Research Round-up: CER2005 special
European Commission - MEMO/05/433 18/11/2005
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Brussels, 18 November 2005
14/15 November 2005 saw the second Communicating European Research conference, which was held at the Heysel Exhibition Centre in Brussels. Over 2500 scientists, media professionals and policy-makers came together for two days of debates, forums, training sessions and discussion groups on how better to communicate in the area of science and technology. The whole event was accompanied by an exhibition of some 240 stands, showcasing the best of European research. Participants were asked to vote for their favourite session, stand and speaker. New results of European research projects were presented in special press briefing sessions.
The prizes presented for best communication actions were:
Best forum to Talking Nano – what makes nanotechnology so special, which was chaired by Richard Hayhurst of 4Bio (UK) and featuring three nanotechnology research projects currently funded by the European Union.
Best speaker to Dr. Lars-Peter Linke of COGNOS AG (Germany) who led several sessions on media skills for project managers.
Best stand to ITER – the way to fusion energy, giving information about the ITER international fusion energy project, which will be based in Cadarache in Southern France.
Some Research Results presented at the conference
Fishbase – promoting sustainable fish consumption
CER’s opening day saw the presentation of ‘Fishbase’, a
database that records the levels of the world’s fish stocks. “Our
aim was to improve coastal zone management in developing countries by giving
managers more information,” explained Dr Rainer Froese. Fishbase now
contains information on 29 000 commercial fish types, 40 100 pictures and is
visited by 1 million visitors every month, coming from universities,
governments, business, NGOs and interested individuals. Along with the common
and scientific names of the fish, there is a glossary, information about the
family, country, life history, etc. of the species, plus more general
information on the ecosystem and biodiversity.
Making sense of methane
Methane is a natural gas, produced continually in unimaginably vast
quantities underneath ocean floors, which offers huge commercial potential. But
these same reserves are also a source of global warming, particularly the
methane that escapes from the ocean floor and bubbles up to the surface.
Fortunately for our Earth, most methane is either confined or broken down by
natural causes. But there is growing evidence that global warming may be
disrupting that balance, leading to a self reinforcing cycle whereby methane
released into the atmosphere leads to more warming which causes sloped ocean
floors to shift and release more underlying methane into the air.
PEOPLE – How clean is the air in European cities?
The PEOPLE (Population Exposure to Air Pollutants in Europe) project assessed outdoor, indoor and personal exposure levels of air pollutants in European cities, focusing on emissions from transport. Six European cities were studied: Brussels, Bucharest, Dublin, Lisbon, Ljubljana and Madrid. In each city, diffusive samplers are used to monitor personal exposure and environmental pollution levels of benzene. In a first avenue of research, PEOPLE aimed to get data for pollution levels that represent typical behaviour for people who live in cities. Thus, the focus of the project was towards the two most visible sources of pollution: transportation and smoking. Up to 200 people were selected after the screening carry such monitors in the particular city under investigation for a period of 12 hours. The people chosen were people that commuted from home, usually in the suburbs, to work in offices, usually in the city center. A wide variety of different professions were represented including for example teachers, journalists, nurses, electricians, librarians, bankers amongst many others. The monitors are collected, analysed and compared to both a control group that consists of people who work or stay at home and a smoking group of people. The results received are linked to the particular person’s lifestyle and each participant recorded all of their activities and the places that they visited. By completing this diary, that also indicates transport modes and presence of tobacco smoke, a complete profile of the day, with a 5 minute time resolution, was possible.
PEOPLE showed that Personal exposure to benzene is linked to lifestyle, in particular transport and smoking. The smoking group of volunteers had the highest level of exposure as expected. Of the commuting groups the car users had the highest level of exposure due to closer proximity to air mixed with emissions from car exhausts. The general level of exposure is linked to the background air quality of the city. There was a good relationship between the outdoor air quality and the exposure of the population. The ratio between population exposure (non smoking commuters) and background air quality (compliance monitoring locations) was approximately two to one. This reflects the importance of movement through “hot spots” and travelling at busy times when pollution levels are high. The lowest level of air pollution in the six cities studied was measured in Dublin and the highest was measured in Bucharest. The relatively good air quality in Dublin is due to enhanced pollution dispersion due to high winds whereas the poor air quality in Bucharest is due to high levels of emissions from transport.
The project has enabled the development of a estimation approach to population exposure through the development of “exposure factors”. This approach may be useful to contrast the relative importance of different activities and places across European cities. The information from the project also acts as a platform for consideration of more complex particulate pollution that is controlled by EU air quality Directives.