Towards a thematic strategy on the sustainable use of pesticides
The Commission lays the foundations for a thematic strategy to reduce the impacts of pesticides on human health and the environment and, more generally, to achieve a more sustainable use of pesticides as well as a significant overall reduction in the risks and uses of pesticides consistent with the necessary crop protection.
Communication of 1 July 2002 from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the Economic and Social Committee - Towards a thematic strategy on the sustainable use of pesticides [COM(2002) 349 final -Not published in the Official Journal].
1. The 6th environment action programme (6th EAP), adopted by the European Parliament and the Council on 22 July 2002, provides for the development of a thematic strategy on the sustainable use of pesticides.
The legislative framework referred to in the 6th EAP, in particular Directive 91/414/EEC and the Directives on residues in food, mainly concentrates on the start and end-of-life stages of pesticides, i.e. the authorisation of substances for use in plant protection products (PPP) before they are placed on the market (prevention at source) and maximum residue levels (MRLs) for food and feedstuffs. Revision of these Directives is under way.
The thematic strategy will therefore complement the existing legislative framework by targeting the use-phase of plant protection products.
Definitions and scope of the communication
2. The term "pesticides" is a generic name, which encompasses all substances or products that kill pests. In this connection, a distinction should be made between:
- plant protection products: these are active substances and preparations containing one or more active substances that are used to protect plants or plant products against harmful organisms or prevent the action of such organisms. PPPs are used in particular in agriculture; and
- biocides. These are active substances and preparations containing one or more active substances that are used in non-agricultural sectors, e.g. for purposes such as wood preservation, disinfection or certain household uses.
3. It is clear from the decision of the European Parliament and the Council adopting the 6th EAP that, although the term "pesticides" is used, the main concerns are related to PPPs. Consequently, the communication is focused on the use of PPPs. Should, in the future, comparable measures be considered necessary for biocides, they will be incorporated in the thematic strategy.
Use of PPPs quantities, benefits, costs and risks of using them
4. Quantity. Agriculture is by far the biggest PPP-using sector. With approximately 320 000 tonnes of active substances sold per year, the European Union currently accounts for one quarter of the world market of PPPs. The major types of product are fungicides (ca 43% of the market), followed by herbicides (36%), insecticides (12%) and other pesticides (9%). The European PPP producing industry is a major employer in Europe (around 35 000 workers).
5. Advantages. There are significant economic benefits associated with the use of PPPs. They are used by farmers to improve or safeguard yields by eliminating or reducing competition from weeds and attacks by pests and to minimise labour input. PPPs also play an essential role in ensuring reliable supplies of agricultural products each year at prices which make them affordable for all consumers. The use of PPPs also reduces demand for land for food production. It therefore makes land available for other uses, e.g. amenity, nature parks or protection of biodiversity. There are however no figures available for the whole of the EU on which to base an evaluation of these benefits.
6. Risks and costs associated with their use. Pesticides are chemicals that require particular attention because most of them have inherent properties that make them dangerous to health and the environment.
The risks for human and animal health stem from the extreme toxicity of certain PPPs. They may occur through direct exposure (industrial workers producing pesticides and operators using them) or indirect exposure (consumers and bystanders). The chronic effects of exposure to PPPs which might affect the fitness of exposed populations include those due to bioaccumulation and persistence of substances, irreversible effects such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and genotoxicity or adverse effects on the immune or endocrine systems of mammals, fishes or birds.
As regards risks for the environment, spray drift, leaching or run-off are diffuse sources of uncontrolled dissemination of PPPs into the environment leading to pollution of soil and water. PPP use may also have additional indirect effects on ecosystems, e.g. loss of biodiversity. In practice it is extremely difficult to quantify the actual adverse effects resulting from the use of pesticides. Therefore, it is not possible to give a figure for the overall costs of the use of pesticides in the EU.
