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Slobodno kretanje: Europska komisija objavljuje studiju o integraciji mobilnih građana EU-a u šest gradova

European Commission - IP/14/137   11/02/2014

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Europska komisija

Priopćenje za tisak

Bruxelles, 11. veljače 2014.

Slobodno kretanje: Europska komisija objavljuje studiju o integraciji mobilnih građana EU-a u šest gradova

Građani EU-a odlaze u druge države članice EU-a uglavnom zbog mogućnosti zapošljavanja i u prosjeku su mlađi te je vjerojatnije da će se zaposliti. To je potvrđeno novom, neovisnom studijom o utjecaju prava na slobodno kretanje unutar EU-a koja je danas objavljena. U studiji je naglasak na šest europskih gradova, odabranih zbog višenacionalnog sastava njihova stanovništva (vidi Prilog 1. — 2.): Barcelonu, Dublin, Hamburg, Lille, Prag i Torino. Njome se potvrđuje da je za svih šest gradova priljev mlađih građana EU-a radne dobi imao pozitivan gospodarski učinak. Na primjer u Torinu, lokalnom ocjenom dokazano je da su porezni prihodi od stranaca nacionalnim javnim financijama ukupno donijeli neto dobit od 1,5 milijardi EUR (vidjeti Prilog 3.). U studiji je vidljivo i da su pridošlice pomogle popuniti praznine na lokalnom tržištu rada, pridonijele rastu u novim sektorima i pomogle u uravnoteženju sve starijeg stanovništva. Utvrđeno je da su mobilni građani često prekvalificirani za poslove koje obavljaju, da mogu biti manje plaćeni, a istovremeno nemaju uvijek isti pristup smještaju i obrazovanju.

„Slobodno kretanje prednost je za Europu, njezine građane i gospodarstva. Uistinu, u nekim gradovima mogu postojati izazovi koje treba riješiti. Bilo bi, međutim, pogrešno propitivati pravo na slobodno kretanje. Vjerujem da moramo raditi zajedno – na europskoj, nacionalnoj i lokalnoj razini – kako bismo izazove pretvorili u prilike. Primjeri iz gradova Barcelone, Dublina, Hamburga, Lillea, Praga i Torina pokazuju da je moguće,” rekla je potpredsjednica Viviane Reding, povjerenica EU-a za pravosuđe, temeljna prava i građanstvo kad je govorila na konferenciji gradonačelnika o slobodnom kretanju koja se danas održava (IP/14/98). „Možete računati na Komisiju da nastavi pomagati državama članicama u suočavanju sa svim izazovima povezanima sa slobodnim kretanjem. Današnji sastanak s gradonačelnicima pomoći će tijelima lokalne vlasti iz cijele Europe da koriste najbolje primjere uspješnih politika uključivanja građana EU-a u gradove, na svačiju korist. Radujem se što ću vidjeti takve dobre prakse diljem Europe.”

Glavni rezultati studije su:

  • građani EU-a sele se uglavnom zbog mogućnosti zapošljavanja i, u prosjeku, mlađi su i ekonomski aktivniji od lokalnog stanovništva u ispitanim gradovima (vidjeti Prilog 4.);

  • priljev mlađih građana EU-a radne dobi u odabrane gradove pomaže u suočavanju s demografskim izazovima sve starijega stanovništva i radne snage koja se smanjuje;

  • oni pomažu i u popunjavanju praznina na tržištu rada, ili preuzimajući uglavnom poslove za nisko kvalificirane radnike (Torino i Hamburg), pridonoseći rastu novih sektora (kao što su informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije u Dublinu), ili pomažući u stvaranju novih poslovnih pothvata (kao u Torinu i Hamburgu).

U studiji se također izlažu sljedeći izazovi:

  • veća je vjerojatnost da će mobilni građani biti više kvalificirani od državljana (zbog prihvaćanja poslova ispod svojih kvalifikacija), što bi moglo dovesti do rasipanja vještina i tako oslabiti moguće prednosti mobilnosti unutar EU-a;

  • u nekim slučajevima pojavila se razlika u nadnicama među državljanima i mobilnim građanima EU-a (koji najčešće zarađuju manje), premda su dokazi prilično oskudni;

  • mobilnim građanima nisu uvijek dostupne iste mogućnosti u pogledu stanovanja i uključivanja djece u škole, premda rade i plaćaju poreze.

Uspjeh programa integracije provedenih u šest gradova dokazuje i činjenica da se stavovi o mobilnosti postupno poboljšavaju (vidjeti Prilog 5.). Svi ispitani gradovi promiču uključivo okruženje i kulturu dobrodošlice politikama kao što su dostupnost informacija (na primjer, usluge informiranja „sve na jednom mjestu”); pomoć u učenju jezika; i međukulturni dijalog i interakcija među građanima.

