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Incredible Years

Evidence level:
Best PracticePromising PracticeEmergent Practice
 
Evidence of Effectiveness:
?-0+++
Transferability:
?-0+
Enduring Impact:
?-0+
Review criteria and process

Policy category

Supporting Parenting and Assisting with Childcare, Helping Vulnerable Children

Recommendation Pillars

Enhance family support and the quality of alternative care settings

Countries that have implemented practice

Ireland, Denmark, United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Netherlands, Portugal

Age Groups

Middle Childhood (age 6 to 12), Young Children (age 0 to 5)

Target Groups

Parents, Children/teenagers with behavioural problems, Mothers, Fathers

Years in Operation

2001  - still operating

Type of Organization Implementing Practice

Private Human Services Organization, Private Education Organization

Practice Overview

The Incredible Years Preschool Basic parent programme consists of eight to twelve weeks of 2-2.5 hour parenting sessions designed to teach parents how to recognise and treat their child’s emotional and behavioural problems through positive parenting. This programme can be used for parents of preschool children who already have or are at-risk to develop conduct problems (including antisocial behaviour, frequent anger, and a propensity towards violence).

  • Using praise and incentives to reinforce positive child behaviour
  • Improving parent-child interaction
  • Limit setting and non-aversive child management strategies to deal with child misbehaviour/non-compliance
  • Applying consistent gentle consequences for problem behaviour

In addition, the programme uses a variety of teaching techniques, including:

  • Parent/child role play
  • Helping parents understand social learning principles
  • Modelling positive behaviours by example
  • Discussing previous experiences with and feelings about raising their children
  • Practising new skills during the session and through homework
  • Analysing video material of family behaviour for discussion

This programme addresses barriers to attendance through a variety of methods, including offering transportation, providing lunch, and ensuring access to childcare. Consistency of implementation is ensured by providing uniform course materials to each instructor, ensuring instructors attend training, having instructors and parents complete self-evaluation surveys, providing course-specific checklists, and taping sessions for review by an Incredible Years trainer (Hutchings, et al. 2008).  The Incredible Years organization has developed Babies (0-12 months), Toddlers (1-3 years) and School Age Basic programmes in addition to the Preschool Basic programme.  Incredible Years also offers an Advanced Program, recommended for an additional nine to eleven weeks after the Preschool Basic or School Age Basic programmes.  The Advanced component adds the topics of communication skills, anger and depression management, getting and giving support and feedback, problem-solving for adults and teaching children to problem-solve.  This programme description covers only the Preschool version of the Incredible Years programme.

 

Evidence of Effectiveness

 

Note: The following results show a change in behavioural and psychological outcomes for children and parents as measured by psychometric scales and by researcher or parent observation. While the keys to each scale are copyrighted and cannot be reprinted here, in general, a higher score indicates that the child or parent has more of the symptoms of whatever condition the scale is measuring (depression, hyperactivity, etc.). As such, when we show reduction in scale scores after treatment, this generally indicates a positive outcome. A few scales describe positive characteristics, and on these scales an increase after treatment indicates a positive outcome.

 

Evaluation 1 (UK)

Hutchings, J et al. “Parenting intervention in Sure Start services for children at risk of developing conduct disorder: pragmatic randomised controlled trial.” British Medical Journal. 2007. 334(7595): 678-682.

Note: This randomized controlled trial is “pragmatic” because researchers randomized by area instead of across all areas.

 

Summary of Results for Evaluation 1

 

 Treatment Group    

 Control Group    

Outcome

Mean change score at post- test

Outcomes improved (statistically significant)

 

 

Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory – Intensity

-24.5 

+2.7 

Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory – Problems

-5.8

 -1.0

Conners Parent Rating Scale for Hyperactivity

-4.2

-1.1

Kendall Self-Control Rating Scale

-10.9

 -5.6

Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Conduct Problems*

-1.5

 -0.9

Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Total Deviance*

-3.1

 -2.0

Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Hyperactivity

-1.0

 -0.2

Sibling-Rated Eyerbg Child Behavior Inventory – Intensity

 -15.7

 +4.8

Parenting Stress Index

 -16.7

-3.1 

Beck Depression Inventory

 -6.1

 -1.3

Arnold Parenting Scale

 -0.7

 -0.1

Positive Parenting – Observation**

 +8.2

 -0.2

Critical Parenting – Observation

 -7.6

 -6.7

Outcomes with no effect

 

 

Sibling-Rated Eyerbg Child Behaviour Inventory –Problems Child Deviance – Observation

*Outcome is only statistically significant at the 90% confidence level

**An increase in social skills, competence, or positive behaviour is an improvement

Unless otherwise noted, outcomes describe negative characteristics and so negative
change scores show improvement.

