also exempt visa applicants from the visa fee in individual cases; etc.;

• Such enhanced cooperation could result in several Member States opening a common visa application centre in a given third country, as envisaged in the Commission proposal to amend the common consular instructions.

(ii) Visa facilitation agreements for specific categories of people

More systematic improvements to the visa issuing procedures can also be offered in the form of visa facilitation agreements for specific categories of people to be negotiated between the EC and a third country willing to engage in a mobility partnership.

B. Circular migration

Second, the Communication looks at how circular migration can be fostered, as a tool that can both help address labor needs in EU Member States and maximize the benefits of migration for countries of origin, including by fostering skills transfers and mitigating the risks of brain drain. The Communication looks in particular at legislative and non-legislative measures that could facilitate circular migration and calls for a dialogue amongst Member States and relevant stakeholders on these issues. As circular migration raises a number of challenges, the Commission is also ready to look at the possibility of supporting innovative pilot schemes to test the feasibility of this concept.

Circular migration can be defined as a form of migration that is managed in a way allowing some degree of legal mobility back and forth between two countries.

The two main forms of circular migration which could be most relevant in the EU context are:

• Circular migration of third-country nationals settled in the EU: This category of circular migration gives people the opportunity to engage in an activity (business, professional, voluntary or other) in their country of origin while retaining their main residence in one of the Member States.

• Circular migration of persons residing in a third country: Circular migration could create an opportunity for persons residing in a third country to come to the EU temporarily for work, study, training or a combination of these, on the condition that, at the end of the period for which they were granted entry, they must re-establish their main residence and their main activity in their country of origin.

Measures to foster circular migration could in particular be introduced into some of the future legislative instruments already announced in the Policy Plan on legal migration, in particular the:

Proposal for a Directive on the admission of highly skilled migrants: subject to further examination, measures to foster circularity could centre on further facilitating admission procedures for persons having already resided legally in the EU for a certain length of time (for highly qualified work, studies or other forms of training);

Proposal for a Directive on the admission of seasonal migrants: the main measure to foster circularity would be introduction of a multiannual residence/work permit for seasonal migrants, allowing them to come back several years in a row to perform seasonal work.

Proposal for a Directive on the admission of remunerated trainees: the possibility for third country nationals to come for a period of training in Europe should contribute to fostering brain circulation and to skills and knowledge transfer. In order to enhance circularity, the proposal could envisage a possibility for former trainees of coming back for limited periods for further additional training where appropriate to upgrade their skills.

The Commission will also reflect further on whether a proposal to introduce harmonised admission procedures for other categories of legal migrants could benefit circular migration. In addition, the Commission may in due course consider proposing adjustments to a number of existing legislative instruments in order to promote circular migration.

Practical conditions and safeguards will need to be included to ensure that circular migration meets its objectives and brings long-term benefits. The Commission intends to launch a debate on the basis of this Communication, notably with Member States on the measures required to ensure effective circularity of migration:

(1) Incentives to promote circularity

• The prospect of future opportunities for legal mobility towards the EU:

• Making the reintegration of returning migrants in their home country as smooth as possible (in particular professionally):

(2) Ensuring effective return

(3) Monitoring circular migration

(4) Reducing the risk of brain drain

(5) Partnership with third countries

(6) Bilateral agreements to promote secure circular migration

Existing community legal framework for movements of persons to the eu

Framework for legal migration

Since 1999, the EU has been progressively developing a common policy on legal immigration. So far three Directives regulating admission of third country nationals have been adopted at Community level.

Third country nationals wishing to pursue their studies in one of the Member States are covered by Directive 2004/114/EC. Following admission, they are given limited access to the labour market as a means of supporting their studies plus the possibility to continue their studies in another Member State. Member States may also apply this scheme to persons on voluntary service, unremunerated trainees and pupils.

Finally Directive 2005/71/EC on the procedures for admitting third country researchers to the Member States provides a flexible scheme aiming at attracting this group of migrants to the Community. Third country researchers admitted to a Member State under the Directive have the possibility to teach and pursue their research project in another Member State without a working permit.

The conditions for admission set by these Directives normally include sufficient resources, health insurance as well as the absence of threat to public health, security, etc. All the Directives include clear rules on withdrawal of the right to stay.

