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Kuidas läheb ELi piires uude riiki kolinutel?

European Commission - IP/14/137   11/02/2014

Other available languages: EN FR DE DA ES NL IT SV PT FI EL CS HU LT LV MT PL SK SL BG RO HR

Euroopa Komisjon

Pressiteade

Brüssel, 11. veebruar 2014

Kuidas läheb ELi piires uude riiki kolinutel?

ELi kodanikud kolivad teistesse riikidesse enamasti paremate töövõimaluste pärast, on keskmiselt kohalikest nooremad ja käivad tõenäoliselt tööl. See selgus uuest sõltumatust uuringust ELis vaba liikumise õiguse mõju kohta kohalikul tasandil. Uuringus keskendutakse kuuele Euroopa linnale, mis valiti välja nende mitmerahvuselise elanikkonna tõttu (vt 1.–2. lisa): Barcelona, Dublin, Hamburg, Lille, Praha ja Torino. Sellest selgub, et kõigis kuues linnas on noorte, tööealiste ELi kodanike sisseränne avaldanud majandusele positiivset mõju. Näiteks Torino puhul selgub, et välismaalaste maksutulu tõi riigikassasse 1,5 miljardit eurot (vt 3. lisa). Samuti selgub uuringust, et uustulnukad on aidanud täita lünki kohalikul tööturul, andnud oma panuse majanduskasvu uutes sektorites ning tasakaalustanud elanikkonna vananemisega seotud ilminguid. Selgub, et mobiilsed kodanikud on sageli ülekvalifitseeritud töö jaoks, mida nad teevad, nad võivad saada väiksemat palka ning sageli ei ole neil võimalik leida eluaset või anda laste haridust samadel tingimustel kohalikega.

Vaba liikumine toob kasu Euroopale, tema kodanikele ja majandusele. Loomulikult võib mõnes linnas esineda lahendamist vajavaid probleeme. Vaba liikumise õiguse küsimärgi alla panemine ei oleks aga õige lahendus. Peame tegutsema koos nii Euroopa, liikmesriigi kui ka kohalikul tasandil, et muuta probleemid võimalusteks. Barcelona, Dublin, Hamburg, Lille, Praha ja Torino näitavad, et see on võimalik,” lausus Euroopa Komisjoni asepresident Viviane Reding, kõneledes täna toimuval linnapeade konverentsil, kus käsitletakse vaba liikumist (IP/14/98). „Komisjon aitab liikmesriike igal juhul, kui vaba liikumisega seoses esineb probleeme. Tänasel kohtumisel linnapeadega tutvustatakse kohalike ametiasutuste esindajatele kogu Euroopast näiteid ELi kodanike edukast integratsioonist linnades – ning sellest saavad kasu kõik. Loodan, et need näited saavad eeskujuks kogu Euroopale.”

Uuringu peamised järeldused on järgmised:

  • ELi kodanikud kolivad mujale peamiselt paremate töövõimaluste tõttu ning nad on keskmiselt nooremad ja majanduslikult aktiivsemad kui kohalik elanikkond uuringus osalenud linnades (vt 4. lisa);

  • noorte tööealiste ELi kodanike sisseränne linnadesse aitab lahendada probleeme, mis tulenevad vananevast elanikkonnast ja tööjõu vähenemisest;

  • samuti täidavad sisserändajad lünki tööturul, tehes peamiselt madalat kvalifikatsiooni nõudvaid töid (Torino ja Hamburg), aidates kaasa uute sektorite kasvule (nt IKT Dublinis) või osaledes uutes ettevõtlusprojektides (Torinos ja Hamburgis).

Uuringust selgub, et lahendamist vajavad järgmised probleemid:

  • mobiilsed kodanikud on kohalikest sagedamini ülekvalifitseeritud (nad on nõus töötama oma kvalifikatsioonist madalamat kvalifikatsiooni nõudval töökohal), mis tähendab oskuste raiskamist, vähendades nii ELi-sisese liikuvuse võimalikku kasu;

  • mõnel juhul on täheldatud palgaerinevusi kohalike elanike ja sisserännanute vahel (viimased teenivad enamasti vähem), kuid tõendeid selle kohta on väga vähe;

  • sisserännanud ELi kodanikel ei ole alati kohalikega võrdseid võimalusi leida elukohta või anda oma lastele haridust, vaatamata sellele et nad töötavad ja maksavad makse.

