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Brussels, 31 August 1999

LIFE-Environment 1999: 152 new projects approved

The European Commission has decided to co-fund 152 new projects under the LIFE-Environment programme for the year 1999. The total financial contribution from the Commission towards these projects is euro 65 million. The total investment cost of all the projects represents around euro 206 million. Each of the selected projects corresponds to one of the three existing priority areas for LIFE-Environment i.e. Industry (59 projects), Local authorities (84 projects) and Preparatory actions (9 projects). Within these three priority areas, the subsections with the highest number of projects are: for the Industry priority, recycling and clean technologies; for the Local authorities priority, waste and regional and urban policy, and finally, in the field of Preparatory actions, water and waste.

On a proposal from the Environment Commissioner Ritt Bjerregaard, the Commission approved 152 projects selected from 682 proposals that were introduced at the beginning of 1999 by organisations from all over the European Union (EU). The proposals went through a rigorous evaluation procedure. The Commission services assisted by a group of 114 independent experts ranked the projects on merit and the LIFE Management Committee, composed of Member States representatives, endorsed this list with selected projects.

Among the 152 selected projects, those relating to the Local authorities' priority are predominant, both in terms of number and value of projects funded (84 projects, euro 38 million). By sector of activity, recycling, waste and regional/urban issues stand out in the 1999 LIFE-Environment selection.

The Commission expects the results of these demonstration projects in two to five years' time. The outcome of these demonstration projects should improve the situation on the field and may very well guide the development of future environmental policy initiatives.

LIFE is the only EU financial instrument to provide aid for the environment throughout the Union and in bordering regions. The general objective of LIFE is to contribute to the development and implementation of EU environmental policy, by financing specific environmental actions in three sectors: LIFE-Environment, LIFE-Nature, and LIFE-Third Countries(1). The total budget for LIFE 1996-99 is ECU 450 million. LIFE-environment focuses on the priorities of EU environmental policy, such as waste management. The 1999 selection is the last one under the current LIFE Regulation. A new Regulation covering the period 2000-2006 is under discussion in the European Parliament and Council of Ministers.

A brief overview on the projects funded in each Member State for 1999 is presented below.

More detailed descriptions of the selected projects are posted the LIFE Homepage,

A special opportunity to learn more about the LIFE-instrument, its prospects and achievements of past projects, will be the LIFE-week which is to take place in Brussels from October 20 to 23, 1999. The LIFE-week combines a programme of topical seminars, exhibitions and awards for best projects.

More information on the LIFE-week can be found on the dedicated web site at



Number of projects funded:  9 Industry projects:      4 Local authority projects:   5 Number of proposals received:  17 Total eligible cost of funded projects: euro 11.354.516  Total LIFE contribution:    euro 3.568.911

VISHAY Semiconductor Austria Ges.m.b.H will coat molybden pins to reduce waste water and Steirische Wasserkraft- und Elektricitäts-AG intends a complete elimination of residues from flue gas dust purification.

Another company, Krems Chemie A.G., will introduce environmental cost accounting in industrial enterprises.

The City of Vienna will run a project on the systematic noise abatement in inner city residential areas, called SYLVIE and will secondly demonstrate the management of sensible water uses with help of innovative sensor technology.

New services for sustainable retrofitting of buildings is the aim of the Grazer Energieagentur.

Three projects are dealing with waste. The N.Ö. Landesakademie will focus on the evaluation and preliminary assessment of old deposits, the O.Ö. Tierkörperverwertungs-Gesellschaft m.b.H. will apply anaerobic digestion in the processing technology of rendering plants. And finally, the aim of the project from the Forschungsinstitut für Agrarbiotechnologie is to recycle organic waste through co-fermentation in municipal sludge digesters.


Total number of projects funded:  8 Industry projects:      2 Local authority projects:   5 Preparatory actions:     1 Number of proposals received:  19 Total eligible cost of funded projects: euro 9.509.990 Total LIFE contribution:    euro 3.775.463

The multi-sectorial industrial project co-ordinated by GOM West-Vlaanderen looks into the improvement of the environmental performance of products at the level of material use, energy consumption and emissions to the environment and this over their entire life cycle.