Beyond the admission schemes, third country nationals staying for longer periods in a Member State benefit from Directive 2003/109/EC, which places an obligation on Member States to grant long-term resident status to third country nationals who meet the conditions of sufficient resources and health insurance and who legally reside on their territory for at least five years. Long-term resident confers a long list of important socio-economic rights including intra-community mobility under certain conditions. Furthermore, long-term residents qualify for greater protection against expulsion.

In addition, the EU-Turkey Association Agreement – although not granting any right to move to an EU Member State, or between EU Member States, to take up employment - gives Turkish nationals free access to the labour market in the host Member State after four years of legal employment. It also stipulates that Member States that decide to enlist workers other than Community nationals should endeavour to give priority to Turkish workers.

Finally, third country nationals who are members of the family of EU national migrant workers enjoy certain derived rights under Directive 2004/38/EC. These include the right to free access to employment and the right to reside with the migrant worker in the host Member State. Furthermore, after residing with the migrant worker for a continuous period of five years they can acquire permanent resident status.

The 2005 Policy Plan on legal migration sets out the broad lines for further development of a common European policy on legal and, in particular, labour immigration, which is an important component of EU policies to compensate the negative effects of demographic ageing and meet the changing needs of labour markets. In this context, with the aim of attracting the professionals needed to sustain the EU's competitiveness, in September 2007the Commission will present a proposal for a directive on the conditions of entry and residence for highly skilled workers from third-countries. Three other proposals aimed at facilitating circular and temporary migration will be put forward addressing seasonal workers and remunerated trainees (both in autumn 2008), and intra-corporate transferees (2009). At the same time there is a need to provide a common secure legal status for all immigrant workers legally residing in the EU but not yet fulfilling the conditions for obtaining long-term resident status: a proposal to this end will also be presented in September 2007.

International trade agreements liberalising provision of services and establishment

In the context of its trade policy the European Community has entered into a number of international agreements which facilitate temporary movement of natural persons related to trade in services or investment. Commitments have been made both at multilateral level (WTO) and bilaterally (in the context of free trade agreements). One fundamental characteristic of these commitments is that the beneficiaries must not enter the EU labour market and must have obtained a services contract before they can apply to enter the territory of EU Member States. Such commitments relate only to the right to perform a given economic activity and do not cover visa and other conditions on entry, stay and work.

Framework for short term movements: the Schengen common visa policy

Within the framework of the Schengen cooperation, as one of the flanking measures necessary in order to establish an area without internal borders in which free movement of persons is ensured, a common visa policy has been developed for third country nationals -for stays of three months per six month period, providing in particular for mutual recognition of short stay visas issued on the basis of common procedures and conditions.

At the heart of this common policy lies Council Regulation n° 539/2001 of 15 March 2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders (the "negative list") and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement (the " positive list"). The two lists are determined by a considered, case-by-case assessment of a variety of criteria relating, inter alia, to illegal immigration, public policy and security, and the EU's external relations, also taking into consideration the implications of regional coherence and reciprocity.

The Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985 on the gradual abolition of checks at common borders (Article 8 et sq.) lays down the basic principles of the common visa policy, including mutual recognition of short stay visas, and defines both the conditions for entry with a view to a short stay for third country nationals exempt from the visa obligation, and for movement within the Schengen area by third country nationals exempt from or subject to the visa obligation. The Common Consular Instructions (CCI) and a series of decisions of the Executive Committee of Schengen and of the Council contain detailed rules on the conditions and procedures for issuing short stay visas.

Council Regulation n° 1683/95 of 29 May 1995 laid down a uniform format for short stay visas.

This common visa policy is fully implemented by the Member States and associated countries that are part of the Schengen area without internal frontiers. The Member States that joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 apply only Council Regulation n° 539/2001 and the uniform format for visas.

The Commission has presented a proposal recasting the whole of the Schengen acquis on the conditions and procedures for issuing visas. Once adopted, this proposed Visa Code will bring significant improvements for all visa applicants, whatever their nationality, such as an obligation to give reasons for any refusal of a visa and to offer the possibility of appeal, harmonisation of certain forms, a more precise definition of supporting documents, etc. The need to give visa applicants more information about their rights and obligations is addressed in the Visa Code, building on cooperation between local consulates.