Integratsioonikavade edu uuringus osalenud kuues linnas annab tunnistust sellest, et suhtumine liikuvusse on tasapisi paranemas (vt 5. lisa). Kõikides osalenud linnades soodustatakse kaasavat keskkonda ja avatud suhtumist, muutes teabe lihtsalt kättesaadavaks (nt kogu teave on kättesaadav ühes kohas), toetades keeleõpet ning edendades kultuuridevahelist dialoogi ja kodanikevahelist suhtlust.

Uuringus tuuakse esile mitmed head tavad osalenud linnadest (vt 6. lisa).

Taust

Uuringut tutvustati täna toimunud linnapeade kohtumisel, kus osales üle 100 linnapea ja kohalike ametiasutuste esindaja kogu Euroopast. Nad arutasid probleeme ja võimalusi, mis on seotud ELi kodanike vaba liikumisega Euroopa Liidus. Linnapeade konverentsi eesmärk on jagada head tava vaba liikumise õiguse valdkonnas ja lahendada sotsiaalse kaasatusega seotud probleeme. Kohtumine on üks Euroopa Komisjoni viiest meetmest, millega kavatsetakse tugevdada vaba liikumise õigust ELis, aidates samal ajal liikmesriikidel saada kasu selle positiivsetest külgedest (IP/13/1151).

Uuringus analüüsitakse meetmeid, mille eesmärk on mobiilsete ELi kodanike majanduslik ja sotsiaalne kaasamine ning välismaalastesse avatud suhtumise soosimine. Uuringus vaadeldi lähemalt tööhõive, ettevõtluse, eluaseme ja hariduse valdkonnas võetud meetmeid, samuti käsitleti kultuuridevahelist dialoogi, suhtumist rändesse ja osalust linnaelus.

Lisateave

Uuring: Hinnang ELi kodanike vaba liikumise mõjule kohalikul tasandil:

http://ec.europa.eu/justice/citizen/files/dg_just_eva_free_mov_final_report_27.01.14.pdf

Uuringu lisa: Kuue linna hea tava:

http://ec.europa.eu/justice/citizen/files/best_practices.pdf

Korduma kippuvad küsimused vaba liikumise kohta:

http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-14-9_et.htm

Euroopa Komisjon — vaba liikumine:

http://ec.europa.eu/justice/citizen/move-live/index_en.htm

Komisjoni asepresidendi ja ELi õigusküsimuste voliniku Viviane Redingu veebisait:

http://ec.europa.eu/reding

Asepresident Twitteris:@VivianeRedingEU

Kontaktisikud:

Mina Andreeva (+32 2 299 13 82)

Natasha Bertaud (+32 2 296 74 56)

Üldsusele: Europe Directi telefon 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 või e-post

ANNEX: Trends and patterns in the six cities

1. Total population composition in the 6 cities in 2011

The 6 cities vary significantly in terms of waves of migration they have experienced. Notably, Lille and Hamburg have a long migration history. On the contrary, the inflow of EU mobile citizens is a recent phenomenon in Dublin, Barcelona, Turin, with increasing inflows following the 2004 and 2007 enlargements. Finally, Prague has evolved from simply a transit route to a target country only recently.

Source: National Statistical Offices, Note: TCNs = Third Country Nationals

2. Composition of EU mobile citizens by country of origin in the 6 cities

In some cities, one or two nationalities make up the bulk of EU mobile citizens. This is the case in Turin, where 91.8% of EU mobile citizens are from Romania, and in Prague, where 52.5% of EU mobile citizens come from Slovakia. In other cities, although more EU nationalities are represented, two national groups prevail: in Lille (Lille Métrople Communauté Urbaine data) 30.2% of EU mobile citizens come from Portugal and 25.8% from Belgium; in Barcelona, citizens from Italy and France account respectively for 31.6% and 16.6% of EU mobile citizens. Finally, Hamburg and Dublin show a definitively fragmented picture, since these cities host a high number of different communities (despite the relevance of some national groups such as Polish, significant in both cities).

Source: National Statistical Offices

3. Free movement of Citizens: A Benefit to the economy of Turin

INCLUDEPICTURE "cid:image001.png@01CF236B.7956ACB0" \* MERGEFORMATINET

An evaluation carried out at national level by “Caritas migrantes” shows that tax revenues from foreigners on the whole brought a net benefit of 1.5 billion € to national public finances: the high amount of social security taxes paid by foreigners, in addition to other direct and indirect taxes, extensively overcomes the costs of social services provided for them.

4. Employment Rates in the Six Countries/Cities

Spain

Source: Eurostat

Ireland

Source: Eurostat

Hamburg

Source: Statistik der Bundesagentur für Arbeit

Czech Republic:

Source: Eurostat

4. Activities of EU mobile citizens in the six cities

Note: specific data on EU citizens in each city are not always available. Data may be for all foreigners or for the whole region or country.

