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European Commission

Press release

Brussels, 3 October 2014

Teachers' salaries start to increase in Europe

In 2013/2014, teachers saw their salaries increase in 16 European countries (BE, DK, DE, EE, FR, HR, LU, HU, MT, AT, SK, FI, UK, NO, MK, TR) compared with the previous school year, according to a Eurydice report carried out for the European Commission. The rises were chiefly due to salary reforms and adjustments to the cost of living. The survey covers teachers and school heads at pre-primary, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary level. In about half of the 33 European countries featured in the report, teachers' purchasing power1 in 2014 is still below the 2009 level.

In a few countries - BE(nl), DK (primary and lower secondary education), LT, LU, AT, FI (primary and lower secondary education) and IT (upper secondary education) – the decrease in purchasing power is relatively small at below 3%, while CY, IT (primary and lower secondary education), NL, PT, RO (primary education) and the UK saw a decrease of 5 to 10%. In IE, ES, RO (secondary education), SI and IS teachers saw a fall in purchasing power of 13% to 17%. The biggest decrease was in Greece with a fall of around 40%.

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"Raising the attractiveness of the teaching profession is crucial in order to develop a strong pool of teachers equipped with the skills needed in the 21st century," said Androulla Vassiliou, European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth. "The quality of education and skills which they impart to our young generation will have a long-lasting impact on future jobs and growth. As the European Union recovers from the economic crisis, Member States should carefully reflect on the role of remuneration and working conditions in attracting and retaining the best candidates into the teaching profession."

The report, Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe (2013/2014), shows that the basic salaries for teachers entering the profession in primary and lower secondary education are lower than GDP per capita2 in around three quarters of the countries surveyed (except in DE, ES, CY, MT, PT, the UK-Scotland, ME, and TR). For the majority of countries, this also applies to teachers' salaries in upper secondary education.

The report also shows that in a large majority of the countries, teachers' salaries increase in line with length of service. However, the level of salary increases and the speed at which they progress differs. In some cases, increases are relatively low but the top pay scale is reached fairly quickly (DK, EE, LV, MT, FI, UK-Scotland) while in other countries high increases are only achieved at the end of a long service period (EL, HU, AT, PT, RO).

Teachers' basic salaries can also increase due to allowances to reflect extra qualifications, performance evaluation, or for teaching children with special needs.

Such incentives can contribute to making the profession more attractive, by shifting from career progression based on length of service to a more development- and performance-oriented approach. Linking the acquisition of new skills and better teaching practices to career progression is likely to serve as an incentive for the entire teaching population, and particularly new teachers, including those attracted into the profession after a career elsewhere.

Background

This annual Eurydice report is published to coincide with World Teachers' Day (5 October); it contains a comparative overview of salaries for full time, fully qualified teachers and school heads at pre-primary, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education levels. It covers 33 European countries (EU Member States apart from Bulgaria, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Norway and Turkey).

Separate country-specific details cover issues as:

Decision-making bodies responsible for setting teachers’/school heads’ salaries;

Salaries arrangements in the private sector;

Minimum and maximum annual gross statutory salaries of full-time fully qualified teachers/school heads in public schools;

Salary progression in relation to experience;

Information on salary increase/decrease in the last year;

Different types of allowances and the decision-making bodies responsible for their allocation.

Eurydice

The European Commission's Eurydice Network provides information on and analyses of European education systems and policies. It consists of 40 national units based in 36 countries participating in the EU's Erasmus+ programme (EU Member States, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Turkey). It is co-ordinated and managed by the EU Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency in Brussels, which drafts its studies and provides a range of online resources.

For more information

The full report on Teachers' and School Heads' Salaries and Allowances in Europe 2013/14 (EN)

European Commission: Education and training

Androulla Vassiliou's website

Follow Androulla Vassiliou on Twitter @VassiliouEU

Contacts:

Dennis Abbott (+32 2 295 92 58); Twitter: @DennisAbbott

Dina Avraam (+32 2 295 96 67)

For the public: Europe Direct by phone 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 or by e-mail

______________________________________________________________________

1 Comparing salaries in 2009 and 2014 in real terms and national currency shows that teachers' minimum statutory salaries have been directly affected by the economic downturn in most countries. Changes in statutory salaries are largely due to salary reforms in the education sector, adjustments to teachers’ salaries to keep pace with the cost of living, and general salary changes across the public sector. The absolute change in salaries does not always result in a real change, as the cost of living also changes. About half of European countries applied salary cuts or freezes for public employees in 2009-2014 for one or more years and as a consequence teachers saw their purchasing power decrease.

