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Il-Kummissjoni Ewropea

Stqarrija għall-istampa

Brussell, il-11 ta’ Frar 2014

Il-Moviment Liberu: Il-Kummissjoni Ewropea tippubblika studju dwar il-prattiki ta’ integrazzjoni ta’ ċittadini mobbli tal-UE f’sitt ibliet

Iċ-ċittadini tal-UE jmorru lejn pajjiżi oħra tal-UE prinċipalment għal opportunitajiet ta’ xogħol u huma, bħala medja, iżgħar u aktar probabbli li jkunu qed jaħdmu. Dan huwa kkonfermat permezz ta’ studju ġdid indipendenti dwar l-impatt tad-dritt għall-moviment ħieles fl-UE li ġie ppubblikat illum. L-istudju jiffoka fuq sitt ibliet Ewropej, magħżula għall-kompożizzjoni multinazzjonali tal-popolazzjoni tagħhom (ara l-Anness 1-2): Barċellona, Dublin, Hamburg, Lille, Praga u Turin. Dan juri li fis-sitt ibliet kollha kemm huma, l-influss ta’ ċittadini tal-UE li huma iżgħar u fl-età tax-xogħol kellu impatt ekonomiku pożittiv Pereżempju f’Turin, valutazzjoni lokali turi li d-dħul fiskali mill-barranin b’mod ġenerali wassal għal benefiċċju nett ta’ 1,5 biljun EUR għall-finanzi pubbliċi nazzjonali (ara l-Anness 3). L-istudju juri wkoll li ċittadini ġodda għas-suq għenu biex jimtlew il-lakuni fis-swieq tax-xogħol lokali, ikkontribwixxew għat-tkabbir f’setturi ġodda u għenu f'li jibbilanċjaw il-popolazzjonijiet li qed jixjieħu. L-istudju sab li ċittadini mobbli ta' sikwit huma kkwalifikati aktar milli hemm bżonn għall-impjiegi li jieħdu, jistgħu jitħallsu inqas u fl-istess ħin mhux dejjem jibbenefikaw mill-istess aċċess għall-abitazzjoni u l-edukazzjoni.

“Il-moviment liberu huwa benefiċċju għall-Ewropa, għaċ-ċittadini tagħha u għall-ekonomiji tagħha. Tabilħaqq jista’ jkun hemm xi sfidi f’xi bliet li jeħtieġu li jiġu indirizzati. Madankollu, li wieħed jiddubita d-dritt għal-libertà tal-moviment liberu mhuwiex irispons tajjeb. Jiena nemmen li għandna naħdmu flimkien — fil-livell Ewropew, nazzjonali u lokali — biex nibdlu l-isfidi f’opportunitajiet. Dawn l-eżempji mill-ibliet ta’ Barċellona, Dublin, Hamburg, Lille, Praga u Turin juru li dan jista’ jsir," qalet il-Viċi President Viviane Reding, il-Kummissarju tal-UE għall-Ġustizzja, id-Drittijiet Fundamentali u ċ-Ċittadinanza, waqt id-diskors tagħha f'konferenza tas-sindki dwar il-moviment liberu li qed issir illum (IP/14/98). “Wieħed jista’ jserraħ rasu li l-Kummissjoni se tkompli tgħin lill-Istati Membri jiffaċċjaw kwalunkwe sfida marbuta mal-moviment liberu. Il-laqgħa tal-lum mas-sindki se tgħin lill-awtoritajiet lokali minn madwar l-Ewropa jfasslu fuq l-aħjar eżempji ta’ politiki ta’ suċċess biex jintegraw iċ-ċittadini tal-UE fl-ibliet, għal benefiċċju ta’ kulħadd. Nistenna bil-ħerqa li nara eżempji tajbin bħal dawn jitwettqu madwar l-Ewropa kollha.”