EXAMPLES OF EC-FUNDED PROJECTS TO FACILITATE THE MANAGEMENT OF LEGAL MIGRATION FLOWS IN THIRD COUNTRIES AND CIRCULAR MIGRATION

Projects to facilitate orderly management of legal migration flows, including the provision of information on the possibilities and avenues for legal migration

a. Main focus on migration to the EU

Project Name
Promoting regular migration in the Western Balkans through establishment of regional migrant service centres providing information and migration related services” (2003/HLWG/051)
Location
Western Balkans
Implementation period
December 2004 – June 2006
Implementing Partner
Organisation for Migration (IOM)
Budget/EC contribution
€ 815.119,64,EU grant: € 652.095,71
Funding Programme
B7-667
Objectives
This regional project aimed to promote orderly migration flows and related awareness-raising through the creation of the first regional networks of Migration Services Centres (MSCs) in the Western Balkans. The inspiration of the project was the MSC of Tirana, which has been functioning successfully since 2003.
All MSCs are established and public awareness campaigns are underway and ongoing. The website www.migrantinfonet.com is operational.
Several thousand people were provided counselling and advisory service in the 6 MSCs (Tirana, Skopje, Prishtina, Belgrade, Zagreb and Sarajevo).
Profiling and data collection were launched in the beginning of 2006, as well as leaflets and brochures on return and reintegration.

Project Name
Programme de gestion intégral de l'immigration saisonnière (2005/103564)
Location
Morocco – Spain
Implementation period
January 2006 – June 2008
Implementing Partner
Municipality of Cartaya
Budget/EC contribution
€ 1.495.000 / €1.196.000
Funding Programme
AENEAS 2004
Description
The project will implement a system for the management of seasonal migration of Moroccan workers towards a group of agricultural municipalities in Spain which every year need a larger quantity of foreign labour force for the strawberry and citrus fruit cultivations. The objectives are to develop legal immigration for temporary jobs between the two regions concerned, including an overall management system for all stages of the employer-worker relation and various pioneer services for the attention of the workers and to prevent illegal practices which encourage clandestine flows and to guarantee the return after the season. Activities include the setting in operation of two "Seasonal workers Centres" in Benslimane and Cartaya, the setting in operation of an Internet server for communication between these two centres and the creation of a NGO for the sustainability of the programme.

Project Name
An integrated approach to promoting legal migration through national capacity building (2005/103475)
Location
South Caucasus
Implementation period
January 2006 – December 2007
Implementing Partner
IOM - International Organization for Migration
Budget/EC contribution
€ 971.747,- / € 777.397,-

Funding Programme
AENEAS 2004
Description
The project aims to prevent irregular migration, facilitate discussions on conclusion of bilateral readmission agreements based on the EU standard, enable improved reintegration, and promote legal migration within each South Caucasus country and bilaterally with targeted receiving EU member states through dialogue and capacity building.

Project Name
MESURE - Migrations en Sécurité (2006/120-093)
Location
Tunisia - Italia
Implementation period
December 2006 – May 2009
Implementing Partner
Associazione per la Cooperazione Transregionale Locale ed Europea
Budget/EC contribution
€ 1.718.465,95 / €1.374.772,76
Funding Programme
AENEAS 2005
Description
The overall objective of the project is to contribute to the promotion of legal migration, in line with the demographic, economic and social realities in the countries of origin and the host country and to provide better information to the population on the advantages of legal migration and the consequences of illegal migration. The specific objective is to develop and improve the capacities and the possibilities of the final beneficiaries to migrate to Italy legally and in safety.
MESURE - Migrations en Securité aims at, in particular, to support the efforts made by the Tunisian authorities to improve the management of migration flows towards Italy through the identification and development of strategies in Tunisia which, on the one hand, discourage illegal migration and, on the other, encourage legal migration from the Maghreb region.


