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Two or three-wheeled motor vehicles: EC type-approval system
The European Union is working to harmonise Member States' legislation and to implement a Community type-approval system for two or three-wheeled motor vehicles.
Directive 2002/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 March 2002 relating to the type-approval of two or three-wheeled motor vehicles and repealing Council Directive 92/61/EEC [See amending acts].
This Directive applies to all two or three-wheeled motor vehicles, whether twin-wheeled or otherwise (each wheel fitted with a separate tyre), intended to travel on the road, and to the components or separate technical units of such vehicles. It does not apply to the following vehicles:
- vehicles with a maximum design speed not exceeding 6 km/h;
- vehicles intended for pedestrian control;
- vehicles used by the physically handicapped;
- vehicles intended for use in competition, on roads or in off-road conditions;
- vehicles already in use before the application date of Directive 92/61/EEC;
- tractors and machines, used for agricultural or similar purposes;
- vehicles designed primarily for off-road leisure use having wheels arranged symmetrically with one wheel at the front of the vehicle and two at the rear;
- cycles with pedal assistance which are equipped with an auxiliary electric motor having a maximum continuous rated power of 0.25 kW.
The vehicles covered by the Directive are subdivided into:
- mopeds: two- or three-wheeled vehicles fitted with an engine having a cylinder capacity not exceeding 50 cm3 and a maximum design speed of not more than 45 km/h;
- motor cycles: two-wheeled vehicles having a cylinder capacity of more than 50 cm3 and a maximum design speed of more than 45 km/h;
- motor tricycles: three-wheeled vehicles fitted with an engine having a cylinder capacity of more than 50 cm3 and a maximum design speed of more than 45 km/h;
- quadricycles: vehicles having a maximum unladen mass of less than 350 kg, maximum design speed not exceeding 45 km/h and a cylinder capacity of not more than 50 cm3 or a power output of not more than 4 kW.
The Directive clarifies certain administrative matters and supplements the norms contained in the annexes to Directive 92/61/EEC. With this in view, it introduces harmonised norms concerning, in particular, the numbering of type-approval certificates as well as exemptions for end-of-series vehicles and for vehicles, components and separate technical units incorporating technologies which are not yet covered by Community arrangements.
All applications for type-approval or component type-approval are lodged by the manufacturers or producers or their authorised representative in a Member State.
Member States are to type-approve all types of vehicle and component type-approve technical entities or components which satisfy the following conditions:
- the type of vehicle meets the technical requirements of the specific regulations and corresponds to the data supplied by the manufacturer in accordance with the exhaustive list set out in the annex to the Directive;
- the system (brakes, emission control equipment, etc.), technical entity or component meets the technical requirements of the relevant specific Directive and corresponds to the data supplied by the manufacturer in accordance with the exhaustive list set out in the annex.
A certificate of conformity is to be completed by the manufacturer or his authorised representative for each vehicle produced in conformity with the approved type and for each non-original technical entity or component manufactured in conformity with the type that has been component type-approved.
The Member States are to confirm that each type of vehicle has undergone the checks provided for in the separate directives and has been issued with a type-approval certificate. The manufacturers may prepare a certificate of conformity for all vehicles conforming to the type that has been approved. When a vehicle is accompanied by this certificate it may be placed on the market, sold and registered for use throughout the Community.
Any vehicle produced in conformity with the approved type must bear a type-approval mark consisting of:
- the type-approval number;
- the letter "e" followed by the identifying number or initials of the Member State conducting the type-approval;
- the vehicle identification number.
The manufacturer of a vehicle and the producer of a technical entity or component are to be responsible for the manufacture of each vehicle or the production of each technical entity or component in conformity with the type which has been type-approved or component type-approved.
If a Member State confirms that vehicles, technical entities or components constitute a road safety hazard, even though they are of a type which has been type-approved or component type-approved, it may ban the sale, placing in service or use in its territory for a maximum period of six months. It must immediately inform the Commission and the other Member States thereof.
Member States may not prohibit the marketing, sale, bringing into service or use of new vehicles and new technical entities or new components conforming to the provisions of the Directive. Only vehicles, technical entities and components complying with the Directive may be marketed, sold and used in the Member States.
A committee is set up for the adaptation to technical progress of the Regulations on two- or three-wheeled vehicles. It is composed of representatives of the Member States and is chaired by a representative of the Commission.
The Annexes to the Directive contain:
- a list of requirements for the purpose of vehicle type-approval;
- an information document;
- an EC type-approval certificate;
- a certificate of conformity;
- numbering and marking;
- provisions relating to checking the conformity of production;
- test results;
- end-of-series vehicles;
- a correlation table.
|Act||Entry into force - Date of expiry||Deadline for transposition in the Member States||Official Journal|
OJ 124 of 09.05.2002
|Amending act(s)||Entry into force||Deadline for transposition in the Member States||Official Journal|
|Regulation (EC) No 1137/2008||
OJ L 311of 21.11.2008
Successive amendments and corrections to Directive 2002/24/CE have been incorporated in the basic text. This consolidated version is for reference purpose only.