Objectives of the thematic strategy
7. The communication represents an important step in the preparation of the thematic strategy on sustainable use of pesticides. The objectives fixed by the Council and Parliament are presented below: the communication suggests ways and means of achieving each objective, with a view to initiating discussion at this stage of the consultation:
8. Objective 1. Minimising the hazards and risks to health and environment from the use of pesticides, through:
- establishment of national plans to reduce hazards, risks and dependence on chemical control;
- reducing particular risks, such as pollution of watercourses, ditches and water catchment areas and the introduction of chemical control measures in environmentally sensitive areas;
- improving knowledge of risks by monitoring the health of users at particularly high risk, such as agricultural workers and more sensitive consumers; collection of data on incidents having consequences for the health and environment of workers and private users; collection and analysis of economic data on PPP use and alternatives;
- further research and development work on less hazardous methods of application and handling of PPPs.
9. Objective 2. Improved controls on the use and distribution of pesticides:
- reporting of production and import/export quantities of PPPs by producers and distributors to national authorities;
- reinforcement of ongoing work on the collection of data concerning use (quantities of PPPs applied per crop, product, area, date of application, etc.);
- reinforcement of the system based on Article 17 of Directive 91/414/EEC (inspections, monitoring of use and distribution of PPP by wholesalers, retailers and farmers) in a coordinated way;
- introduction of a system of regular and safe collection, possible reuse and controlled destruction of PPP packaging and unused products;
- introduction of a system of regular technical inspection of application equipment (sprayers);
- creation of a system of mandatory education, awareness raising, training and certification for all PPP users (farmers, local authorities, workers, distributors, traders and extension services).
10. Objective 3. Reducing the levels of harmful active substances by replacing the most dangerous with safer (including non chemical) alternatives: This objective will be achieved basically through faster implementation of Directive 91/414/EEC, in particular through its programme of reevaluating old active substances and through the introduction of this principle in the text of the Directive itself as a result of its revision, planned in the near future.
11. Objective 4. Encouragement of the use of low input or pesticide-free crop farming particularly by raising users' awareness, promoting the use of codes of good practices and consideration of the possible application of financial instruments:
- promotion and development of alternatives to chemical control; examining the potential of the use of GM technology when its application is considered as safe for health and the environment; promoting good practices by further developing codes of good farming practice incorporating integrated pest management concepts; further encouraging the allocation of funds by Member States and the adoption by farmers of rural development measures and training and other relevant measures;
- imposing penalties on users by reducing or cancelling benefits under support schemes;
- introducing special levies on PPPs to raise awareness of the detrimental effects of over-intensive PPP use and further reduce reliance on chemical inputs in modern agriculture;
- harmonisation of the value added tax rates for PPPs (these vary between 3% and 25% in the various Member States).
12. Objective 5. A transparent system for reporting and monitoring the progress made, including the development of suitable indicators:
- regular reporting on national risk reduction programmes;
- development of suitable indicators for monitoring and definition of quantitative targets.
13. The management of stockpiles of obsolete pesticides in a number of candidate countries has been mentioned repeatedly as an important problem in the context of EU enlargement. Sizeable quantities of pesticides still in use in several candidate countries might become obsolete at the moment of accession. In addition, there are already considerable stocks of obsolete pesticides at the moment. If no appropriate measures are taken, candidate countries might not have adequate incinerators which respect the required emission limits; this will necessitate upgrading of incineration facilities or require transport of pesticides. A proportion of the obsolete pesticides will be covered by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) but there will probably be a need for further support for the candidate countries.
14. The Community and the Member States should contribute to the safe use of PPPs in developing countries and the newly independent States (NIS) by better monitoring and assessing their exports and donations of chemicals, training and stewardship of the use, handling and storage of PPPs and the management of stockpiles of obsolete PPPs, by supporting capacity building and information exchange. Full implementation of the Rotterdam (PIC - prior informed consent) and Stockholm (POPs) Conventions will be major steps in that direction. It also includes strengthening the integration of environmental objectives into development policy and contributing to the achievement of the objectives of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety.
Implementation of the strategy
15. On the basis of the analyses developed in the communication and the outcome of the consultation process currently under way, the Commission will propose at the beginning of 2004 all necessary measures setting out a Community thematic strategy on the sustainable use of pesticides.
16. The Community and the Member States, in implementing such a strategy, could use many different instruments: legally binding measures, economic incentives, research or voluntary measures. Combination of all types of instruments is also possible. Many of these measures could most effectively be integrated into already existing or currently developing related policy areas, such as water protection, health and consumer protection and the common agricultural policy.