Project Name
Sharing learning for a better migration life (2006/120-199)
Location
Egypt - Morocco - Italy
Implementation period
December 2006 – May 2008
Implementing Partner
Direzione Generale dell'Immigrazione - Ministero del Lavoro e delle Politiche Sociali – Repubblica Italiana
Budget/EC contribution
€ 649.166,50 / € 519.333,20
Funding Programme
AENEAS 2005
Description
The overall objective of the project is to improve the system of legal migration for labour purposes between Northern African countries – Egypt and Morocco - and Italy. The project aims to reinforce existing labour migration management capacities, trough the creation of a stable multilateral framework, training activity addressing public officials as well as counselling activity on implementation structures
The project activities will develop in three phases: Analysis on the field and definition of a working plan: the Steering Committee; Training, ICT counselling and internships; and dissemination of the foreign workers lists in the Italian labour market.

Project Name
Temporary and circular labour migration (TCLM) between Colombia and Spain: a model for consolidation and replication (2006/120-237)
Location
Spain and Colombia
Implementation period
January 2007 – December 2008
Implementing Partner
IOM – International Organization for Migration
Budget/EC contribution
€ 625.046,85 / € 500.037,48
Funding Programme
AENEAS 2005

Description
The project aims to provide Spain and Colombia with a consolidated, improved and replicable model to effectively regulate temporary labour migration The project seeks to consolidate and replicate a temporary and circular labour migration (TCLM) model facilitating regular migration of Colombian workers to Catalonia and other parts of Spain. This model was originally initiated by the Pagesos Union and its foundation “Fundación Agricultores Solidaris (FAS), in 2001. This first program has been successful, involving 1,200 migrants from a small number of rural communities in Colombia and 600 Catalan farmers and cooperatives in Spain. The present action intends to increase the positive impact of the present model and improve sustainability and growth by: 1) generating improved knowledge of the migration situations in sending and recipient countries and thus an improved platform for actions to ensure dignified migration processes; 2) supporting the development of new policies and providing capacity building in Colombia in order to increase national capacity to regulate migration flows and prevent irregular migration towards Europe, and 3) introducing new elements such as support and capacity building to set up systems that will provide Colombian migrants with training before departure and allow them access to social and productive services upon return, and thus promoting sustainable development processes and increased generation of growth in both country of origin and host country. The action will include activities aimed at optimising the use of remittances as a driver for socio-economic development and improved living conditions.

Project Name
Lutte contre l'immigration illégale et la traite des êtres humains à travers la participation des familles victimes de l'émigration clandestine, des association organisées de la société civile et des institutions locales (2006/120-280)
Location
Morocco, Italy, Spain
Implementation period
March 2007 – February 2010
Implementing Partner
Movimento Laici America Latina Onlus
Budget/EC contribution
€ 1.081.779,95 / € 865.423,96
Funding Programme
AENEAS 2005

Description
The projecst links its intervention above all to the civil society and institutions of the regions of Chaouia Ouardigha and Tadla Azilal, the main regions of origin of irregular migration towards Italy and Spain, based on three main components: 1. the creation of a community vigilance programme by families and the victims of the tragedy of irregular migration and of a centre to listen to and provide emergency assistance to that target audience; 2. the reinforcement of youth associations in the two target regions through training and social mobilisation activities; 3. the creation of a system for local cooperation between local administrations and employment promotion centres with a view to fostering economic cooperation between three Italian target regions (Veneto, Piedmont, Emilia Romagna), a Spanish region (Andalusia) et the regions of Chaouia Ouardigha and Tadla Azilal.

Project Name
Support to the movement of people (MED/2003/5725)
Location
Morocco
Implementation period
January 2005 – December 2008
Implementing Partner
Agence Nationale pour l'Emploi
Budget/EC contribution
€ 7.736.000 / € 5.000.000,-
Funding Programme
MEDA

Description
The specific objective of this project is the institutional strengthening of the relevant structures of the National Agency for the Promotion of Employment and Skills (ANAPEC).
The first expected results are
1 The strengthening and specialisation of ANAPEC through:
The creation of an international Division (DI) within ANAPEC and of an office in Brussels.
The creation of 4 regional agencies specialised in international issues and the setting up of international 'spaces' in a further 10 agencies.
The recognition of ANAPEC as the official Moroccan partner for dealing with job offers from Europe.
An increased role of international intermediation for ANAPEC.
The carrying out of a study on the conditions for viable, voluntary return of Moroccans residing abroad.
The creation of a service to support returnees.
2. The training of potential migrants through:
The execution of an awareness programme on legal migration for the population
The creation and setting up of a basic training programme for potential migrants adapted to the labour environment in the EU.
The creation and setting up of technical training modules adapted to the needs of European businesses.
Improvements in the process of recognition of applicants' qualifications in the EU.
3. Information/Documentation
The creation of a material and virtual documentation centre on the avenues for legal migration towards the EU.

