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   Nuclear safety in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet  Union
   is  giving  much cause for concern. The problems  encountered,  resulting
   from  the use of Soviet-designed reactors, are not identical in  all  the
   countries in question: for example, they are more serious in Bulgaria and
   Lithuania than in Hungary or Czechoslovakia.
   The  Community is making a big effort to help improve nuclear  safety  in
   Eastern  Europe.  By  the end of this year it  will  have  devoted  about
   ECU 200 million  to  this  objective in the former Soviet  Union  and  in
   Central  and  Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and  Poland).  The
   Kozloduy  power  station  programme in Bulgaria is  a  particularly  good
   example of the action that has been taken.
   In  July  1991, after the International Atomic Energy  Agency  in  Vienna
   launched  an  emergency appeal, the Commission approved  a  programme  to
   improve the safety of units 1 and 2 at the Kozloduy power station,  which
   is  of Soviet design, built in the early 1970s, and fails to come  up  to
   the  safety standards in force in the West. There are also problems  with
   maintenance  and  the  training of technical and  managerial  staff.  The
   combination  of  these various factors made Kozloduy the  unsafest  power
   station in Eastern Europe.
   The Community's support programme amounts to ECU 11.5 million and focuses
   mainly on:
   - establishing  a  Bulgarian  safety institute capable  of  defining  and
     enforcing  acceptable  safety  standards.  Support  is  provided  by  a
     consortium of leading nuclear safety institutes in the Community
   - improving  the safety of the Kozloduy power station. First of  all,  it
     has  been  twinned with the Bugey power station in France so  that  the
     operators  at  Kozloduy can be helped  with  power-station  management.
     Secondly, a group of Community nuclear energy producers is helping  the
     management  at  Kozloduy  to  ensure  a  higher  level  of  upkeep  and
     maintenance.  Thirdly, a series of studies are in  progress  concerning
     power-station safety, staff training and improved documentation.
   To  ensure  the  continuity  of  the  various  measures,  an   additional
   ECU 3.5 million  programme is in the process of being approved.  Bulgaria
   and the Kozloduy power station will also benefit from a regional  nuclear
   safety  programme (in preparation) for all the countries of  Central  and
   Eastern Europe. Apart from the topics mentioned above, the new  programme
   will  seek  to  promote  investments,  by  the  international   financial
   institutions, in safety equipment or infrastructure.
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