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  The European Commission has just published its annual programme
  of grants to encourage cooperation between higher education
  institutions. For the academic year 1986/87, some 660 grants,
  representing almost 2.2 million ECU in all, were awarded to
  institutions, staff and students in higher education in the
  twelve Community countries.
  These grants are given in the framework of the Community's Action
  Programme for university cooperation among member States, which
  includes grants for Joint Study Programmes and for Study Visits
  to prepare or facilitate university cooperation in the Community
  (details are provided infra).
  The Action Programme was launched in 1976. It has paved the way
  for a fully operational network of more than 500 universities and
  higher education institutions in the twelve Member States of the
  Community. Over these ten years, the movement has gathered
  momentum, size and strength : real European university programmes
  now exist, and indeed one of these numbers one thousand students.
  Spain and Portugal, who took part in this scheme for the first
  time in 1986/87, have grasped the interest of such an activity
  and a number of links with these two countries have been or are
  being forged.
  But the university cooperation, needed to face the great
  challenges of tomorrow's Europe, is still in an embryonic and
  therefore delicate stage. For this to become a viable and
  tangible reality, mobility in European higher education must be
  boosted to a much higher level than at present. This is the
  ultimate goal of ERASMUS, the European Community Action Scheme
  for the Mobility of University Students, which the Commission
  expects to be adopted shortly.
  With ERASMUS, the Commission hopes to move on from the simple
  stage of pilot programmes by providing larger scale grants for
  student mobility, improved support for universities demonstrating
  their European dimension, for the mutual recognition of diplomas
  and for developing European programmes and by means of increased
  aid for the exchange of staff and top-level university
  administrators.
                                                        ./...
                                - 2 -
  In the meantime, the types of financial aid available under the
  pilot programme will be provisionally continued in 1987. Final
  date for mailing applications is April first 1987 for Joint
  Programmes of Study and 15 May 1987 for Study Visits. The
  applications must be adressed to :
]
  51 rue de la Concorde
  B - 1050 Brussels
                                  *
                               *     *
  1.- The Joint Study Programme Scheme.
 
  Programmes was introduced by the Commission in the 1976/77
  academic year pursuant the first Action Programme in the field of
  Education, adopted by the Council and the Ministers of Education
  in 1976.
  The grants are intended to foster the lasting cooperation between
  institutions of higher education from different Member States
  with a view to the joint development of courses of study or parts
  of such courses. Such cooperation must have as its aim the
  establishment of arrangements whereby
     -  students are to spend a recognised, integrated and
        considerable part of their course in at least one of the
        partner institutions in another Member State, and/or
     -  parts of regular courses in each institution are to be
        taught by staff members from at least one institution from
        another Member State, and/or
     -  courses or parts of courses are to be jointly planned for
        introduction into the regular programmes at all the
        participting institutions, even where no staff or student
        mobility is involved.
  Grants for the development of Joint Study Programmes may be used
  to travel and subsistence costs of students and/or staff actually
  participating, te development and translation of teaching
  material, the linguistic preparation of students, travel and
  subsistence expenses incurred by representatives of institutions
  attending meetings connected with planning, development,
  monitoring or extension of a Programme to include one or more
  additional institutions, and other expenses involved in
  developing, evaluating or disseminating informations.
  A number of grants are set aside each year for the development of
  new joint programmes. In addition, in well-founded cases further
  support is also available for existing programmes which have
  already received a grant in one or more of the previous years.
  Since 1983, Preparatory Visit grants have been awarded to explore
  the possibilities of cooperation between higher education
                                                        ./...
                                - 3 -
  institutions in other Member States.
  During the first year of functionning the maximum amounts awarded
  to a Programme are 4,000 ECU for the development of the programme
  and 10,000 ECU for student aid, travel and subsistence costs. In
  the case of renewal, the maximum amounts awarded are 10,000 ECU
  for the development of the programme and 10,000 ECU for student
  aid.
  The following table shows the continuous rise in applications
  received since 1977 :
               DEVELOPMENT GRANTS          PREPARATORY GRANTS
         Applic. received Grants awarded A. received Grants awarded
  1976           110            32           _            _
  1977            67            28           -            -
  1978            88            57           -            -
  1979           130            74           -            -
  1980           198            93           -            -
  1981           218            90           -            -
  1982           240            93           -            -
  1983           222           149          219          130
  1984           268           193          248          146
  1985           358           225          372          148
  1986           475           272          769          193
  Total        2.016         1.306        1.608          617
  The following table shows the increasing number of new programmes
  in the grants scheme each year. The total number of grants
  awarded is obviously higher since a large number of existing
  programmes are renewed.
  1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 TOTAL
   32   21   33   35   53   43   52   65   79   82   91   586
  The twelve Member States' institutions are now involved in the
  586 joint programmes as follows :
  Participation Total of joint  Percentages of preceding years
  of various    Study Programmes
  Member States launched,1986/87 up to    up to   up to    up to
                included        1985/86 1984/85  1982/83  1981/82
                Number   %
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  Belgium         101   17,2     17,0      17,5      15        14
  FRG             263   44,9     46,0      47,0      46        50
  Denmark          45    7,7      7,0       7,3       8         7
  Spain (since
           86/87)  33    5,6       -         -        -         -
  France          292   49,8     47,5      46,0      45        47
  Greece (since
          80/81)   37    6,3      5,0       5,0       3         1
  Italy           108   18,4     17,5      18,0      18        16
  Ireland          56    9,6      8,3       8,5       8         7
  Luxembourg        4    0,7      0,8       0,7       1         1
  The Netherlands 120   20,5     20,5      19,5      20        18
  Portugal (since
            86/87)  6    1,0       -         -        -         -
  United Kingdom  391   66,7     65,0      66,0      68        69
                                                        ./...
                                - 4 -
  TOTAL           586
  The Joint Study Programme Scheme has proved popular in a wide
  variety of academic disciplines, as the following table shows :
 
