i2010: Digital libraries
The Communication outlines the idea behind the digital libraries initiative, its purpose and its aims. It also covers the digitisation, online accessibility and digital preservation of our cultural heritage. The Communication analyses the challenges to be met in order to bring out the full cultural and economic potential of that heritage and proposes an initial series of actions to improve the coordination of work in Europe.
Communication from the Commission of 30 September 2005 to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – i2010: digital libraries [COM(2005) 465 final – Official Journal C 49 of 28.2.2008].
The purpose of the Digital Libraries Initiative is to make Europe’s cultural, audiovisual and scientific heritage accessible to all.
More specifically, the initiative aims to make European information sources more accessible and easier and more interesting to use in an online environment. Taking as its starting point our rich European heritage, the initiative combines cultural diversity, multilingualism and technological progress.
Digital libraries are organised collections of digital content made available to the public. The content is material that has either been digitised (copies of books and other documents) or that was initially produced in digital format.
There are three priority areas in which the potential of digital technologies is to be exploited to widen access to information:
- online accessibility;
- the digitisation of analogue collections;
- the preservation and storage of digital content.
In addition to our European cultural heritage, another key area for digital libraries is scientific information.
Cultural, social and economic aspects
Digital libraries provide considerable added value in terms not only of cultural visibility, but also of jobs and investment.
Making the wealth of material contained in European libraries, museums and archives (books, newspapers, films, photographs, maps, etc.) available online will make it easier for citizens to appreciate their cultural heritage and use it for study, work or leisure. This will complement and support the objectives of the European Union (EU) action on culture.
Libraries and archives are major sectors of activity in terms of investments and employment. By increasing their use and the visibility of their resources, digitisation could significantly increase their already considerable impact on the economy as a whole.
There are two main reasons for digitising these resources:
- to provide the widest possible access for the general public;
- to ensure their survival.
At present, only a small part of our European collections has been digitised. In order to ensure that digitisation proceeds efficiently and at a reasonable pace, a number of challenges have to be overcome, one of these being the remarkable quantity and range of material held by European libraries and archives. The others fall into four categories:
- financial challenges (the considerable investments and labour required);
- organisational challenges (the risk of digitising the same works several times, and the need to upgrade the skills of the staff involved);
- technical challenges (the need to improve digitisation techniques);
- legal challenges (the compatibility of digitisation with intellectual property rights- IPRs).
The system used by traditional libraries for lending material is not suitable for the digital environment. In addition, the prior consent of the holder of property rights is needed before material can be made available online, except where the material is in the public domain. Consequently, a European library will basically have to concentrate on public domain material. In some cases, the costs of establishing the IPR-status of a work will be higher than the cost of digitising it and bringing it online. This is particularly true for so-called ‘orphan works’ – films or books for which it is impossible or very difficult to determine who holds the rights.
Improving online accessibility also requires appropriate multilingual services to allow users to explore and work with the content.
Preserving digital content: the present situation and the challenges
Making a digital copy of a book or a film does not necessarily guarantee its long-term survival and so, digitisation without a suitable strategy for preserving material can result in a large-scale waste of resources (human and financial).
In addition, digital preservation is a serious problem for the information society, with the supply of information growing exponentially and content becoming more and more dynamic. At present, we have little experience with digital preservation, the legal framework is evolving, resources are scarce and the outcome of work to preserve content is uncertain.
The main causes of the loss of digital content are the:
- succession of generations of computer hardware that can render files unreadable;
- rapid succession and obsolescence of software applications;
- limited lifetime of digital storage devices, such as CD-ROMs.
Libraries and archives have started tackling the issue of preservation in the digital age on a limited scale. However, within the individual Member States there is, in general, no clear policy.
Although most progress has been made in the area of legal deposit, the scope of this varies widely from country to country.
As with digitisation, the preservation of content also poses a number of challenges:
- financial challenges (the actual long-term cost of preservation is still not known for sure);
- organisational challenges (there is a risk that differing approaches will be adopted, effort will be duplicated, working methods will be inappropriate, staff will not have the necessary skills and there will be a lack of cooperation between public and private players);
- technical challenges (essentially, digital preservation needs to be made more cost-efficient and affordable);
- legal challenges (as digital preservation depends on copying and migration, it must comply with IPR legislation. The legal deposit of digital material also raises a number of questions, including the different rules in force).
A European response
While organising and funding the digitisation of cultural collections and their digital preservation is primarily a responsibility of the Member States, considerable European added value can be achieved in certain specific areas.
A number of initiatives have already been taken at European level, including:
- the eEurope Action Plan launched by the Commission in 1999, which was followed by further Action Plans in 2002 and 2005 ;
- the Lund Principles and the corresponding Action Plan;
- the creation of a National Representatives Group on digitisation;
- the Council Resolution of 25 June 2002 on preserving tomorrow’s memory – preserving digital content for future generations;
- the Council Recommendation 2005/835/EC of 14 November 2005 on priority actions to increase cooperation in the field of archives in Europe.
Further initiatives will be taken in the near future:
- a proposal for a Recommendation on digitisation and digital preservation;
- a Communication on digital libraries of scientific information.
As regards co-financing at Community level, the research programmes, the eContentplus and Culture programmes as well as the Regional Funds will be used for actions with a European interest for the digitisation, digital preservation and accessibility of cultural content:
- under the Seventh Framework Programme for research and technological development, the Commission will part-finance the establishment of a network of centres of competence for digitisation and preservation;
- under the eContentplus programme, EUR 60 million will be available in the period 2005-08 for projects improving the accessibility and usability of European cultural and scientific content;
- the Regional Funds already part-finance digitisation initiatives in some of the Member States;
- digitisation is one of the principal objectives of the cooperation projects part-financed under the “Culture 2000” programme. Part-financing is also available under the “Culture 2007” programme. This should improve the transnational circulation of cultural works and products.