Is-sejbiet ewlenin tal-istudju huma:

  • Iċ-ċittadini tal-UE jiċċaqalqu l-aktar minħabba opportunitajiet ta’ xogħol u huma, bħala medja, iżgħar u aktar attivi ekonomikament mill-popolazzjoni lokali fl-ibliet eżaminati (ara l-Anness 4);

  • L-influss ta’ ċittadini tal-UE li huma iżgħar u fl-età tax-xogħol fl-ibliet magħżula qed jgħin biex jiġu indirizzati l-isfidi demografiċi ta’ popolazzjoni li qiegħda tixjieħ u forza tax-xogħol li qed tiċkien;

  • Dawn qed jgħinu wkoll biex jimtlew il-lakuni fis-suq tax-xogħol, jew permezz ta' impjiegi li jirrikjedu ħiliet baxxi (Turin u Hamburg), li jikkontribwixxu għat-tkabbir ta’ setturi ġodda (bħall-ICT f’Dublin), jew billi jgħinu biex jinħolqu intrapriżi ġodda ta' negozju (bħal f’Turin u f'Hamburg).

L-istudju jagħti ħarsa wkoll lejn l-isfidi li ġejjin:

  • Huwa aktar probabbli li ċ-ċittadini mobbli jkunu kkwalifikati aktar milli hemm bżonn meta mqabbla maċ-ċittadini (billi jidħlu għal xogħlijiet li huma inferjuri għall-kwalifiki tagħhom), li jista’ jimplika ħela ta’ ħiliet, filwaqt li jnaqqas il-benefiċċji potenzjali ta’ mobilità ġewwa l-UE;

  • F'xi każijiet, ħarġu d-differenzjali fil-pagi bejn iċ-ċittadini u ċ-ċittadini mobbli tal-UE (li ta’ sikwit jaqilgħu inqas), għalkemm l-evidenza hija pjuttost limitata;

  • Iċ-ċittadini mobbli mhux dejjem jibbenefikaw mill-istess opportunitajiet f’dak li għandu x'jaqsam mal-abitazzjoni u l-inklużjoni tat-tfal fl-iskejjel, għalkemm dawn jaħdmu u jħallsu t-taxxi.

Is-suċċess tal-programmi ta' integrazzjoni eżistenti fis-sitt ibliet huwa kkonfermat mill-fatt li l-attitudnijiet lejn il-mobbiltà qed jitjiebu bil-mod il-mod (ara l-Anness 5). L-ibliet kollha eżaminati qed jippromwovu ambjent inklużiv u kultura akkoljenti, permezz ta’ politiki bħal informazzjoni aċċessibbli (bħall-pereżempju punt uniku ta' servizzi ta' informazzjoni); l-appoġġ għat-tagħlim tal-lingwi; u d-djalogu interkulturali u l-interazzjoni fost iċ-ċittadini.

Fl-aħħar nett, l-istudju jidentifika sensiela tal-aħjar prattiki mill-ibliet eżaminati (ara l-Anness 6).

Sfond

L-istudju ġie ppreżentat f’laqgħa illum ma' iktar minn 100 sindku u rappreżentanti ta’ awtoritajiet lokali minn madwar l-Ewropa li ltaqgħu biex jiddiskutu l-isfidi attwali u l-opportunitajiet marbuta mal-moviment liberu taċ-ċittadini tal-UE fl-Unjoni Ewropea. Il-Konferenza tas-Sindki hija mfassla biex tgħin l-awtoritajiet lokali jaqsmu l-aħjar prattiki fl-implimentazzjoni tar-regoli ta’ moviment liberu u t-trattament tal-isfidi tal-inklużjoni soċjali. Il-laqgħa hija waħda minn ħames azzjonijiet ippreżentati mill-Kummissjoni biex jissaħħaħ id-dritt tal-moviment liberu fl-UE, filwaqt li tingħata għajnuna lill-Istati Membri biex jiksbu l-benefiċċji pożittivi li dan iġib miegħu (IP/13/1151).