                                              Up to       Up to                                             1986/87     1985/86
                                             number   %       %
  Agriculture                                   9    1,5     1,2
  Fine Arts/Desing                             24    4,1     3,7
  Architecture and Urban Studies               45    7,7     8,3
  Business Studies                             68   11,6    10,8
  Engineering/Technology/Computer Science      91   15,5    14,8
  Geography and Regional Studies               20    3,4     4,0  Languages/Literature/Linguistics             75   12,8    11,0
  Law                                          34    5,8     6,1
  Medicine/Dentistry/Psychology                28    4,8     5,3
  Natural Sciences/Mathematics                 55    9,4     8,1
  Political and Social Sciences/Economics/
      History                                  85   14,5    17,0
  Teacher Education                            34    5,8     6,5
  Others                                       18    3,1     3,2
  TOTAL                                       586   100     100
  2.- The Short Study Visit Scheme.
  The first Action Programme in the field of education, adopted by
  the Council in 1976, contained also grants for Short Study Visits
  by members of the teaching, research and administrative staff of
  higher education institutions.
  The Scheme of grants for Short Study Visits was introduced by the
  Commission in the 1977/78 academic year and has operated on an
  annual basis since then. Its aim is to enable those
  professionnally engaged in higher education to extend their
  knowledge and experience of higher education in other Member
  States and thereby to increase in the longer term the
  opportunities for collaboration.

]
  awarded. The visit should not exceed the equivament of four
  weeks' duration. Applicants are required to specify a coherently
  planned programme of visits involving a limited number of
  institutions in preferably more than one other Member State, so
  as to enable the grantholder to study in sufficient depth the
  target topics.
  Since 1983/84, all visits conducted primarily with a view to the
  development of Joint Study Programmes have formed the subject of
  a separate scheme of grants for "Preparatory Visits".
 