The clean technology project of IMEC in the semiconductor production aims to demonstrate the complete elimination of the use of sulphuric acid and important de-ionised water savings for wafer rinsing

The project of the Institut Scientifique de Service Public (ISSeP) and its industrial partners deals with the storage and valorisation of cement inerted MSWI fly ashes.

The purpose of the demonstration project of the Gemeente Kortenberg is the implementation of different combinations of erosion control measures in 4 to 5 subcatchment basins and the evaluation of the effectiveness of these measures.

The project of IGO Leuven regards an integrated approach to water management in order to tackle problems of desiccation, ground water depletion, erosion and floods. Focussed on the participation of local stakeholders the project will develop and demonstrate direct, sustainable and low-scale methodologies

The project led by the Gouvernement de la Communauté germanophone de Belgique regards a global integrated approach to waste management with respect to environmental, social and economical aspects and should result in a 60 to 80% waste redirection.

The waste management project presented by the Direction Générale des Pouvoirs Locaux of the Walloon region regards the optimalisation of waste streams in the road construction sector in order to obtain significant reduction in the refuse deposits.

The Provincie Oost-Vlaanderen Dienst Planning en Natuurbehoud will develop and demonstrate an innovative communication model for local authorities that should result in the creation of new green belts in and around urban areas. The concrete demonstration will lead to the realisation of a new peri-urban woodland within the city limits of Genth (B).


Number of projects funded:  6 Industry projects:      4 Local authority projects:   1 Preparatory actions:     1 Number of proposals received:  9 Total eligible cost of funded projects: euro 14.538.294 Total LIFE contribution:    euro 3.327.418

Three industrial projects aim at reducing or eliminating waste. Ansaldo Vølund A/S will establish a demonstration pilot plant for stabilisation of ashes and control of other air pollution residues, the Krüger A/S will demonstrate an innovative biogas technology reducing carbon dioxide emissions, methane and sulphur emissions and nitrate leaching. FLS Miljø A/S aims at demonstrating super critical wood impregnation on a full scale for the first time in the world.

In another project, Terma Elektronik A/S will demonstrate the viability of mounting oil spill detection sensors on offshore installations.

Århus Kommune aims to develop and test a model for the introduction of environmental management and certification in decentralised education authority.

The National Environmental Research Institute and the Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment aims at developing a European Centre for River Restoration.


Number of projects funded:  18 Industry projects:      11 Local authority projects:   7 Number of proposals received:  50 Total eligible cost of funded projects: euro 25.228.423  Total LIFE contribution:    euro 7.636.127

Stadt Celle, will demonstrate a concept for an environmentally friendly regional freight transport and University of Hohenheim will implement a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants. With ECOCAMPER a project in the fields of sustainable tourism the Bodensee Stiftung intends to introduce integrated quality management on camping sites. Handwerkskammer zu Leipzig intends to install a competence centre for environment equitable construction.

TUHH Technologie GmbH intends to apply a new approach to an integrated electro-TBT-detoxification of dredged material on a pilot scale. To clean-up contaminated sites and the landfilling of mechanically biologically treated residual waste is the aim of the project of the Kommunaler Abfallentsorgungsverband Niederlausitz.

The development and testing of a new method for the sanitation of water and air through a combination of solar photo-oxidation and air ionisation will be the project of the University of Bremen. Another demonstration in the area of water/sewage management, developing strategies for water saving potentials and pollution control of sewage in European hospitals will be set by Universitätsklinikum Freiburg. Blohm+Voss Repair GmbH will construct a pilot plant to minimize the organic tin compound and heavy metal contamination of dock waste water and AquaTec Ingenieursgesellschaft mbH will develop a waste water treatment from olive oil presses with material and energetic utilisation of the residues. A reduced waste water pollution from textile finishing will be demonstrated by Textilforschungsinstitut Thüringen-Vogtland e.V..

A number of industrial projects introduce clean technologies: ITEC GmbH develops a high speed cutting without cooling, which saves energy and raw material, and avoids completely the use of cooling fluids; in the Fennel GmbH project, through the introduction of an innovative painting technology for small plastic components by means of high speed rotation, the consumption of paint and solvent emissions will be reduced significantly. Morton International GmbH will demonstrate a non-polluting technology by development of adhesives with a lower monomer content and Kvaerner Panel Systems GmbH presents a testing plant for environment-mild and energy saving glueing of dried fibres in the wood material industry.