 -3.1
-10.2


 -0.1
-4.1


 

 

Evaluation 2  (Sweden)

Axberg, U. and Broberg, A. “Evaluation of ‘The Incredible Years’ in Sweden: The transferability of an American parent-training program to Sweden.” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 2012. 53: 224-232.

 

Summary of Results for Evaluation 2

 

Intervention group    

Control Group    

Outcome

Mean change score at post-test   

Outcomes improved (statistically significant)

 

 

Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory – Intensity Scale

-31.4

 -5.8

Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory – Problems Scale

-9.70

 -2.88

Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory – Problems Scale*  

+0.06

 +3.27

Parenting Alliance Measure

+4.5

 -2.8

Outcomes with no effect

 

 

Sutter-Eyberg Student Behaviour Inventory – Intensity Scale
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire – Emotions Scale

 -4.0 

+5.4

Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire –
Teacher –  Emotions Scale

-0.36 

-0.25 

 Symptom Check List – Index

 -0.20

-0.15 

 Parental Locus of Control – Perceived Parental Control

+7.2 

+4.2 

All outcomes reported as difference-in-difference (pre-post change in score between groups).

*Outcome is only statistically significant at the 90% confidence level

 

Evaluation 3 (Portugal)

Azevedo, A., Seabra-Santos, M., Gaspar, M., & Homem, T. “The Incredible Years Basic Parent Training for Portuguese Preschoolers with AD/HD Behaviors: Does it Make a Difference?” Child Youth Care Forum. 2013. 42: 403-424..

Note: This randomized controlled trial used a waitlist control group.  Intervention and control groups for this study were a subset of a larger RCT selected by exceeding a cut-off score on the Werry-Weiss-Peters Activity scale (WWPAS; Routh, 1978).  Results reported below were measured 2 months after program completion.

 

Summary of Results for Evaluation 3

 

Treatment group    

 Control Group    

Outcome

Mean change score at post-test   

Outcomes improved (statistically significant)

 

 

Mother reports about child

 

 

 Werry-Weiss-Peters Activity Scale (Describes ADHD behaviours)
Preschool and Kindergarten Behaviour Scales (PKBS)
PKBS: Overactivity/Inattention

-8.86

 

-3.00

 

PKBS: Oppositional/Aggressive*

-2.63-0.28

PKBS: Social Skills**

-2.93-1.67

Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms Interview (Describes hyperactivity Behaviour)*

7.33.2

Preschool teacher reports about child
PKBS: Overactivity/Inattention

-4.08

-2.56

PKBS: Oppositional/Aggressive

-3.13-0.33

Laboratory-observed behaviours, child
Child pro-social**

-2.71-0.50

Mother self-reports
Parental Sense of Competence (PSOC)
PSOC total**

1.92-1.33

PSOC: Efficacy*,**

3.671.14

Parenting Scale (PS)
PS total

1.830.38

PS: Overreactivity

-0.55-0.13

PS: Verbosity

-0.500.01

Laboratory-observed behaviours, mother
Positive parenting**

0.020.62

Coaching **

9.25-3.48

 

1.65-5.07

Outcomes with no effect

 

 

Preschool teacher reports about child
PKBS: Social Skills**
Laboratory-observed behaviours, child

 3.93

3.23

 

Child deviance
Mother self-reports

 -2.23

-5.24
 

PSOC: Satisfaction**
PS: Laxness
Laboratory-observed behaviours, mother

 1.85
-0.41

0.76
-0.19
 

Critical Parenting

 -5.67

-2.51

 *Outcome is only statistically significant at the 90% confidence level


**An increase in social skills, competence, or positive behaviour is an improvement
Unless otherwise noted, outcomes describe negative characteristics and
so negative change scores show improvement.

