Alphabetical index
This page is available in 15 languages
New languages available:  CS - HU - PL - RO

We are migrating the content of this website during the first semester of 2014 into the new EUR-Lex web-portal. We apologise if some content is out of date before the migration. We will publish all updates and corrections in the new version of the portal.

Do you have any questions? Contact us.

Reduction in CO₂ emissions of new passenger cars

Road transport is one of the largest greenhouse-gas emitting sectors in the European Union (EU). In order to reduce emissions in this sector, this Regulation sets limits for new passenger cars.


Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the Community's integrated approach to reduce CO₂ emissions from light-duty vehicles (Text with EEA relevance).


This Regulation sets standards to frame the CO₂ emissions of new passenger cars. The limit set by the Regulation is 130 g of CO₂/km. From 2020, this level is to be reduced to 95 g of CO₂.

Types of vehicles concerned by the Regulation

The Regulation shall apply to vehicles of category M1 as defined in Annex II to the Directive on the type-approval of motor vehicles which are registered in the European Union (EU) for the first time and which have not previously been registered in a third country.

Specific emissions targets

Manufacturers of vehicles have average CO₂ emission targets, the formulae for which are set out in Annex I to this Regulation.

For each manufacturer, the following percentages of passenger cars are taken into account in order to determine average specific emissions of CO₂:

  • 65 % in 2012;
  • 75 % in 2013;
  • 80 % in 2014;
  • 100 % from 2015 onwards.

This Regulation includes specific provisions for vehicles running on a mixture of fuel with 85 % ethanol (E85). In order to determine whether a manufacturer meets their CO₂ emission targets, the percentage of specific emissions for this type of vehicle is to be reduced by 5 % by 31 December 2015. This reduction target is only applicable if at least 30 % of the service stations in the Member State where the vehicle is registered are able to offer this type of biofuel.

In order to create incentives for the car industry to invest in new technologies, super-credits encourage the development of cars generating less emissions than traditional cars. In calculating the average specific emissions of CO₂, each new passenger car with specific emissions of CO₂ of less than 50 g/km shall be counted as:

  • 3.5 cars in 2012,
  • 3.5 cars in 2013,
  • 2.5 cars in 2014,
  • 1.5 cars in 2015,
  • 1 car from 2016.

Pools of manufacturers

In order to meet targets for specific emissions, manufacturers may form pools. To do this, they shall send the European Commission an information file including the list of participating manufacturers, the name of the manufacturer nominated as pool manager and proof that the latter has the capacity to fulfil their duties.

The members of the pool shall exchange data relating to:

  • the average specific emissions of CO₂;
  • the specific emissions target;
  • the total number of vehicles registered.

Monitoring and reporting of average emissions

Member States shall be responsible for collecting data for each new passenger car registered in their territory. They shall send the Commission the following information concerning these vehicles:

  • their number;
  • their average specific emissions;
  • their average mass;
  • their distribution;
  • their footprint.

The Commission shall keep a publicly available central register of this data and for each manufacturer shall provisionally calculate:

  • the average specific emissions of CO₂ in the preceding calendar year;
  • the specific emissions target in the preceding calendar year;
  • the difference between its average specific emissions of CO₂ in the preceding calendar year and its specific emissions target for that year.

Excess emissions premium

From 2012, manufacturers must pay an additional premium if they exceed their specific emissions target. From 2019, this premium will be calculated in a different way.

Derogations for certain manufacturers

Manufacturers may apply to the Commission for a derogation in the following cases:

  • they produce fewer than 10,000 new passenger cars registered in the EU;
  • they do not belong to a pool of manufacturers;
  • they belong to a pool of manufacturers which represents fewer than 10,000 new passenger cars registered in the EU;
  • they are part of a pool of manufacturers but operate their own production facilities and design centre.

The Commission may grant a derogation for a period of five years.


Suppliers and manufacturers may introduce innovative technologies to reduce CO₂ emissions. The total contribution of these technologies may reach a maximum of 7 g of CO₂/km.

The Commission will re-examine specific emission targets by 1 January 2013 at the latest.

This Regulation repeals Decision No 1753/2000/EC.


Act Entry into force Deadline for transposition in the Member States Official Journal
Regulation (EC) No 443/2009



OJ L 140 of 5.6.2009


Commission Regulation (EU) No 1014/2010 on monitoring and reporting of data on the registration of new passenger cars pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council (Text with EEA relevance).
This Regulation lays down guidelines relating to the collection and reporting of data about each new passenger car. These data are to be used in determining the specific CO₂ emissions target and in assessing whether manufacturers comply with that target.
These data are based on the information contained in the certificate of conformity of the passenger car concerned. They also concern vehicles which:

  • generate low CO₂ emissions;
  • run on ethanol;
  • are equipped with innovative technologies.
Last updated: 14.01.2011
Legal notice | About this site | Search | Contact | Top