One German industrial project, the VENTI OELDE-Ventilatorenfabrik Oele GmbH, focuses on recycling of hygiene products. Raiffeisen Central-Genossenschaft Nordwest eG presents a pilot plant for reduction of odour emissions in a feed mill. Mayer & Cie. GmbH & Co. will develop a miniature block-type thermal power station, which is powered by a Stirling engine.


Number of projects funded:  12 Industry projects:       2 (technological institutes) Local authority projects:   10 Number of proposals received:   84 Total eligible cost of funded projects: euro 12.489.782 Total LIFE contribution:    euro 5.479.879

Sustainable development and rehabilitation of the suburban and rural areas is a major theme among the funded Greek projects. Three Municipalities, Chios, Andros and Holargos, aim at the innovative management of suburban areas. The Region of Ipeiros with the Cornwall Council will rehabilitate two rivers.

Another major theme is the recycling of industrial and household waste. The Municipality of Ano Liosia will build a demonstration plant for the treatment of oil wastes, marpol and oil sludge. The Municipality of Rethymnon Creta will demonstrate a cost-effective method of leachate treatment. The Municipality of Archanes will use leading-edge technologies in the treatment and better management of the water and solid wastes in the Wine Industry. The Municipality of Thermi (Anatoliki) aims to the promotion and dissemination of wastewater reuse techniques and to the development of reuse guidelines in Greece, together with the Greek Ministry of Environment. The Municipality of Amaroussion aims at the improvement of the waste management, energy saving and procurements together with enterprises situated within its borders. The Municipalities of Halkidiki will demonstrate a limitation of solid wastes by the development of a new method Green currency and collection of wastes -.

Two other projects conducted by two technological Institutes (T.E.I. Pirea and National Observatory of Athens) will demonstrate new methods for the clean-up of water borne oil spills and integrated approach to address oil spill problems through the use of Earth Observation information based services.


Total number of projects funded:  16 Industrial projects:     7 Local authority projects:   9 Number of proposals received:  126 Total eligible cost of funded projects: euro 25,855,264 Total LIFE contribution:    euro 7,671,894

Seven industrial projects will be funded. In the construction sector, a project of construction of housing with bio-climatic criteria from the co-operative Villaviciosa Ecológica was selected. Regarding water management, three projects were successful: a project of drinking water production by reusing effluents from desalination plants, submitted by Hidráulica Maspalomas; further a project on sustainable water exploitation, from Unión Fenosa; finally, in the textile sector, a project from Aitex about photo-oxidation advanced technologies for waste water treatment.

In the field of recycling, New Packaging España, S.A., submitted a project for manufacturing 100% recycled trays and the company Navarra de Medio Ambiente Industrial will receive funding to carry out a project about decontamination of end of life vehicles.

In the wine sector, a project of environmental management, from the Agencia de Desarrollo Económico de la Rioja, has been also funded.

The nine local authorities' projects cover waste issues, such as actions for implementation of new models in waste management by the Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta, an office to promote and support recycling products, by Gedesma, a solution for minimization and treatment of waste water from canning industry, by the Ayuntamiento de Laredo and awareness campaigns to reduce paper consumption, by Fundación Ecología y Desarrollo.

Other local authorities' projects include the revalorization of truffle producing forests, submitted by Asociación Proyecto Noroeste de Soria, and the restoration of the Tabre river, by the Xunta de Galicia.

There are also consortia of municipalities, for instance in the project Oleo-LIFE from the Asociación Española de Municipios del Olivo, which aims at consolidating environmental management in olive groves. In the agriculture sector the project from Asociación Española de Laboreo de Conservación aims to reduce erosion. Finally, the Mancomunidad del Guadajoz y Campiña Este de Córdoba, will design and implement fluvial management policies for Mediterranean Europe.


Number of projects funded:  7 Industry projects:       2 Local authority projects:    5 Number of proposals received:  15 Total eligible cost of funded projects: euro 6.473.383 Total LIFE contribution:    euro 2.404.405

LÄNNSIVOIMA will demonstrate a new, environmentally and ecologically friendly technology in the field of high voltage overhead power lines, with the Covered Conductor technique, using only 12 m of wayleave instead of the existing technology where wayleaves are typically 46 m.