 

 

 

Evaluation 4  (Portugal)

Homem, T., Gaspar, M., Santos, M., Azevedo, A., & Canavarro, M. “Incredible Years Parent Training: Does it Improve Positive Relationships in Portuguese Families of Preschoolers with Oppositional/Defiant Symptoms?” Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2014. 1-15.

Note: This randomized controlled trial used a waitlist control group.  Intervention and control groups for this study were a subset of a larger RCT selected by exceeding the 85th percentile on ADHD behaviours on at least one of either the Antisocial/Aggressive or the Oppositional/Explosive subscale of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behaviour Scales (PKBS-2; Merrell, 2002).  This study was a subset of the same larger study as Evaluation 3.  Results for the intervention and control group reported below were measured 2 months after program completion. 

 

Summary of Results for Evaluation 4

 

Treatment group    

 Control Group    

Outcome

Mean change score at post-test   

Outcomes improved (statistically significant)

 

 

Lab-Observed behaviours
Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System

 

 

    Positive Parenting**

 10.73

-1.53 

    Coaching**

 5.63

 -2.75

Mother self-reports

 

 

Arnold Parenting Scale
    Total
    Laxness
    Overreactivity
    Verbosity


-0.63
-0.42
-0.64
-0.99


-0.07
-0.1
-0.01
0.03

Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships**

  

    Openness to Exterior

0.82-0.58

Mother reports on child behaviour

  

Preschool and kindergarten Behaviour Scales

 

 

     Oppositional/explosive

 -3.40

 -1.40

Outcomes with no effect

 

 

Mother self-reports
Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships**

 


 

    Total

 -0.66

-6.77

    Self-validation

 0.09

-2.72 

    Communication

 -1.59

-2.68 

Beck Depression Inventory

-2.41

-1.38

Preschool and Kindergarten Behaviour

 

 

Scales
    Antisocial/aggressive

 
-2.95


-1.28 

 **An increase in social skills, competence, or positive behaviour is an improvement


Unless otherwise noted, outcomes describe negative characteristics and so negative change scores show improvement.

 

Evaluation 5 (UK)

 Jones, K., Daley, D., Hutchings, J., Bywater, T., & Eames, C. “Efficacy of the Incredible Years Programme as an early intervention for children with conduct problems and ADHD: long-term follow-up.” Child: care, health and development. 2008.

 

Summary of Results for Evaluation 5

Outcome

Treatment Group  

Control Group 

Outcomes improved (statistically significant)

 Mean change score 6 months
 after pre-test

Assessed by parent

 

Conners Abbreviated Parent/Teacher Rating
Scales for ADHD

-5.96

-1.54

Outcomes with no effect

 

 

 

 

 

Note: Unless otherwise noted, outcomes describe negative characteristics and so negative change scores show improvement.

 

Evaluation 6 (Norway)

Larsson, B., Fossum, S., Clifford, G., Drugli, M., Handegard, B. W., & Morch, W-T. “Treatment of oppositional defiant and conduct problems in young Norwegian children.” European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.  2009. 18: 42-52.

 

Summary of Results of Evaluation 6

 

Treatment group    

 Control Group    

Outcome

 

Outcomes improved (statistically significant)

 Mean change score at post-test   

Mother reports about child

 

 

Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory – Intensity Scale
Mother
Father


-40.6
-32.3


-22.4
-17.2

Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory – Problems Scale 
Father


-9.6

-4.2

Child Behaviours Checklist – Aggression
Mother


-6.9

-2.8

Child Behaviours Checklist – Attention
Mother


-1.9

-0.1

Child Behaviours Checklist – Internalizing
Mother


-4.5


-1.1

Parent Practices Interview – Harsh discipline
Mother


-0.4


-0.2

Parent Practices Interview – Inconsistent discipline
Mother


-0.5

0.0

Parent Practices Interview – Positive parenting**
Mother
Father


0.7
0.8

0.0
0.0

Parent Stress Index – Total stress
Mother
Father


-29.1
-26.7

-7.1
-1.7

Outcomes with no effect

Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory – Problems Scale
Mother


-9.9

-5.7

Child Behaviours Checklist – Aggression
Father


-5.6

-3.2

Child Behaviours Checklist – Attention
Father


-1.5

-0.6

Child Behaviours Checklist – Internalizing
Father


-1.8


-2.1

Parent Practices Interview – Harsh discipline
Father


-0.4

0.0

 Parent Practices Interview – Inconsistent discipline
Father


-0.5


-0.1 

**An increase in social skills, competence, or positive behaviour is an improvement
Unless otherwise noted, outcomes describe negative characteristics and so negative change scores show improvement.

