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The Lisbon Treaty: a comprehensive guide
On 13 December 2007, the Heads of State and Government of the 27 Member States signed the Lisbon Treaty, thus bringing to an end several years of negotiations regarding institutional matters. This Treaty makes it possible to adapt the European institutions and their working methods, strengthen democratic legitimacy and consolidate the Union's core values. It thus provides the Union with the legal framework and means necessary to meet citizens' expectations.
- I. European Union institutions and bodies
II. Decision-making process
- The strengthening of European democracy
- Legislative procedures
- Passerelle clauses, brake clauses and accelerator clauses
- Extension of voting by qualified majority and the ordinary legislative procedure
- The principle of subsidiarity
- Division of competences within the European Union
- Revisions to the Treaties
- European Union legal acts
- Enhanced cooperation
- National parliaments
- III. European policies