  study. Applications relating to these schemes are accorded
  preference in the selection process. These were the priority
  themes over the academic years :
                                                        ./...
                                - 5 -
                               78/ 79/ 80/ 81/ 82/ 83/ 84/ 85/ 86/
                               79  80  81  82  83  84  85  86  87
  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  Modern languages (Initial and
  futher training of foreign
  language teachers)            X                       X   X   X
  Advising students on course
  choice and careers            X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X
  Selection and admission of
  foreign students              X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X   X
  Assessment of academic
  qualifications                    X   X           X           X
  Reception and guidance of
  foreign students                      X   X   X   X   X   X   X
  Academic recognition of
  qualifications/study periods              X   X   X   X   X   X
  Joint Study Programme
  preparation                       X   X   X   X
  Administrative staff
  training                          X   X
  Relations between higher
  education and industry                    X   X   X   X   X   X
  New information technologies
  in higher education                                   X   X   X
  Staff training in relation
  to above areas                        X   X   X
  Since 1977, a total of 1127 grants have been awarded over 4429
  applications received. The annual numbers are as follows :
                      77  78  79  80  81  82  83  84  85  86
  Applications
  received           176 169 286 350 605 728 522 499 490 604
  Grants awarded      61  59  90 131  73 129 136 161  91 196
  Grants by Member State and year were :
                77  78  79  80  81  82  83  84  85  86  TOTAL
  Belgium        5   2   8   8   6  11  15  11   8  12   86
  FRG           12  18  21  28  11  21  16  16  11  21  175
  Denmark        2   2   4   6   6   8  12   6   5  10   61
  Spain                                             25   25
  France         9   2   3   8   8  17  11  13   9  14   94
  Greece                         7  10  15  18   9  13   74
  Italy         12  12  14  20   9  14  24  29  14  24  172
  Ireland        5   3   5  12   6  10  12  10   8  16   87
  Luxembourg     0   0   0   1   0   0   0   0   1   0    2
  Netherlands    5   7   4  15   5  11  10  13   7  14   91
  Portugal                                          12   12
  United-Kingd. 11  13  31  33  15  27  21  45  19  33  248
                                                        ./...
                                - 6 -
  Distribution of grants by academic discipline was as follows, in
  percentage :
                                 80/  81/  82/  83/  84/  85/  86/
                                 81   82   83   84   85   86   87
  Agriculture/fisheries/
  veterinary medicine            2,1  3,8  4,2  8,6  5,6  2,2  1,6
  Art, music, design             1,4  6,6  4,2  3,9  2,5  3,3  2,1
  Biology, physics, chemistry    6,4 11,5  9,3 47,0  3,8  2,2  7,6
  Computer science               0    6,6  1,7  0,8  3,8  0    5,5
  Academic guidance, social
  services for students          8,6  6,6  1,7  6,3  9,4 11,0  5,5
  Business and management
  studies/economics/politics     5,7  8,2 11,0  7,8  5,6  3,3  6,5
  Education/teacher training    19,2 14,8  7,6 11,7  5,6 11,0 11,4
  Engineering/technology         7,9  9,8 10,1 10,9 10,0 12,1  8,7
  Geography/geology/environ-
  mental studies                 7,9  1,6  4,2  5,5  2,5  0    2,7
  Humanities                     2,9  1,6  1,7  1,6  0,6  1,1  1,0
  Language and literature       10,0  6,6 10,1  5,5  5,0  2,2  8,2
  Law                            5,0  3,8  3,4  0,8  1,9  1,1  1,6
  Mathematics/Statistics         1,4  1,6  1,7  1,6  5,0  0    2,7
  Medicine/dentistry             3,6  3,8  4,2  9,4  6,3 13,2  4,4
  Psychology                     2,1  1,6  0,8  0    0,6  1,1  4,9
  Sociology/social work/
  social sciences                9,3  3,8  7,6  5,5  6,3  2,2  1,0
  Higher education adminis-
  tration *                      0    3,8  9,3  9,4 18,1 28,6 15,8
  Architecture/town planning**   0    1,6  4,2  3,1  3,1  2,2  3,2
  Others                         6,4  4,9  1,7  3,1  4,4  3,3  5,5
  * 80/81 included under education; 85/86 includes university-
  industry relations.
  ** 80/81 included under environmental studies.
   
                                - 7 -
  
   

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