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Turkey – Education and culture

Candidate countries conduct negotiations with the European Union (EU) in order to prepare themselves for accession. The accession negotiations cover the adoption and implementation of European legislation (acquis) and, more specifically, the priorities identified jointly by the Commission and the candidate countries in the analytical assessment (or ‘screening’) of the EU’s political and legislative acquis. Each year, the Commission reviews the progress made by candidates and evaluates the efforts required before their accession. This monitoring is the subject of annual reports presented to the Council and the European Parliament.

ACT

Commission Report [COM(2011) 666 final – SEC(2011) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].

SUMMARY

The 2011 Report notes progress concerning education and training. However, it does not note any advancement in the field of culture.

EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS (according to the Commission’s words)

The fields of education, training, youth and culture are primarily the competence of the Member States. A framework for cooperation on policies relating to education and training has been adopted with a view to converging national policies and achieving joint objectives through an open method of coordination. It came out of the work programme ‘Education and Training 2010’, which brings together all the actions in the field of education and training at European level. Furthermore, Member States must take into account the principles stated in the Treaty and ensure that their international commitments contribute towards preserving and promoting cultural diversity. It requires Member States to equip themselves with a legal, administrative and financial framework and the implementation capacities necessary for ensuring sound financial management of European Union programmes related to education, training and youth.

EVALUATION (according to the Commission’s words)

In education and culture there has been progress, in particular in the area of education and

training. Interest in the Community Programmes continued to grow. There has been some progress in the area of culture, but no progress on legislative alignment.

RELATED ACTS

Commission Report [COM(2010) 660 final – SEC(2010) 1327 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The 2010 Report highlighted the progress made in terms of education, particularly with regard to the level of primary education. However, legislative alignment had not been completed in the field of culture.

Commission Report [COM(2009) 533 final – SEC(2009) 1334 – Not published in the Official Journal].

Commission Report [COM(2008) 674 final – SEC(2008) 2699 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2008 Report emphasised the progress made, in particular concerning children’s access to education. The measures introduced have made it possible to combat school drop-out rates and to develop access to general and technical education as well as to science education.

Commission Report [COM(2007) 663 final – SEC (2007) 1436 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2007 Report noted that considerable progress had been made with regard to Turkey’s participation in the Lifelong Learning and Youth in Action programmes. An important development in the introduction of a national qualifications system should improve participation by adults in lifelong learning measures in the coming years.

Commission Report [COM(2006) 649 final – SEC (2006) 1390 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2006 Report indicated that significant progress had been made and that alignment with the acquis had almost been completed. However, Turkey needed to make more improvements in the funding available for the bodies responsible for managing Community programmes. At the same time, it also needed to pursue the objectives of the Lisbon strategy, especially in terms of lifelong learning.

Commission Report [COM(2005) 561 final – SEC (2005) 1426 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The October 2005 Report noted that Turkey’s participation in three Community programmes (Socrates, Leonardo da Vinci and Youth) had been highly satisfactory. The reforms under way in education and training were broadly in line with the common European objectives and priorities. The Turkish authorities still needed to establish a coherent and comprehensive lifelong learning strategy. On the whole, the education system needed to be further decentralised.

Commission Report [COM(2004) 656 final – SEC(2004) 1201 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The October 2004 Report noted some progress in the running of Community programmes and the reform of the education and training system. However, further efforts were needed to bring about the integration of disadvantaged groups and improve coordination between education and the jobs market. Strengthening regional services and encouraging education and lifelong learning needed to remain priority areas for Turkey.

Commission Report [COM(2003) 676 final – SEC(2003) 1212 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2003 Report considered that some progress had been made, but that much remained to be done: completing preparations for participation in the Community programmes, ensuring the implementation of the directive on the education of the children of migrant workers, reviewing the role of the Higher Council for Education, encouraging the participation of disabled children in education and reforming the secondary education system so as to make it more labour-market-oriented.

Commission Report [COM(2002) 700 final – SEC(2002) 1412 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The October 2002 Report noted that limited progress had been made and that Turkey needed to continue to concentrate on transposing the acquis in this area. With regard to administrative capacity, the reform process, including decentralisation, needed to be accelerated.

Commission Report [COM(2001) 700 final – SEC(2001) 1756 – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2001 Report stated that Turkey had made only limited progress, but recognised that the new education act adopted in June was a positive step that would also benefit the vocational training sector. This act extended until 2010 the funding provided by the World Bank for secondary education. This development plan aimed to introduce compulsory schooling until the age of 12 by 2005.

Commission Report [COM(2000) 713 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 2000 Report noted that preparations had continued for Turkey's participation in the Community programmes in this field and that some progress had been made. However, improving education remained a priority in Turkey.

Commission Report [COM(1999) 513 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
In the October 1999 Report the Commission noted that insufficient information was available to allow an assessment of progress in this area. It was still expected that Turkey would participate in the Community programmes Leonardo da Vinci II, Socrates II and Youth. The Commission was examining the necessary preparatory measures together with Turkey. It was planned that EU funding would be made available for these measures.

Commission Report [COM(1998) 711 final – Not published in the Official Journal].
The November 1998 Report underlined that, despite considerable efforts, the general level of education in Turkey was below that of the EU. The Commission envisaged possible Turkish participation in the three Community programmes in this field (Socrates, Leonardo and Youth for Europe), provided that there was appropriate funding and that the free movement of participants was ensured.

Last updated: 30.12.2011

See also

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