Project Name
Capacity building of Migration management: Ukraine (2004/096-462 )
Location
Ukraine
Implementation period
March 2005 – December 2007
Implementing Partner
IOM – International Organisation for Migration
Budget/EC contribution
€ 4.204.672,-/ €3.781.505,-
Funding Programme
TACIS
Description
The project is aimed at enhancing the capacity of the Government of Ukraine (GoU) to manage the migration flows and control the illegal movement of migrants to and through the territory of Ukraine. The project will achieve this by addressing needs within the three major migration components. The project seeks to develop the migration management system in Ukraine by carrying out various capacity building actions, i.e. an assessment of migration situation, the development of best practices, based upon international standards and conventions, the refurbishment of accommodation centres for detained migrants and the piloting of a voluntary return programme as well as th establishment of four information points for potential migrants.

b. Main focus on South-South migration

Project Name
Management of labour migration as an instrument for development (2002/HLWG/41)
Location
Africa
Implementation period
March 2004 – February 2006
Implementing Partner
ILO - International Labour Organization

Budget/EC contribution
€ 1.957.011,16 / € 1.442.407,16
Funding Programme
HLWG – B7-667
Description
In the context of strengthening relations between the EU and Africa, this project implemented by the International Labour Organization (ILO) promoted the adoption of new policy frameworks and mechanisms for managing labour migration as an instrument for development. It aimed to promote social dialogue and raise awareness among stakeholders regarding regional labour migration issues, facilitate engagement in policy debates with a view to developing regional policy frameworks and enhancing cooperation between Europe and the different African regions concerned. The project provided a forum for engaging regional partners in core activities concerning labour migrations, with the help of the ILO's experience.
Seminars were organised in each region, for example on capacity building and social dialogue, and two sets of studies - on the situation of labour migration and on the relevant legislations - were conducted in 13 countries. Advocacy campaigns followed the publication of the studies in the different countries.

Project Name
Asian Programme of the Governance of Labour Migration (2005/103503)
Location
Countries of the Mekong region China Korea Japan and South Asia countries
Implementation period
January 2006 – December 2008
Implementing Partner
ILO
Partners
UNIFEM
Budget/EC contribution
€ 2.447.840 / € 1.955.335

Funding Programme
AENEAS 2004
Description
The project aims to promote active dialogue and cooperation for enhanced gender and rights-based management of labour migration among countries in the Asian region, and thereby minimize exploitative and abusive treatment of migrant workers. The establishment of such dialogue and cooperation shall concern Governments and their social partners, namely employers’ and workers’ organizations, as well as national and regional advocates/intermediaries and civil society organizations. The project shall contribute towards the adoption of appropriate policies and the enactment of enabling laws, the training of labour administrators, improving information systems for decision-making, and promoting bilateral agreements and regular consultations among the countries in the region. The project will be executed by the ILO in collaboration with the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM).

Project Name
Towards sustainable partnerships for the effective governance of labour migration in the Russian Federation, the Caucasus and Central Asia (2006/120-072)
Location
Russian Federation, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
Implementation period
December 2006 – December 2009
Implementing Partner
ILO - International Labour Organization
Budget/EC contribution
€ 2.433.508 / € 1.945.105
Funding Programme
AENEAS 2005