L-istudju janalizza politiki mmirati lejn l-inklużjoni ekonomika u soċjali taċ-ċittadini mobbli tal-UE, u li jippromwovu kultura akkoljenti u attitudni pożittiva lejn ċittadini barranin. Fih ġew ikkunsidrati l-politiki fil-qasam tal-impjieg, l-intraprenditorija, l-abitazzjoni, l-edukazzjoni, id-djalogu interkulturali, l-attitudnijiet lejn il-migrazzjoni u l-parteċipazzjoni fil-ħajja fil-belt.

Għal aktar tagħrif

Studju: l-valutazzjoni tal-impatt dwar il-moviment liberu taċ-ċittadini tal-UE fil-livell lokali:

http://ec.europa.eu/justice/citizen/files/dg_just_eva_free_mov_final_report_27.01.14.pdf

L-Anness għall-Istudju: Prattiki tajba minn sitt ibliet:

http://ec.europa.eu/justice/citizen/files/best_practices.pdf

Mistoqsijiet frekwenti - Il-Moviment Liberu spjegat:

http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-14-9_en.htm

Il-Kummissjoni Ewropea - Il-Moviment Liberu

http://ec.europa.eu/justice/citizen/move-live/index_en.htm

Il-paġna ewlenija tal-Viċi President u Kummissarju tal-UE għall-Ġustizzja, Viviane Reding:

http://ec.europa.eu/reding

Segwi l-Viċi President fuq Twitter:@VivianeRedingEU

Kuntatti :

Mina Andreeva (+32 2 299 13 82)

Natasha Bertaud (+32 2 296 74 56)

Għall-pubbliku: Europe Direct permezz tat-telefon 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 jew bl-e­mail

ANNEX: Trends and patterns in the six cities

1. Total population composition in the 6 cities in 2011

The 6 cities vary significantly in terms of waves of migration they have experienced. Notably, Lille and Hamburg have a long migration history. On the contrary, the inflow of EU mobile citizens is a recent phenomenon in Dublin, Barcelona, Turin, with increasing inflows following the 2004 and 2007 enlargements. Finally, Prague has evolved from simply a transit route to a target country only recently.

Source: National Statistical Offices, Note: TCNs = Third Country Nationals

2. Composition of EU mobile citizens by country of origin in the 6 cities

In some cities, one or two nationalities make up the bulk of EU mobile citizens. This is the case in Turin, where 91.8% of EU mobile citizens are from Romania, and in Prague, where 52.5% of EU mobile citizens come from Slovakia. In other cities, although more EU nationalities are represented, two national groups prevail: in Lille (Lille Métrople Communauté Urbaine data) 30.2% of EU mobile citizens come from Portugal and 25.8% from Belgium; in Barcelona, citizens from Italy and France account respectively for 31.6% and 16.6% of EU mobile citizens. Finally, Hamburg and Dublin show a definitively fragmented picture, since these cities host a high number of different communities (despite the relevance of some national groups such as Polish, significant in both cities).

Source: National Statistical Offices

3. Free movement of Citizens: A Benefit to the economy of Turin

An evaluation carried out at national level by “Caritas migrantes” shows that tax revenues from foreigners on the whole brought a net benefit of 1.5 billion € to national public finances: the high amount of social security taxes paid by foreigners, in addition to other direct and indirect taxes, extensively overcomes the costs of social services provided for them.

4. Employment Rates in the Six Countries/Cities

Spain

Source: Eurostat

Ireland

Source: Eurostat

Hamburg

Source: Statistik der Bundesagentur für Arbeit

Czech Republic:

Source: Eurostat

4. Activities of EU mobile citizens in the six cities

Note: specific data on EU citizens in each city are not always available. Data may be for all foreigners or for the whole region or country.

Barcelona (Spain)

Share of employed EU mobile citizens per level of qualification and skills required in Catalonia (2011)

Source: CCOO Cataluña

EU mobile citizens are quite polarised in Catalonia with approximately a third employed in jobs with low or no level of qualification (32.4%), and a third in jobs with high level of qualification (30.3%)

Dublin (Ireland)

EU mobile citizens and Irish citizens per occupation in Ireland

Source: CSO, Population census 2011

Although, in Ireland, the distribution of EU and non-EU workers across sectors is substantially in line with that of nationals, the former are more likely to be employed in some sectors, such as manufacturing (25.5% of foreign workers are employed, compared to 21% of Irish nationals) and Accommodation and Food (16.4% of foreign workers take up jobs here, against 8.5% of nationals).

