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Survey shows fall in cultural participation in Europe

Commission Européenne - IP/13/1023   04/11/2013

Autres langues disponibles: FR DE EL

European Commission

Press release

Brussels, 4 November 2013

Survey shows fall in cultural participation in Europe

Is Europe becoming a less cultural continent? The findings of a new Eurobarometer survey on cultural access and participation – the first on the topic since 2007 – suggest this may be the case. Although there are marked differences between Member States, in general fewer Europeans are engaging in cultural activities, as performers or spectators. Only 38% actively took part in a cultural activity, such as singing, dancing or photography, in the past year. In terms of 'passive' participation, the number describing their cultural engagement as high or very high is down to 18%, compared with 21% in 2007. The decline in participation has affected all cultural activities except cinema, with 52% saying they went to the movies in the past year (+1%). The main reasons cited for not engaging in culture are lack of time (44% give this reason for not reading a book), lack of interest (50% say this is why they have not seen a ballet, dance performance or opera), lack of money (25% give this reason for not attending a concert), and lack of choice (10% on average). The survey showed that over half of Europeans use the internet for cultural purposes, with nearly a third doing so at least once a week.

"Culture is a source of personal fulfilment, creativity and joy. I am concerned that fewer EU citizens are involved in cultural activities, as performers, producers or consumers. This survey shows that governments need to re-think how they support culture to stimulate public participation and culture's potential as an engine for jobs and growth. The cultural and creative sectors also need to adapt to reach new audiences and explore new funding models. The Commission will continue to support cultural access and participation through our new Creative Europe programme and other EU funding sources," stated Androulla Vassiliou, European Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth.

The survey shows that the most common form of cultural participation in the EU is watching or listening to a cultural programme on television or radio (72% did this at least once in the past 12 months, a 6% decrease since 2007), followed by reading a book (68%, down 3%). The least popular activity is going to see an opera, ballet or dance performance (18%, no change).

In terms of frequency of participation in all types of cultural activities, from reading to visiting a museum, Northern countries score highest, led by Sweden (43% describe their rate of participation as high or very high), Denmark (36%) and the Netherlands (34%). At the other end of the scale is Greece, where only 5% report high or very high participation rates, Portugal and Cyprus, 6%, Romania and Hungary, 7%, and Italy, 8%. Moreover, 34% of the EU population say they never or hardly ever participate in cultural activities, a 4% rise since 2007. This figure has significantly increased in some countries, such as Hungary (54%, +26%), Romania (55%, +14%) and Greece (63%, +8%).

Nearly 27 000 people across the EU were interviewed for the survey. The number of respondents in each country ranged from 500 in smaller Member States (Malta, Cyprus and Luxembourg) to around 1 300 in the UK and 1 500 in Germany.

The highest levels of active participation are in Denmark (74% have participated actively in at least one cultural activity in the past year), Sweden (68%), Finland (63%) and the Netherlands (58%). The lowest levels of active participation are in Bulgaria (14%), Malta (18%), Italy (20%) and Hungary (21%). Only 12% of EU respondents were involved in photography or in making a film, compared with 27% in the previous survey, while 13% say they danced (19% last time) and 11% sang (15% in 2007).

Of those citing lack of interest, time, money or choice as the reason for non-participation, the highest/lowest figures are as follows:

  • Read a book: lack of interest (PT 49% highest, SE 15% lowest), lack of time (CY 55%, IE 31%), lack of money (HU, IT 8%, DK, LU, MT, NL, SE and UK all 0%), limited choice (RO 14%, NL 0%).

  • Watched or listened to a cultural programme on TV/ radio: lack of interest (AT 43% highest, LU, RO both 20% lowest), lack of time (MT 50%, AT 23%), limited choice (RO 16%, BG, MT both 3%).

  • Been to a concert: lack of interest (MT 49% highest, LV 11% lowest), lack of time (LU 34%, PT 13%), lack of money (PT 35%, MT 7%), limited choice (RO 30%, MT 2%).

  • Visited a historical monument or site: lack of interest (CY 47% highest, LV, RO both 18% lowest), lack of time (LU 44%, FI 25%), lack of money (CZ 21%, DK, LU, MT, FI, SE all 2%), limited choice (RO 26%, MT 1%).

  • Been to the cinema: lack of interest (CY 43% highest, LV and LU 17% lowest), lack of time (LU 43%, BG 18%), lack of money (ES 42%, MT 6%), limited choice (RO 29%, MT 1%).

  • Been to the theatre: lack of interest (MT 54% highest, EE 16% lowest), lack of time (CY, LV both 31%, PT 14%), lack of money (EL 40%, LU 4%), limited choice (RO 29%, MT 2%).

  • Visited a museum or gallery: lack of interest (CY 61% highest, LV, RO both 22% lowest), lack of time (UK 41%, PT 23%), lack of money (HU 18%, CY, MT, FI all 2%), limited choice (RO 26%, MT 1%),

  • Visited a public library: lack of interest (CY 62% highest, RO 26% lowest), lack of time (RO 36%, LU 17%), lack of choice (RO 23%, MT 2%).

  • Seen a ballet, dance performance or opera: lack of interest (CY 64% highest, RO 24% lowest), lack of time (LU 27%, PT 11%), lack of money (LT 25%, MT 4%).

The survey showed that over half of Europeans use the internet for cultural purposes. The most popular uses are reading newspaper articles (53%), searching for cultural information (44%) and listening to the radio or music via the internet (42%). Respondents from northern countries are more likely to use the internet for cultural purposes than those from southern and central-eastern European countries.

Socio-demographic factors continue to influence cultural participation: the best educated, those with a high social status or who almost never experience financial difficulties are more likely to participate in cultural activities. Encouragingly, the youngest Europeans (aged 15-24) show higher levels of participation in many cultural activities, and it seems that this is the age at which the greatest diversity of activities is experienced.

The European Culture Forum

The Eurobarometer survey on cultural access and participation is published to coincide with the opening of the European Culture Forum at the Brussels Palais des Beaux Arts. 1200 culture practitioners and policy-makers are expected to attend the Forum (4-6 November). Keynote speakers include José Manuel Barroso, European Commission President, Androulla Vassiliou, Commissioner for Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth, Šarūnas Birutis, the Lithuanian Minister of Culture, and Tomáš Sedláček, author of Economics of Good and Evil. The forum is taking place on the eve of the adoption of Creative Europe, the new EU programme to support the cultural and creative sectors.

To find out more

Special Eurobarometer 399 on cultural access and participation, 2013

(including country fiches)

Special Eurobarometer 278 on European Cultural Values, 2007

Information on the European Culture Forum

Information on Creative Europe

Commissioner Vassiliou's website


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