Description
The Project offers a sustainable, participative and equitable approach to the governance of labour migration in the study countries. It focuses on key labour migration issues that have received limited attention in these countries to date, but that are rising quickly on political agendas there and are essential components for stability and sustainable and equitable economic growth. There are five specific objectives: (1) To develop practical methods for assessing and forecasting labour market requirements with a view to improving migration governance; (2) to promote decent work and enhance the protection of migrant workers’ rights; (3) to develop a system of earned regularisation and introduce sound regularisation policies and procedures; (4) to contribute to the productive utilization of the region’s human resources by developing systems for the portability of qualifications and reducing bureaucratic obstacles to recruitment; and (5) to develop policies that enhance the positive impact of migration on development in origin countries

Project Name
Migration information and management centre
Location
Mali
Implementation period
To be determined
Implementing Partner
To be determined
Budget/EC contribution
To be determined
Funding Programme
EDF
Description
The proposed project is directly aimed at implementing the joint Mali- ECOWAS- EC-France- Spain Declaration of February 2007, in the wake of the Tripoli EU-Africa Ministerial Conference on migration and development. During the high level meeting in Bamako, "the Parties agreed to support the creation by le Mali of the Migration Information and Management Centre".
The general objective is the definition and implementation by Mali of a migratory policy adapted to the regional and European policies and dynamics.
The specific objective is the setting up of the Migration Information and Management Centre which will implement and coordinate the various elements of Mali's migration policy.
The expected results are (i) definition and implementation of an information and communication strategy on the legal conditions for migration and the prevention of irregular migration, (ii) putting in place a mechanism for welcoming, orientating and accompanying potential migrants (iii) putting in place a service for welcoming, orientating and accompanying returnees (iv) productively using the human, financial and technical capital lof the diaspora (v) knowledge and analysis of the migratory flows of relevance to Mali (vi) coordination of the various hierarchical structures so that they can properly steer the above-mentioned components.

2. Projects to facilitate circular migration for migrants settled in the EU

Project Name
Programme to support entrepreneurs of Moroccan origin in Europe in setting up sustainable economic activities in Morocco (2001/HLWG/119)
Location
Morocco
Implementation period
December 2001- January 2004
Implementing Partner
Stichting Intent
Budget/EC contribution
€ 553.073,00 / € 448.291
Funding Programme
B7-667 - HLWG
Description
This project promoted private initiatives leading to the establishment and development of small and medium enterprises by Moroccan entrepreneurs living in the EU. It aimed to help migrant entrepreneurs to set up companies in their country of origin by strengthening a foundation which provides a set of services to the new entrepreneurs.
The project enabled the creation of a more permanent infrastructure to assist migrant entrepreneurs wishing to start SMEs. Training materials and information documents for the programme were developed in various languages. The programme has gained credibility within the Moroccan community through co-operation with Moroccan organisations in the Netherlands and Belgium.

Project Name
Co-development Program in Morocco (2001/HLWG/117)
Location
Morocco
Implementation period
May 2003 - May 2007
Implementing Partner
Agence Française de Développement (AFD),
Budget/EC contribution
€ 3.810.000 / € 1.500.000
Funding Programme
B7-667 - HLWG
Description
This project aims at helping Moroccans resident in the EU to invest in their community of origin. It focuses more on the development of economic structures than on cooperation with administrative and migration authorities. The project helps small and medium sized enterprises to be set up in Morocco and the development of rural tourism.

Project Name
The Moroccan migrant in Italy as development and innovation agent in his/her community of origin: a pilot project in the Northern Province of Morocco (2002/HLWG/023)
Location
Morocco
Implementation period
May 2003 – April 2005
Implementing Partner
Cooperazione Internazionale (COOPI),
Budget/EC contribution
€ 1.084.906,17 / € 867.924,94
Funding Programme
B7-667

Objectives
The aim of this COOPI project was the definition of a strategy of development of migrants’ regions of origin. The focus was on the importance of the migrants as agents of development in their regions of origin. A migration pool was developed thanks to studies and research conducted as well as a database and relationships with stakeholders in Italy and Morocco.
The project’s primary outcome was a report on migratory movements from Morocco and their consequences on the development of the country, as well as on the best conditions for the migrant to be a development agent for Morocco. Guidelines for an action plan were drawn from this report.
International conferences on migration and development were organised with a view to broadening the audience in the Mediterranean area.
As for the realisation of the pilot project, training activities were set up in Italy and in the community of origin of the migrants, with their participation as mediators and trainers. The training focused on company creation and management.


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