2 The GDP (Growth Domestic Product) per capita indicates the standard of living in a country.

Annex

Figure 1: Changes in teachers' statutory salaries in absolute terms in the public sector in 2013/14 compared with the previous year

Explanatory note

The figure presents the absolute changes in the gross annual statutory salary for teachers in 2013/14 compared with the previous year without taking inflation into account. Only changes of 1 % or higher on a year to year basis are considered for increase or decrease.

The basic gross annual statutory salary is defined as the amount paid by the employer in a year. It includes the basic statutory salary together with any general increases to salary scales, the 13th month and holiday-pay (where applicable) excluding employers’ social security and pension contributions. This salary does not include other salary allowances or financial benefits (related, for example, to further qualifications, merit, overtime, additional responsibilities, geographical location, teaching classes in challenging circumstances, or accommodation, health or travel costs).

Figure 2: The minimum and maximum annual basic gross statutory salary in general education of full-time fully qualified TEACHERS in public schools compared with per capita GDP at current price, 2013/14

Minimum and maximum annual basic gross statutory for TEACHERS as % of GDP at current price

BE
fr

BE
de

BE
nl

BG

CZ

DK

DE

EE

IE

EL

ES
(a)

ES
(b)

FR
(a)

FR
(b)

HR

IT
(a)

IT
(b)

CY

LV

LT

LU

HU

ISCED 1

Min

87.9

88.7

89.3

:

62.6

94.0

128.8

67.1

78.1

75.3

124.5

-

79.0

-

85.2

90.0

-

125.7

39.7

32.3

84.5

63.2

Max

151.5

147.4

154.8

:

77.4

116.1

166.6

77.3

166.7

142.3

176.4

-

143.2

-

122.0

132.4

-

305.8

41.2

59.4

149.2

120.0

ISCED 2

Min

87.9

88.7

89.3

:

62.6

94.0

140.2

67.1

78.1

75.3

139.4

148.8

87.6

-

85.2

97.1

-

125.7

39.7

32.3

95.7

63.2

Max

151.5

147.4

154.8

:

77.4

116.1

184.7

77.3

166.7

142.3

196.8

206.2

152.3

-

139.3

145.4

-

305.8

41.2

59.4

166.4

131.5

ISCED 3

Min

109.4

111.1

111.6

:

62.6

115.4

151.5

67.1

78.1

75.3

139.4

148.8

88.8

89.0

85.2

97.1

90.0

125.7

39.7

32.3

95.7

69.2

Max

191.7

186.9

196.0

:

77.4

149.9

209.1

77.3

166.7

142.3

196.8

206.2

153.6

153.8

139.3

152.0

136.2

305.8

41.2

59.4

166.4

131.5

MT

NL

AT
(a)

AT
(b)

PL

PT

RO

SI

SK

FI

SE

UK
(1)

UK-
NIR

UK-
SCT

IS

LI
(a)

LI
(b)

ME

MK

NO
(a)

NO
(b)

TR

ISCED 1

Min

88.9

89.8

80.5

-

54.0

135.8

44.2

98.3

50.6

89.0

67.0

84.3

84.3

100.4

79.6

59.7

-

178.7

:

63.7

0.0

156.5

Max

115.2

142.0

154.1

-

90.0

260.5

125.1

158.1

68.5

115.8

93.4

143.5

143.5

133.6

99.4

96.8

-

283.7

:

-

-

180.8

ISCED 2

Min

107.4

95.3

80.5

88.6

60.8

135.8

47.1

98.3

50.6

96.2

67.0

84.3

84.3

100.4

79.6

70.4

65.1

178.7

:

63.7

66.6

144.8

Max

141.2

196.3

154.1

185.8

102.6

260.5

125.1

158.1

68.5

125.1

93.4

143.5

143,5

133.6

99.4

114.3

105.6

283.7

:

-

-

169.1

ISCED 3

Min

107.4

95.3

88.6

68.7

135.8

47.1

98.3

50.6

102.0

74.3

84.3

84.3

100.4

85.8

65.1

-

178.7

:

66.6

72.1

144.8

Max

141.2

196.3

185.8

117.5

260.5

125.1

158.1

68.5

135.0

100.1

143.5

143.5

133.6

130.5

105.6

-

283.7

:

-

-

169.1

Source: Eurydice. UK (1) = UK-ENG/WLS

Minimum and maximum annual basic gross statutory for TEACHERS (in EUR)

BE fr

BE de

BE nl

BG

CZ

DK

DE

EE

IE

EL

ES (a)

ES (b)

FR (a)

FR (b)

HR

ISCED 1

Min

30 335

30 598

30 820

:

8 896

41 734

42 891

9 260

27 814

13 104

27 754

24 724

8 692

Max

52 271

50 850

53 409

:

10 995

51 553

55 465

10 668

59 359

24 756

39 340

44 811

12 449

ISCED 2

Min

30 335

30 598

30 820

:

8 896

41 734

46 697

9 260

27 814

13 104

31 079

33 174

27 425

8 692

Max

52 271

50 850

53 409

:

10 995

51 553

61 497

10 668

59 359

24 756

43 883

45 978

47 663

14 212

ISCED 3

Min

37 743

38 316

38 509

:

8 896

51 227

50 449

9 260

27 814

13 104

31 079

33 174

27 796

27 851

8 692

Max

66 140

64 491

67 631

:

10 995

66 577

69 646

10 668

59 359

24 756

43 883

45 978

48 071

48 131

14 212

IT (a)

IT (b)

CY

LV

LT

LU

HU

MT

NL

AT (a)

AT (b)

PL

PT

RO

SI

ISCED 1

Min

23 048

23 885

4 610

3 774

70 450

6 253

18 254

32 225

29 802

5 449

21 458

2 876

16 810

Max

33 885

58 107

4 781

6 954

124 462

11 881

23 997

50 993

57 032

9 092

41 164

8 132

27 029

ISCED 2

Min

24 846

23 885

4 610

3 774

79 844

6 253

18 254

34 230

29 802

32 767

6 137

21 458

3 060

16 810

Max

37 212

58 107

4 781

6 954

138 787

13 018

23 997

70 458

57 032

68 730

10 367

41 164

8 132

27 029

ISCED 3

Min

24 846

23 048

23 885

4 610

3 774

79 844

6 851

18 254

34 230

32 767

6 939

21 458

3 060

16 810

Max

38 902

34 867

58 107

4 781

6 954

138 787

13 018

23 997

70 458

68 730

11 867

41 164

8 132

27 029

SK

FI

SE

UK-ENG/ WLS

UK-
NIR

UK-
SCT

IS

LI

ME

MK

NO

TR

ISCED 1

Min

6 732

31 699

29 359

25 123

25 123

29 928

27 061

68 419

6 433

5 215

48 360

11 737

Max

9 114

41 227

40 917

42 775

42 775

39 800

33 810

111 034

10 213

7 473

13 562

ISCED 2

Min

6 732

34 235

29 359

25 123

25 123

29 928

27 061

80 806

74 615

6 433

5 215

48 360

50 554

10 857

Max

9 114

44 526

40 917

42 775

42 775

39 800

33 810

131 146

121 086

10 213

7 473

(-)

(-)

12 682

ISCED 3

Min

6 732

36 303

32 548

25 123

25 123

29 928

29 174

80 806

6 433

5 444

50 554

54 760

10 857

Max

9 114

48 064

43 840

42 775

42 775

39 800

44 371

131 146

10 213

7 818

(-)

(-)

12 682

Source: Eurydice.

Explanatory note (Figure 2)

The gross annual statutory salary is the amount paid by the employer in a year including general increases to salary scales, the 13th month and holiday pay (where applicable) but excluding the employers’ social security and pension contributions. This salary does not include other salary allowances or financial benefits (related, for example, to further qualifications, merit, overtime, additional responsibilities, geographical location, the obligation to teach classes in challenging circumstances, or accommodation, health or travel costs).. The minimum salary is the gross salary received by teachers at the start of their career. The maximum salary is the gross salary received by teachers and school heads on retirement or after a certain number of years’ service. The maximum salary includes only increases related to length of service and/or age. For information regarding decision-making levels, see Figure 1.

The values in the table show the relationship (in percentages) between the minimum and maximum gross annual statutory salary, according to level of education, in EUR and GDP per capita (at current prices in EUR) in the country concerned. The reference calendar year for GDP per capita is 2013. Source: Eurostat (data extracted May 2014). The reference period for salaries is the 2013/14 school year or the calendar year 2014. Exchange rates, source: Eurostat (data extracted May 2014).


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