The city of Vaasa will develop an action programme for the revitalisation of the water cycle in an urban landscape structure. The Finnish Environment Institute will demonstrate a waste prevention advising project, by developing and identifying new informational means to promote material efficiency, waste prevention and sustainable development.

The West Finland Regional Environment Centre will demonstrate a new integrated management system for the restoration of eutrophied Boreal lakes.

The Kuljetusliike A. Laurén Ky Company will demonstrate a comprehensive recycle system for construction and demolition waste in Turku area.

The Agricultural Reasearch Center of Finland will demonstrate the integration of the environmental priorities in agricultural policies, in order to minimise the nutrient load on inland waters and the Baltic Sea

Finally, the KESKI-SUOMEN VIATEK Company, together with the public authorities of Central Finland, will demonstrate an Internet based GIS system for environmental risk management of hazardous oil material transportation.


Number of projects funded:  10 Industry projects:      3 Local authority projects:   6 Preparatory actions:     1 Number of proposals received:  64 Total eligible cost of funded projects: euro 11.472.949  Total LIFE contribution:    euro 3.968.575

The three funded industrial projects deal with recycling of industrial or household waste: Wheelabrator Allevard will experiment the treatment and recycling of electric arc furnaces dust, Testa Group will launch a pilot plant recycling plastics into sanitation manholes, and Chemical Products of Mont-Blanc will implement a new scheme for the recycling of Used Cooling Liquids.

The funded preparatory project and one local authority project deal with water management: the International Centre for Water in Nancy (NANCIE) will demonstrate a multi-parameters surveillance and protection of the quality of waters, and the International Office for Water (OIE), together with partners in seven Member States, will investigate on the efficiency of applied policies regarding prevention and control of diffuse and dispersed pollution in surface waters.

Two local authority projects deal with the management of urban Environment: the French Agency for the Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) will lead a partnership of four European countries to promote and evaluate a European day "In town, without my car?"; the town of Rillieux-la-Pape will set up a new function of "quarters observer" in order to monitor the uses and habits in the different urban spaces.

Three funded projects deal with the management of natural spaces: the Inter-Départements Organisation for the control of nuisance mosquito in Mediterranean natural spaces will experiment a new environment friendly treatment in an area of birds protection; the Council of Vaucluse will implement a new Arboretum for the restoration of the usual nature in the Mediterranean environment, and the Forestry Society of Franche-Comté will demonstrate a methodology for the sustainable management of deciduous non-even-aged high forests.


Number of projects funded:  4 Industry projects:      2 local authority projects:    2 Number of proposals received:  10 Total eligible cost of funded projects: euro 3.589.909  Total LIFE contribution:    euro 1.482.894

Among the 1999 selection of Irish projects there is one direct industrial project, submitted by Henkel Ireland Ltd. This project looks into solvent and energy recovery technologies. The other 3 selected projects are sustained by local authorities throughout Ireland: Kerry County Council will manage the A.N.S.W.E.R- project, A New Solid Waste Environmental Response, concerned with strongly fluctuating waste volumes in smaller communities. Two other projects set out to put the local Agenda 21 approach into practice: Fingal County Council, will demonstrate Suburban environmental management through a participatory approach. Finally, the project from Wicklow County Council focuses on spatial and EU environmental systems in the Avoca-Avonmore catchment area; in trying to promote EMS and certification schemes to local industries and other organisations this project address both the Industry and the Local Authority priority of the LIFE Regulation.


Total number of projects funded:  26 Industry projects:      9 Local authority projects:     17 Number of projects proposed:   168 Total eligible cost of funded projects: euro 24.868.345 Total LIFE contribution:    euro 9.420.683

This year clean technologies are of particular importance among the industrial projects. Stamperia di Lipomo will reduce considerably the environmental impact of textile printing by transferring the Ink Jet. Innovative solutions for the in-plant reuse of all waste water will be experimented for distilleries by CAVIRO s.p.a. and by TRE EFFE in the tannery sector. An original solution for the biological depuration and reuse of oil-press waste water has been proposed by the Consortium Corona Arrubia. Finally, CPR-System will prevent and reduce the production of secondary packaging waste, from the fresh fruit and vegetables trade, with the development of closed circuit based on the reuse of special boxes.