 

Evaluation 7 (Portugal)

Posthumus, J., Raaijmakers, M., Maassen, G., van Engeland, H., & Matthys, W. “Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2011. 40: 487-500.

 

Summary of Results of Evaluation 7

Outcome

Treatment group    

 Control Group    

Outcomes improved (statistically significant)

 Mean change score at post-test   

Lab - Observed behaviours

 

 

Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System

 

 

    Parenting: Critical statements*-5.64-2.57

    Child behaviour: Conduct problems*

-7.82-3.08

Mother self-reports
Parent practices Interview

    Appropriate discipline**
    Harsh/Inconsistent discipline
    Praise and incentives**

4.03
-6.28
4.20

-1.31
-2.20
-1.67

Outcomes with no effect

 

Lab - Observed behaviours

Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System 
    Parenting: Labeled praise**
    Child behaviour: Comply**
7.83
-0.02
4.11
-0.02

Mother self-reports
Parent practices Interview

    Positive verbal discipline**
    Physical punishment
    Clear expectations**
0.38
-2.14
2.52
0.45
-2.08
1.36
Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory
    Intensity
    Problem
-8.36
-1.72
-9.53
-1.56

*At pre-test, the intervention group scored statistically significantly worse on these measures.  This may have inflated the size of the intervention group’s change score due to regression to the mean rather than due to effects of the programme.
**An increase in social skills, competence, or positive behaviour is an improvement

Unless otherwise noted, outcomes describe negative characteristics and so negative change scores show improvement.

Transferability

Incredible Years has been shown to improve outcomes for children in both the UK (Hutchings, et al. 2008) and in Sweden (Axberg, et al. 2012), as well as in Portugal, Norway, and the Netherlands.

Enduring Impact

[Enduring impact has been found for the Incredible Years Basic programme followed immediately by the Incredible Years Advanced programme.]

A follow-up of two years has been conducted in the Netherlands by Posthumus, et al (2011), in an evaluation that included both the Incredible Years Basic and Advanced Programmes.  The long term follow up found that gains made from pre-test to post-test had not dissipated by the two year follow-up for appropriate discipline, harsh/inconsistent discipline, and praise and incentives subscores on the Parent Practices Interview.

 

Issues to Consider

Hutchings, et al. cites the following conflicts of interest: “JH [Judith Hutchings, primary author] is paid by Incredible Years for running occasional training courses in the delivery of the parent programme and has served as an expert witness for the NICE [National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence] appraisal on parenting and conduct disorder.”  None of the cited studies included an effective sample size above 50 parent-child dyads in both the intervention and comparison groups, which may have limit the statistical power of the studies.  The comparison groups were generally in a waitlist condition, which meant that the Incredible Years programme was not compared with any active alternative treatment.  Hutchings, et al (2011) and Posthumus, et al (2011) evaluated the Incredible Years Advanced Programme in combination with the basic version of the programme, run consecutively within the study period.  The Posthumus, et al (2011) study groups differed significantly on two observed measures at pre-test, observed critical statements made by parents and observed child conduct problems.  This indicates that it is possible that regression toward the mean was responsible for the large effects observed on these two measures, despite the authors’ efforts to correct for the difference using repeated measures ANOVA with time by group interaction.

In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. Edwards et al. (2007) shows that on average a 1 point decrease in the Eyberg intensity scale costs £73, and on average it cost £1344 to reduce the average intervention child’s Eyberg Intensity score to a non-clinical level.

Contact Information

Name

Lisa St. George

Title

Administrative Director

Organization

Incredible Years

Address

1411 8th Avenue West, Seattle, WA 98119 USA

Phone

(888) 506-3562

Email

lisastgeorge@comcast.net

Available Resources

The best resource for Incredible Years is the project’s main website: www.incredibleyears.com.