Barcelona (Spain)

Share of employed EU mobile citizens per level of qualification and skills required in Catalonia (2011)

Source: CCOO Cataluña

EU mobile citizens are quite polarised in Catalonia with approximately a third employed in jobs with low or no level of qualification (32.4%), and a third in jobs with high level of qualification (30.3%)

Dublin (Ireland)

EU mobile citizens and Irish citizens per occupation in Ireland

Source: CSO, Population census 2011

Although, in Ireland, the distribution of EU and non-EU workers across sectors is substantially in line with that of nationals, the former are more likely to be employed in some sectors, such as manufacturing (25.5% of foreign workers are employed, compared to 21% of Irish nationals) and Accommodation and Food (16.4% of foreign workers take up jobs here, against 8.5% of nationals).

Nationals’ and foreigners’ distribution per employment sectors in Ireland (2011)

Source: Quarterly Household national Survey Q1 2011

On the whole, the distribution of foreign nationals on the labour market is biased towards lower skilled sectors.

Hamburg

Employee per profession – data for nationals, EU mobile citizens and non-EU nationals in Hamburg in 2012

Source: Statistik der Bundesagentur für Arbeit, Data refers to the 30/6

The chart shows that in Hamburg a small share of EU mobile citizens are employed in organizational, administrative and other white-collar occupations (20%), as compared to nationals (29.1%), whereas they are largely more present in transport and logistical occupations (e.g. train, truck or taxi drivers, pilots) or as nutrition professionals (e.g. cooks, bakers, butchers).

Lille

Nationals, EU mobile citizens and non-EU nationals (between 25 and 64 years) per employment sectors in the Nord Pas de Calais Region (2007)

Source: INSEE, Population census 2009

As far as the main sectors of activity are concerned, EU mobile citizens, when compared to Nationals, work more in the industry and construction sectors.

Nationals, EU mobile citizens and non-EU nationals per occupation in the Lille Métropole Commnauté Urbaine (2009)

Source: INSEE, Population census 2009

Focusing on the occupational structure of EU mobile citizens who are actively employed in the Lille Métropole Commnauté Urbaine, they mainly belong to the working class (33.3%) and to the employee category (25.6%).

Prague

Foreign nationals registered at labour offices by level of occupation, in Prague in 2010

Source: Directorate of Alien Police; foreigners registered at labour offices - Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs

With reference to the skills/occupational level, considering total foreign nationals in Prague, in 2010 the largest share was in elementary occupations (21,560), employing 28.2% of foreign nationals registered at labour offices.

Turin

New Employees by sector in Turin province in 2011

Source: Turin Chamber of Commerce, 2011

EU mobile citizens in the Province of Turin tend to be highly concentrated in certain sectors, in particular Construction (15.3%) and the Domestic working sectors (49.1%).

5. Integration policies are working: Attitudes are improving

Evolution of negative perception of foreign national by citizens in Barcelona (2007-12):

Source: Enquesta Òmnibus Municipal. Barcelona City Council.

6. Good practice examples from the six cities

City

Project

Summary

Barcelona

BCN Anti-Rumours

Barcelona aims to combat stereotypes and myths about cultural diversity, through surveys, communication activities and engaging local associations and companies. The project is a simple and effective way to build a more cohesive society and foster inclusion in the local community.

Barcelona

Barcelona Activa

A programme to support entrepreneurs moving to the city, with EU support. 1,300 people have followed information sessions and 600 have received training in entrepreneurship. The programme also facilitates access to professional services.

Dublin

Failte Isteach

A community project offering conversational English classes taught by older volunteers. The project harnesses the skills, experience and enthusiasm of senior citizens to help meet the needs of foreign residents struggling due to language barriers, but also serves to break down cultural barriers by extending a friendly welcome to newcomers.

Hamburg

We are Hamburg! Won’t you join us?

A campaign to promote openness to other cultures in local authorities and recruit young foreigners in the Hamburg public services. 500 training places were offered in the police, fire service, prisons and courts, resulting in an increase in foreign residents of the city following apprenticeships.

Lille

International Label

A project launched by the local university to promote inclusion of foreign students and mobility of its own students. The International Label is awarded to students who have followed an intercultural module, language course and mobility programme as part of their diploma.

Prague

Libraries for All

Part of a wider European project to provide multilingual services through public libraries to promote inclusion. Services include books in other languages as well as language and IT courses for foreign residents.

Turin

Start a Business

The local chamber of commerce, tax and social security offices joined forces to provide support and advice to foreigners in the process of starting a new business. The project included a training course for foreign residents wanting to become entrepreneurs.


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