In the field of air pollution, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri will develop a high spatial resolution air monitoring system to verify the actual emission of ozone precursors. ECOTEMA will implement a measurement system for air, acoustic and electromagnetic pollution in the urban road network for big European cities.

Five projects are devoted to soil pollution: The Istituto per il Trattamento dei Materiali CNR will implement an approach for mapping the asbestos hazard of the Italian industrial sites. TECHNO BIOCHIP will develop an incineration technique for the treatment in situ of soil contaminated with dangerous substances. The Provincia of Livorno is going to support the development of a real time measurement system of heavy metal concentration in soil. The system is based on LBIS techniques. The decontamination of soils polluted by heavy metals (in particular Pb) with an advanced phyto-remediation technique will be tried by the Istituto di Cibernetica e Biofisica. For the soil contaminated with organic compounds (mineral oils and chlorinated chemicals), Provincia di Milano is going to support an innovative bio-remediation technique.

In the field of water quality control, the Consorzio di Bonifica del LAO will test in the field an innovative remote measurement technique for drinkable and irrigation purposes covering a large number of parameters.

The Comune di Genova will contribute to the development of an assessment and control system of the coastal out-falls from waste water treatment Plants. The system is based on underwater sensors and acoustic telemetric systems.

A method to contain diffuse nitrogen pollution of waters is developed in agriculture by Azienda Regionale Foreste del Veneto. The demonstrative project is based on the action of Riparian Buffer Strips. The same beneficiary will also test an innovative approach for a sustainable integrated management of the forestry exploitation to contain the abandonment of the mountain areas. Always in the forestry field, Regione Umbria will test an innovative management of coppice systems.

In an industrial area of Toscana, ARPAT will implement a sustainable development action involving textile and paper SME in an ECOINDUSTRIAL DISTRICT based on a closed loop management system.

This year three Italian projects are devoted to Local Agenda 21 and its implementation in tourist areas: Comuni di Ostuni will implement a local Agenda 21 in a coastal area, Fondazione CENSIS will perform the development of an environmentally sustainable tourist supply in an area characterised by the presence of two lakes; a package of integrated actions for the local sustainable development will be implemented by CODIF in some Italian towns.

The urban mobility is covered by a project proposed by the Town of MONREALE that will test an approach that should associate the sustainable management of a high tourist flow with an eco-electric mobility system and the creation of job opportunities.


Total number of projects funded:  12Industry projects:      8 Local authority projects:   3 Preparatory actions:     1 Number of proposals received:  36 Total eligible cost of funded projects: euro 26.219.882 Total LIFE contribution:    euro 4.381.210

The NS Cargo will demonstrate an innovative transport, logistic concept for short distance rail distribution of goods. The new logistic concept will lead to a modal shift from road to rail in The Netherlands. The considerable reduction of truck kilometres will result in an important emission reduction.

The Nederlandse Philips Bedrijven B.V. will carry out at one of its former business premises the full-scale sanitation of groundwater pollution with volatile organic chlorohydrocarbons (VOCI), by means of an in situ molasses -injection technique. Sanitation by this innovative, environmental friendly technique, will make the functional reuse of decontaminated locations possible in the short term.

In a new installation for the production of starch derivative, the company AVEBE will demonstrate an extraction process to prevent ethox emission to the environment.

The Achmea SchadeService will demonstrate in their 'Respect' project that reuse of second-hand components in damaged company car fleets on a large scale is economic, environmentally and technically viable for all organisations involved.

By means of the 'Reflex-house' project, IBC Vastgoed B.V. will demonstrate an innovative way of construction which results in the prevention of construction and demolition waste.

In the ceramics construction industry, the Waalsteenfabriek 'De Bylandt' B.V conducts a project with the aim to reduce fluoride emissions, thereby eliminating flue gas cleaning. The export of flue gas cleaning residue, or removal to a dumpsite, will be eliminated.

With the WATER-project (Water based coating Technique for Environmental damage Reduction) the Houtindustrie Stam & Landman B.V. will demonstrate an innovative technical system that enables the European construction/building industry to massively switch from synthetic to water based paints for outdoor uses.

The aim of the two-year project of Smit Internationale N.V. is the demonstration of a subsea robot - called ROMAN - for remote controlled recovery of oil and/or hazardous substances from sunken ships.