Konačno, u studiji je naznačen niz primjera najbolje prakse iz ispitanih gradova (vidjeti Prilog 6.).

Pozadina

Studija je predstavljena na današnjem sastanku s više od 100 gradonačelnika i predstavnika tijela lokalne vlasti iz cijele Europe koji su se sastali da bi raspravljali o trenutačnim izazovima i mogućnostima u vezi sa slobodnim kretanjem građana EU-a u Europskoj uniji. Konferencija gradonačelnika osmišljena je kako bi se pomoglo tijelima lokalne vlasti da razmijene dobre prakse u provedbi propisa o slobodnom kretanju i nošenju s izazovima socijalne uključenosti. Sastanak je jedna od pet mjera koje je predstavila Komisija kako bi ojačala pravo na slobodno kretanje u EU-u i pomogla državama članicama da iskoriste pozitivne prednosti koje ono donosi (IP/13/1151).

U studiji su analizirane politike usmjerene na gospodarsku i socijalnu uključenost mobilnih građana EU-a te na promicanje kulture dobrodošlice i pozitivnog stava prema stranim državljanima. Razmatrane su politike u području zapošljavanja, poduzetništva, stanovanja, obrazovanja, međukulturnog dijaloga, stavova prema migraciji i sudjelovanju u gradskom životu.

Za dodatne informacije

Studija: Procjena utjecaja slobodnog kretanja građana EU-a na lokalnoj razini:

http://ec.europa.eu/justice/citizen/files/dg_just_eva_free_mov_final_report_27.01.14.pdf

Prilog studiji: Dobre prakse iz šest gradova:

http://ec.europa.eu/justice/citizen/files/best_practices.pdf

Najčešća pitanja — objašnjenje slobodnog kretanja:

http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-14-9_hr.htm

Europska komisija – slobodno kretanje

http://ec.europa.eu/justice/citizen/move-live/index_en.htm

Početna stranica potpredsjednice Viviane Reding, povjerenice EU-a za pravosuđe:

http://ec.europa.eu/reding

Pratite potpredsjednicu na Twitteru:@VivianeRedingEU

Kontakti:

Mina Andreeva (+32 2 299 13 82)

Natasha Bertaud (+32 2 296 74 56)

Za javnost: Europe Direct na telefon 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 ili adresu e­-pošte

PRILOG: Trends and patterns in the six cities

1. Total population composition in the 6 cities in 2011

The 6 cities vary significantly in terms of waves of migration they have experienced. Notably, Lille and Hamburg have a long migration history. On the contrary, the inflow of EU mobile citizens is a recent phenomenon in Dublin, Barcelona, Turin, with increasing inflows following the 2004 and 2007 enlargements. Finally, Prague has evolved from simply a transit route to a target country only recently.

Source: National Statistical Offices, Note: TCNs = Third Country Nationals

2. Composition of EU mobile citizens by country of origin in the 6 cities

In some cities, one or two nationalities make up the bulk of EU mobile citizens. This is the case in Turin, where 91.8% of EU mobile citizens are from Romania, and in Prague, where 52.5% of EU mobile citizens come from Slovakia. In other cities, although more EU nationalities are represented, two national groups prevail: in Lille (Lille Métrople Communauté Urbaine data) 30.2% of EU mobile citizens come from Portugal and 25.8% from Belgium; in Barcelona, citizens from Italy and France account respectively for 31.6% and 16.6% of EU mobile citizens. Finally, Hamburg and Dublin show a definitively fragmented picture, since these cities host a high number of different communities (despite the relevance of some national groups such as Polish, significant in both cities).

Source: National Statistical Offices

3. Free movement of Citizens: A Benefit to the economy of Turin

INCLUDEPICTURE "cid:image001.png@01CF236B.7956ACB0" \* MERGEFORMATINET

An evaluation carried out at national level by “Caritas migrantes” shows that tax revenues from foreigners on the whole brought a net benefit of 1.5 billion € to national public finances: the high amount of social security taxes paid by foreigners, in addition to other direct and indirect taxes, extensively overcomes the costs of social services provided for them.

4. Employment Rates in the Six Countries/Cities

Spain

Source: Eurostat

Ireland

Source: Eurostat

Hamburg

Source: Statistik der bundesagentur für Arbeit

Czech Republic:

Source: Eurostat

4. Activities of EU mobile citizens in the six cities

Note: specific data on EU citizens in each city are not always available. Data may be for all foreigners or for the whole region or country.

