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Rules applicable to state aid
Within the context of free competition in the internal market, and specifically the opening up of public services to competition, Member States sometimes intervene through the use of public resources to promote certain economic activities or to protect national industries. By favouring certain firms over their competitors, this State aid is liable to distort competition.
State aid is prohibited under the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Nevertheless, some exceptions authorise aid justified by common interest objectives, i.e. for services of general economic interest, as long as they do not distort competition in such a way as to be against the public interest. The monitoring of State aid carried out by the European Commission therefore consists of striking a balance between the positive and negative effects of aid.
- GENERAL RULES
- BLOCK EXEMPTIONS
- RULES WITH HORIZONTAL OBJECTIVES
- REGIONAL AID
SERVICES OF GENERAL ECONOMIC INTEREST
- Reform of the EU State aid rules on Services of General Economic Interest
- De minimis aid for services of general economic interest
- New European commitment for services of general interest
- EU framework for state aid in the form of public service compensation
- White Paper on services of general interest
- Social services of general interest
- Green Paper on Services of General InterestArchives
- Financial transparency between EU countries and public undertakings and within certain undertakings
- State aid to promote risk capital investments in SMEs
- State aid in the form of guarantees
- State aid in short-term export-credit insurance
- State aid elements in sales of land and buildings by public authorities
- Aid elements in direct business taxation
- National aid to the film and audiovisual industries
- State aid for public service broadcasting
- State aid for public service broadcastingArchives
- State aid for railway undertakings