In their international preparatory action project, the AKWA, RIZA, Rijkswaterstaat and the Brussels, Flemish, French, Dutch and Walloon regions aim to develop and test a common methodology for quality assessment and monitoring of sediments in the Meuse and Schelde catchment areas.

The innovative project by the Gemeente Zwolle at its new industrial estate regards network for the distribution of industrial water, simultaneously used for the distribution of cold and heat and water for the sprinkler systems thus leading to significant water and energy saving and the reduction of CO2 emission.

The DOPASS project of the N.V. Waterbedrijf Midden-Nederland regards an innovative method for drinking water production, employing a double aquifer passage. At the DOPASS bank filtration site, nature will be restored and managed in order to support wildLIFE and natural vegetation, as well as to meet the goals of the national programme Space for the River.


Number of projects funded:  5 Industry projects:       0 Local authority projects:   5 Number of proposals received:  25 Total cost of funded projects:  euro 2.635.940 Total LIFE contribution:    euro 936.342

The association Terras-Dentro will develop a large interdisciplinary partnership for a sustainable development of Montado Forestry area. The Municipality of Penafiel will develop new technique for the treatment and management of green residues by a process of composting. The Municipality of Vila Nova da Barquinha will sensitize its inhabitants to the use of Bicycle in Vila Nova da Barquinha. The Municipality of Castanheira de Pêra will develop and organise an Eco-Tourism in its area. And finally, the University of Aveiro will develop an integrated management for the Ria of Aveiro.


Number of projects funded:  6 Industry projects:      3 Local authority projects:   2 Preparatory actions:     1 Number of proposals received:  14 Total eligible cost of funded projects: euro 7.401.672 Total LIFE contribution:    euro 2.525.699

Three projects focus on recycling. Götaverken Miljö AB will demonstrate, together with Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, a new clean technology for recycling of mercury in industrial processes. ECRIS AB intends to re-use components from the car recycling industry. The aim of Betongindustrie AB is to develop a full recycling system that also functions in cold climates. The demonstration plant will show an environmentally sound and economically viable way for sustainable concrete production.

Together with forestry agencies in Sweden and France, the County Forestry Board Värmland-Örebro demonstrates methods to identify and preserve the bio-cultural heritage in European forests.

"Towards a sustainable milk production" is the motto of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. The objective is to show an efficient and innovative way to reduce ammonia leakage on dairy farms.

The Aeronautic research institute of Sweden intends to identify critical environmental impacts from air transportation over North Europe.


Number of projects funded:  13 Industry projects:      5 Local authority projects:   7 Preparatory actions:     1 Number of proposals received:  44 Total eligible costs of funded projects: euro 20.549.679  Total LIFE contribution:    euro 8.396.991

Among the selected projects from the UK in 1999, there are 5 industrial projects: H&R Johnson Tiles is leading a British-German consortium and will demonstrate electrostatic dry glazing of ceramic tiles. Also in the ceramics industry, Portmeiron Potteries Ltd will integrate various environmental friendly technologies in a small demonstration factory. The project from Air Products Plc concerns membrane technology and in particular demonstration of a single-step process to treat effluents. Tool&Steel Products Ltd will develop novel, low cost biodegradable absorbent materials for waste water treatment. In the printing industry Berkshire Gravure Company Ltd will implement and evaluate an innovative solution to reduce VOC emissions.

As to land restoration and management projects, the Institute of Environmental Science from the University of Wales will look into restoration and recreation of bio-diversity on former mining sites. The North Wales Wildlife Trust proposes an ecological restoration of the former 'Nobel' explosives factory. The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds will demonstrate techniques to evaluate and plan floodplain restoration. The Groundwork Foundation will look into EU led regeneration of derelict land.

Together with Swedish partners, the Forestry Commission submitted a project focussing on protection of water quality and aquatic bio-diversity. The project of Cheshire County Council and two Italian regions aims at integrating environmental considerations in sustainable land use planning and management through ecological networks. Medway Council's project will provide a model of consensus-building and integrated management in 'Cliffe Marshes' conservation park. Finally, EU sustainable development indicators are the subject of Environ Trust Ltd's project.

(1)LIFE Regulation 1404/96 (OJ L181, 20.7.1996)

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