This section features practices that have demonstrated their effectiveness through rigorous research. These practices have been reviewed by a team of experts and summarized in a way that is easy to understand.
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This programme was implemented in 13 publicly funded schools in Terrassa, a city in the Barcelona metropolitan area of Spain for students aged 13. The programme consisted of one 90 minute ML session discussing media literacy, critical thinking about the feminine Aesthetic-Beauty Model of extreme thinness, and awareness of historical, cross-cultural and media conceptions of beauty. Some classes also participated in a 90 minute NUT session discussing nutrition and balanced eating. Male and female students participated in their usual classroom setting as the programme was delivered in weekly sessions over the course of up to two weeks.
The Triple P—Positive Parenting Programme is a multilevel system of family intervention that aims to prevent severe emotional and behavioral disturbances in children by promoting positive and nurturing relationships between parent and child. According to the Triple P developers, apart from improving parenting skills, "the programme aims to increase parents' sense of competence in their parenting abilities, improve couples' communication about parenting, and reduce parenting stress. The acquisition of specific parenting competencies results in improved family communication and reduced conflict that in turn reduces the risk that children will develop a variety of behavioral and emotional problems" (Sanders, Turner, et al., 2002).
The programme has five intervention levels of increasing intensity and targeting, ranging from a community-wide media information campaign designed to reach all parents to an intervention for families identified as being at risk for child maltreatment. The programme aims to engage the participating parent in the minimally sufficient intervention required in order to identify and improve parenting skills (Sanders, 1999).
This summary focuses on “Level 4” of the five levels, because this is the only level that has been evaluated in studies that meet the evidence criteria for inclusion on this site. Level 4 can be delivered as a 10 session individual training programme or an 8 session group training programme focusing on teaching parents a range of parenting skills to target behavioral problems both in and outside the home.
The Örebro Prevention Program (currently known as EFFEKT) works through parents and by targeting drinking among 13–16-year-olds (i.e. Junior high school pupils in grades 7–9). The 2.5-year programme, which was designed in Örebro County, Sweden, has been funded by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health. This has been part of its initiative for universal youth alcohol prevention programmes, which are to be implemented community-wide; target youths at ages during which drinking increases; work in both urban and rural communities; make use of existing community resources; and bring together different agencies and relevant parties.
The programme design and implementation were largely based on empirical findings demonstrating a negative correlation between levels of youth alcohol drinking and (i) the strictness levels of parental attitudes against youth alcohol consumption as well as (ii) the level of youth involvement in structured, adult-led activities. Thus, the core of the programme has been based on parents receiving information (by mail and during parent meetings at the schools) encouraging them to maintain strict attitudes against youth alcohol use as well as encouraging their youth’s involvement in adult-led, organized activities. The programme was designed to be implemented in both urban and rural areas.
The “Foundation” Parents Early Education Partnership (PEEP) programme (also called the Peers Early Education Partnership) is intended to boost the numeracy, literacy, pro-social behaviour and self-esteem of disadvantaged children for ages 3-4. The larger PEEP programme is designed for children from infancy to 5 years, including separate curricula for different ages. It consists of a series of curricula for different ages.
The Foundation PEEP programme was first implemented in 1995 in Oxford, UK and has been implemented on a continuing basis since its inception. For ages 3-4, the programme includes weekly group meetings for parents, children, and siblings for 33 weeks per year during the school year. Each 1-hour meeting session is in two parts, the first of which is a parent discussion of the pre-arranged topic of the week from the PEEP curriculum while the children play in another area of the room supervised by the group assistant. Extension ideas from the curriculum appropriate for 4 year olds are offered to families with 4 year olds. In the second part, families reunite for ‘circle time’ with entire group to share songs, rhymes and stories which are often linked to the first part topic. After the group session families may borrow ‘play packs’ of home activities and books to take home.
The programme is offered through nurseries, preschools, playgroups, and freestanding PEEP groups. Staff who lead PEEP groups are trained for PEEP in nine, consecutive, two-hour sessions and then in an ongoing monthly training, covering topics which include the PEEP curriculum, philosophy, structure, and support for speech, language, postnatal depression, personal safety, and child development. The PEEP charity operates offices in Oxford and Edinburgh and offers training for childcare practitioners from other regions.
The Treatment Foster Care Oregon (TFCO-A, formerly named Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care; MTFC), known as the Intensive Fostering programme in England, is designed for youth age 10-17 who are at risk of going into residential care or being incarcerated due to their serious emotional or behavioural problems.
Youths with an IQ above 70 who have been found to be in need of an out-of-home placement due to severe delinquency, criminal or antisocial behaviour are eligible for the programme whether they currently live at home with their families or in a foster or group care placement. Upon referral to the programme, the programme recommends either identifying the family with whom the youth will reside long-term after programme completion, or specifying the goal of independent living for the youth. The youth is then assigned to a placement with a local TFCO-A trained foster carer.
The TFCO-A programme consists of a daily routine of positive reinforcement through mentoring and encouragement within a clear structure, specified boundaries and consequences for behaviour, and close supervision. On a weekly basis during the programme, the team of therapists designs and oversees the child’s treatment plan in a coordinated way with the child and his or her assigned TFCO-A foster parents. Individual, professional therapists on the TFCO-A team work with each child to manage his or her feelings and behaviour and a skills coach on the team helps the child with social skills and positive recreational activities. The TFCO-A family therapist meets weekly with the child’s biological parents or the family with which the youth desires to live after completing the programme. TFCO-A foster parents receive 20 hours of training in strategies to promote positive behaviour and for limit-setting for problem behaviour, so that they can monitor the child’s behaviour daily and create an environment for the child as directed by the TFCO-A team’s Programme Supervisor on a week-to-week basis. The child’s school teacher fills out a daily card indicating the child’s full attendance for the school day. The TFCO-A foster parent also assigns points to the child for positive behaviours like completing chores and getting to school on time, and removes points if the child misbehaves or fails to complete tasks for which he or she is responsible. If the child successfully progresses through the program and the identified long-term placement parents participate in family therapy to learn parent management strategies, in 9-12 months they may exit the programme and move back in with their parents or previously identified alternative carers.
The programme model was first implemented in Oregon in the USA in 1983 by Patricia Chamberlain, and it is currently also operating in the UK since 2002, Sweden since 2001, Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands since the early-mid 2000’s. The programme founders are incorporated as TFC Consultants, Inc.