Nationals’ and foreigners’ distribution per employment sectors in Ireland (2011)

Source: Quarterly Household national Survey Q1 2011

On the whole, the distribution of foreign nationals on the labour market is biased towards lower skilled sectors.

Hamburg

Employee per profession – data for nationals, EU mobile citizens and non-EU nationals in Hamburg in 2012

Source: Statistik der Bundesagentur für Arbeit, Data refers to the 30/6

The chart shows that in Hamburg a small share of EU mobile citizens are employed in organizational, administrative and other white-collar occupations (20%), as compared to nationals (29.1%), whereas they are largely more present in transport and logistical occupations (e.g. train, truck or taxi drivers, pilots) or as nutrition professionals (e.g. cooks, bakers, butchers).

Lille

Nationals, EU mobile citizens and non-EU nationals (between 25 and 64 years) per employment sectors in the Nord Pas de Calais Region (2007)

Source: INSEE, Population census 2009

As far as the main sectors of activity are concerned, EU mobile citizens, when compared to Nationals, work more in the industry and construction sectors.

Nationals, EU mobile citizens and non-EU nationals per occupation in the Lille Métropole Commnauté Urbaine (2009)

Source: INSEE, Population census 2009

Focusing on the occupational structure of EU mobile citizens who are actively employed in the Lille Métropole Commnauté Urbaine, they mainly belong to the working class (33.3%) and to the employee category (25.6%).

Prague

Foreign nationals registered at labour offices by level of occupation, in Prague in 2010

Source: Directorate of Alien Police; foreigners registered at labour offices - Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs

With reference to the skills/occupational level, considering total foreign nationals in Prague, in 2010 the largest share was in elementary occupations (21,560), employing 28.2% of foreign nationals registered at labour offices.

Turin

New Employees by sector in Turin province in 2011

Source: Turin Chamber of Commerce, 2011

EU mobile citizens in the Province of Turin tend to be highly concentrated in certain sectors, in particular Construction (15.3%) and the Domestic working sectors (49.1%).

5. Integration policies are working: Attitudes are improving

Evolution of negative perception of foreign national by citizens in Barcelona (2007-12):

Source: Enquesta Òmnibus Municipal. Barcelona City Council.

6. Good practice examples from the six cities

City

Project

Summary

Barcelona

BCN Anti-Rumours

Barcelona aims to combat stereotypes and myths about cultural diversity, through surveys, communication activities and engaging local associations and companies. The project is a simple and effective way to build a more cohesive society and foster inclusion in the local community.

Barcelona

Barcelona Activa

A programme to support entrepreneurs moving to the city, with EU support. 1,300 people have followed information sessions and 600 have received training in entrepreneurship. The programme also facilitates access to professional services.

Dublin

Failte Isteach

A community project offering conversational English classes taught by older volunteers. The project harnesses the skills, experience and enthusiasm of senior citizens to help meet the needs of foreign residents struggling due to language barriers, but also serves to break down cultural barriers by extending a friendly welcome to newcomers.

Hamburg

We are Hamburg! Won’t you join us?

A campaign to promote openness to other cultures in local authorities and recruit young foreigners in the Hamburg public services. 500 training places were offered in the police, fire service, prisons and courts, resulting in an increase in foreign residents of the city following apprenticeships.

Lille

International Label

A project launched by the local university to promote inclusion of foreign students and mobility of its own students. The International Label is awarded to students who have followed an intercultural module, language course and mobility programme as part of their diploma.

Prague

Libraries for All

Part of a wider European project to provide multilingual services through public libraries to promote inclusion. Services include books in other languages as well as language and IT courses for foreign residents.

Turin

Start a Business

The local chamber of commerce, tax and social security offices joined forces to provide support and advice to foreigners in the process of starting a new business. The project included a training course for foreign residents wanting to become entrepreneurs.


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