Evaluation Details

Evaluation 1

In the first UK evaluation, participants were eligible to be selected if they were children aged 3-4 living in one of 11 areas with access to Sure Start children’s centres in north and mid-Wales, scored above clinical cutoff on Eyberg Problem Behaviour Scale (which measures the presence or absence of problem behaviours) or Intensity scale (which measures the intensity of problem behaviours), and there was a primary caregiver that lived with child and could attend interventions (Hutchings et al. 2008). The final sample consisted of 47 parent-child dyads in the control group, and 86 parent-child dyads in treatment group, for an approximately 2:1 treatment to control ratio. Children were block randomized by Sure Start area, and stratified by age and sex.

Parents in the treatment group underwent twelve 2-2.5 hour training sessions taught by Incredible Years instructors. Parents in the control group received no treatment initially, but were put on a waitlist and received treatment after the study ended.

Before and after the intervention, researchers measured several outcomes for both the children and the parents. Parents filled out surveys to rate their children using the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory (Intensity and Problems Scales), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Conduct Problems, Total Deviance, and Hyperactivity Scales), the Conners Parent Rating Scale for Hyperactivity, and the Kendall Self-Control Rating Scale. In addition, researchers observed children when they were interacting with their parents at home for 30 minutes to assess child deviance according to a behaviour coding system.

Parents also completed surveys using the Parenting Stress Index, Beck Depression Inventory, and Arnold Parenting Scale. During the parent-child home observation, researchers also assessed positive and critical parenting using a coding system.

Outcomes collected at baseline and follow-up six months after the administration of treatment.

Evaluation 2

In this Swedish evaluation, children were eligible for inclusion if they were aged 4-8, met the criteria for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IVTR), had parents that can read/write in Swedish, and those parents were willing to take part in the study.

Researchers were able to recruit 16-24 parent-child dyads for the control group (sample size varied by each measure), and 30-37 parent-child dyads (sample size varied here by measure as well) for the treatment group.

For treatment, parents underwent twelve 2-2.5 hour training sessions taught by Incredible Years instructors. Parents in the control group remained on a waiting list for treatment if they desired it.

Before and after the intervention, researchers measured several outcomes for both the children and the parents. Parents were administered surveys to rate their children using the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory (Intensity and Problems Scales), the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behaviour Inventory (Intensity and Problem Scales), and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Full and Emotional Scales). Parents also were administered surveys for the Symptom Check List, the Parental Locus of Control-Perceived Parental Control, and the Parenting Alliance Measure.

Outcomes were collected at baseline and follow-up one year after the administration of treatment.

Evaluation 3 & 4

Azevedo, et al., 2013 and Homem, et al., 2014 used specific criteria to narrow the participants in an existing RCT of Incredible Years in Portugal.  The RCT began by screening 455 preschool children between age 3 and 6 in the Coimbra and Porto cities of Portugal for parent ratings above 7 on the Hyperactivity Scale or above 5 on the Conduct Scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.  Children with a previous diagnosis of neurological or developmental disorder were excluded.  Azevedo, et al. further screened the children for parent reports of ADHD behaviours above the 80th percentile on the Werry-Weiss-Peters Activity Scale (WWPAS), reaching a final sample of 52 children in the intervention and 48 children in the waitlist control group.  Homem, et al. screened the children instead by parent reports of ADHD behaviours above 85th percentile on either the Antisocial/Aggressive subscale of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behaviour Scales (PKBS) or the Oppositional/Explosive subscale of the PKBS, reaching a final sample of 44 children in the intervention and 39 children in the waitlist control group.  The treatment was delivered by Incredible Years group leaders to groups of 9-12 parents for 2 hour, weekly sessions over the course of 14 weeks. 

Before and after the intervention, researchers measured several outcomes for both the children and the parents. Parents were administered surveys to rate their children using the WWPAS and the PKBS, and they were interviewed about child Behaviour on the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS), the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC) and the Arnold Parenting Scales (PS).  Parents were observed interacting with their child using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System (DPICS).  The child’s preschool teacher also completed the PKBS child assessment for Azevedo, et al, 2013.  Homem, et al, 2014 also used the PS, DPICS, and parent PKBS results but collected in addition the Beck Depression Inventory and the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships from the mothers.

Outcomes were collected at baseline and again two months after the conclusion of the two-month treatment period. 

