Brussels, 28 January 2009
Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas said: “Tackling the causes and impacts of climate change will require significant private and public investment over coming decades, though these investments will cost far less than letting climate change continue its destructive course. The European Economic Recovery Plan and similar measures being taken around the world to address the economic crisis are a chance to advance the low-carbon investment needed and stimulate growth, innovation and job creation at the same time. However, further financing solutions will be vital for getting agreement in Copenhagen. Today’s Communication makes a key contribution by putting forward a comprehensive set of proposals for scaling up finance and investment.”
The EU’s goal is to limit global warming to less than 2°C above the pre-industrial temperature as there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will become dangerous beyond this point.
The Copenhagen deal should both set global goals to reduce emissions and provide the basis for strengthening countries’ ability to adapt to climate change. The Communication offers concrete proposals to reach these goals.
Targets and actions
To stay below 2°C, global emissions need to peak before 2020 and then be cut to less than 50% of 1990 levels by 2050. This will require action by both developed and developing countries.
Developed countries must take the lead and cut their collective emissions by 30% of 1990 levels by 2020. The EU has set an example by committing to reduce emissions by 30% if other developed countries commit to comparable cuts and has already put in place the measures to cut its own emissions by 20% (IP/08/1998). The Communication proposes specific parameters to ensure national targets entail a comparable level of effort. All OECD countries and EU Member States, EU candidate countries and potential candidates should take on emission targets.
Developing countries, except the poorest ones, should limit growth in their collective emissions to 15-30% below business as usual levels by 2020. This should include a rapid decrease in emissions from tropical deforestation (IP/08/1543). These countries should commit to adopting low-carbon development strategies covering all key emitting sectors by 2011. A new international mechanism will assess these strategies and match proposed actions with appropriate external support.
Financing low-carbon development
To reduce emissions, global net additional investment may need to rise to around €175 billion per year in 2020 according to independent estimates. More than half of this will be needed in developing countries. Up to 2020 the bulk of actions in these countries will have low costs - or even benefits - and should be financed domestically. International financial support for actions exceeding a country’s domestic capabilities should come from sources including public funds and international carbon crediting mechanisms.
The Copenhagen agreement should also provide a framework to help countries adapt to inevitable climate change. All developed and developing countries should be required to elaborate national adaptation strategies. Support for adaptation should be provided to the most vulnerable Least Developed Countries and small island developing states.
The EU should explore potential innovative sources of international funding based on the polluter pays principle and the ability to pay. EU Member States could also use part of their future revenues from auctioning allowances under the EU Emissions Trading System to support developing countries.
Global carbon market
The EU should seek to build, by 2015, an OECD-wide carbon market by linking the EU ETS with other comparable cap-and-trade systems in order to mitigate and to raise funds to fight climate change. The market should be expanded to include major emerging economies by 2020 with a view to building a global carbon market.
The Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism should be reformed. For advanced developing countries and highly competitive economic sectors, the CDM should be gradually replaced by a sectoral crediting mechanism and cap-and-trade systems.
The Communication is addressed to the Council, Parliament and EU consultative bodies. The European Council is expected to give its response in March.
See also MEMO/09/34
 Towards a comprehensive climate change agreement in Copenhagen COM(2009) 39