Barcelona (Spain)

Share of employed EU mobile citizens per level of qualification and skills required in Catalonia (2011)

Source: CCOO Cataluña

EU mobile citizens are quite polarised in Catalonia with approximately a third employed in jobs with low or no level of qualification (32.4%), and a third in jobs with high level of qualification (30.3%)

Dublin (Ireland)

EU mobile citizens and Irish citizens per occupation in Ireland

Source: CSO, Population census 2011

Although, in Ireland, the distribution of EU and non-EU workers across sectors is substantially in line with that of nationals, the former are more likely to be employed in some sectors, such as manufacturing (25.5% of foreign workers are employed, compared to 21% of Irish nationals) and Accommodation and Food (16.4% of foreign workers take up jobs here, against 8.5% of nationals).

Nationals’ and foreigners’ distribution per employment sectors in Ireland (2011)

Source: Quarterly Household national Survey Q1 2011

On the whole, the distribution of foreign nationals on the labour market is biased towards lower skilled sectors.

Hamburg

Employee per profession – data for nationals, EU mobile citizens and non-EU nationals in Hamburg in 2012

Source: Statistik der bundesagentur für Arbeit, podaci se odnose na 30/6

The chart shows that in Hamburg a small share of EU mobile citizens are employed in organizational, administrative and other white-collar occupations (20%), as compared to nationals (29.1%), whereas they are largely more present in transport and logistical occupations (e.g. train, truck or taxi drivers, pilots) or as nutrition professionals (e.g. cooks, bakers, butchers).

Lille

Nationals, EU mobile citizens and non-EU nationals (between 25 and 64 years) per employment sectors in the Nord Pas de Calais Region (2007)

Source: INSEE, Population census 2009

As far as the main sectors of activity are concerned, EU mobile citizens, when compared to Nationals, work more in the industry and construction sectors.

Nationals, EU mobile citizens and non-EU nationals per occupation in the Lille Métropole Commnauté Urbaine (2009)

Source: INSEE, Population census 2009

Focusing on the occupational structure of EU mobile citizens who are actively employed in the Lille Métropole Commnauté Urbaine, they mainly belong to the working class (33.3%) and to the employee category (25.6%).

Prague

Foreign nationals registered at labour offices by level of occupation, in Prague in 2010

Source: Directorate of Alien Police; foreigners registered at labour offices - Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs

With reference to the skills/occupational level, considering total foreign nationals in Prague, in 2010 the largest share was in elementary occupations (21,560), employing 28.2% of foreign nationals registered at labour offices.

Turin

New Employees by sector in Turin province in 2011

Source: Turin Chamber of Commerce, 2011

EU mobile citizens in the Province of Turin tend to be highly concentrated in certain sectors, in particular Construction (15.3%) and the Domestic working sectors (49.1%).

5. Integration policies are working: Attitudes are improving

Evolution of negative perception of foreign national by citizens in Barcelona (2007-12):

Source: Enquesta Òmnibus Municipal. Barcelona City Council.

6. Good practice examples from the six cities

City

Project

Summary

Barcelona

BCN Anti-Rumours

Barcelona aims to combat stereotypes and myths about cultural diversity, through surveys, communication activities and engaging local associations and companies. The project is a simple and effective way to build a more cohesive society and foster inclusion in the local community.

Barcelona

Barcelona Activa

A programme to support entrepreneurs moving to the city, with EU support. 1,300 people have followed information sessions and 600 have received training in entrepreneurship. The programme also facilitates access to professional services.

Dublin

Failte Isteach

A community project offering conversational English classes taught by older volunteers. The project harnesses the skills, experience and enthusiasm of senior citizens to help meet the needs of foreign residents struggling due to language barriers, but also serves to break down cultural barriers by extending a friendly welcome to newcomers.

Hamburg

We are Hamburg! Won’t you join us?

A campaign to promote openness to other cultures in local authorities and recruit young foreigners in the Hamburg public services. 500 training places were offered in the police, fire service, prisons and courts, resulting in an increase in foreign residents of the city following apprenticeships.

Lille

International Label

A project launched by the local university to promote inclusion of foreign students and mobility of its own students. The International Label is awarded to students who have followed an intercultural module, language course and mobility programme as part of their diploma.

Prague

Libraries for All

Part of a wider European project to provide multilingual services through public libraries to promote inclusion. Services include books in other languages as well as language and IT courses for foreign residents.

Turin

Start a Business

The local chamber of commerce, tax and social security offices joined forces to provide support and advice to foreigners in the process of starting a new business. The project included a training course for foreign residents wanting to become entrepreneurs.


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