Evaluation 5

An RCT of the Incredible Years programme with a waiting list control group was analyzed by Jones, et al., 2008, in Wales, based on a larger RCT (Hutchings, et al., 2007).  The parents of preschool children between age 3 and 4 were recruited from the larger study based on their child exceeding the clinical cutoffs on either the Problem or Intensity subscales of the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory and on the Hyperactivity subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.  The final intervention group contained 50 children and the waiting list control group contained 29 children.

Data was collected from parent reports of child ADHD symptoms, measured on the Conners Abbreviated Parent/Teacher Rating Scale.  Parent and child behaviours were observed using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System (DPICS).  Outcomes for the intervention and control groups were assessed during home visits at baseline, six months after baseline.  The intervention group was additionally assessed 12 months and 18 months after baseline.

Evaluation 6

This RCT was conducted by Larsson, et al., 2009 in Trondheim and Tromsø, Norway.  Children between 4 and 8 who had been referred from two participating child psychiatric outpatient clinics, and who scored above the 90th percentile on the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory, were randomized such that the intervention group contained 47 children and the waitlist control group contained 28 children. 

At pre-test, children were interviewed using the K-SADS-PL semi-structured diagnostic interview to assess ODD and CD disorders.  Before and after the intervention, researchers measured several outcomes for both the children and the parents. Parents were administered surveys to rate their children using the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory and the Child Behaviour Checklist.  Parents’ behaviours were elicited using the Parent Practices Interview and the Parent Stress Index. 

Outcomes were collected at baseline and again one year after conclusion of the treatment period. 

Evaluation 7

In this matched-pairs, quasi-experimental study by Posthumus, et al., 2011 in the Utrecht province of the Netherlands, the parents of the population of children born in 2000 and 2001 received the Child Behaviour Checklist survey.  503 children were eligible based on the responses, by scoring above the 80th percentile on the Aggressive Behaviour subscale.  The intervention and control group areas were then selected by postal code, stratifying by urban and rural.  Parents were invited to participate and a home-visit was made to evaluate the child.  Children found to have an IQ below 80 were then excluded.  The final intervention and control groups were selected by person to person matching, each group with 72 children, making sure parents would be close enough to attend programme meetings.  This evaluation administered the Advanced programme immediately following completion of the Incredible Years Basic programme.

Before and after the intervention, researchers measured several outcomes for both the children and the parents. Parents were administered surveys to rate their children using the Child Behaviour Checklist and the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory.  Parents reported about themselves on the Parent Practices Interview.  Parents were observed interacting with their child using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System (DPICS). 

Outcomes were collected at baseline, immediately after completing the intervention, one year after concluding the intervention, and two years after concluding the intervention.

 

Bibliography

Axberg, U. and Broberg, A. “Evaluation of ‘The Incredible Years’ in Sweden: The transferability of an American parent-training program to Sweden.” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 2012. 53: 224-232.

Azevedo, A., Seabra-Santos, M., Gaspar, M., & Homem, T. “The Incredible  Years Basic Parent Training for Portuguese Preschoolers with AD/HD  Behaviors: Does it Make a Difference?” Child Youth Care Forum. 2013.  42: 403-424.

Edwards, R., et al. “Parenting programme for parents of children at risk of developing conduct disorder: cost effectiveness analysis.” 2007. British Medical Journal. 334(7595): 682.

Homem, T., Gaspar, M., Santos, M., Azevedo, A., & Canavarro, M. “Incredible Years Parent Training: Does it Improve Positive Relationships in Portuguese Families of Preschoolers with Oppositional/Defiant Symptoms?” Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2014. 1-15.

Hutchings, J. et al. “Parenting intervention in Sure Start services for children at risk of developing conduct disorder: pragmatic randomised controlled trial.” British Medical Journal. 2007. 334(7595): 678-682.

Jones, K., Daley, D., Hutchings, J., Bywater, T., & Eames, C. “Efficacy of the Incredible Years Programme as an early intervention for children with conduct problems and ADHD: long-term follow-up.” Child: care, health and development. 2008.

Larsson, B., Fossum, S., Clifford, G., Drugli, M., Handegard, B. W., & Morch, W-T. “Treatment of oppositional defiant and conduct problems in young Norwegian children.” European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.  2009. 18: 42-52.

Posthumus, J., Raaijmakers, M., Maassen, G., van Engeland, H., & Matthys, W. “Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2011. 40: 487-500.

Last updated

November 2015