This section features practices that have demonstrated their effectiveness through rigorous research. These practices have been reviewed by a team of experts and summarized in a way that is easy to understand.
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This smoking cessation program was available to pregnant women smokers in two provinces of the Netherlands. Midwives from 21 midwife practices were trained on how to approach the subject of smoking and smoking cessation with their clients and supplied with a brief manual and intervention card explaining the seven-step protocol for effective counseling. The seven-step protocol includes identifying smoking behavior in the client and her partner, providing information on the short-term advantages of not smoking, discussing barriers to quitting, goal setting, providing self-help materials, agreeing on aftercare, and then following up at 8 months gestation. Midwives in the intervention gave pregnant women smokers a video, a self-help manual and a booklet for their partner about non-smoking and health counseling, in addition to a general folder from the Dutch Smoking and Health Foundation which is available online to all Dutch women beginning a pregnancy. All intervention materials were delivered upon the pregnant smoker’s first visit to her midwife.
The Home-Start program is a home visiting intervention in which volunteers with child care experience give support to struggling families with children younger than five years of age. Home-Start targets families and mothers with little experience or social support network, who may have minor but not serious physical or mental health issues. Entry and exit to the Home-Start programme is entirely voluntary and all visits are at the convenience of participating families. It aims to reduce the stress of parenting and encourage families, especially families at risk for child abuse and neglect, so that a nurturing environment for their children may be created.
A Home-Start volunteer from the local community visits the family home for a few hours each week until the youngest child turns five or the family decides to exit from the program. On average, volunteers visit families for 6 months, and visits last for around 3-4 hours. The volunteers give emotional support and assistance with household tasks and outings as needed by each family. The volunteers provide friendship, encouragement, and an example of affectionate child care behaviour.
The program was founded in 1973 in the UK and has expanded into 22 countries around the world, including the Czech Republic, Denmark, Norway, Hungary, and The Netherlands. There are 314 local schemes of Home-Start UK located in the United Kingdom and in British Forces Germany and Cyprus.
The Smokefree Class Competition program began in Finland in 1989 and has been initiated in 22 European countries between 1997 and 2008. The program gives classes of pupils aged 11-14 years old the choice to become a ‘nonsmoking class’ for six months, in return for being entered in a lottery to win a class trip if at least 90% of the class remains smoke-free in each month of the competition period. The students monitor and report their own participation on a weekly basis. In some of the countries they also receive health education lessons about the effects of smoking. The rules and prizes of the competition vary slightly by country but are generally similar. The intervention is intended to reduce the number of adolescents who currently smoke or will ever smoke and delay the age at which adolescents become smokers by applying positive reinforcement to nonsmoking, making nonsmoking a popular behavior and adjusting social norms within peer groups.
Aktion Glasklar is an intervention program to combat youth drinking in Germany. It was first implemented in the state of Schleswig-Holstein in early 2006 and has since been continued under the leadership of Deutsche Angestellten Krankenkasse (DAK) all throughout Germany. The focus of the program is to interact with students and to actively deter them from consuming alcohol at a young age.
The Social Influence Plus Boosters (SI+) smoking prevention program was based upon the idea that attitudes, social influences and belief in one’s ability to abstain from smoking predict the intention to smoke, and ultimately smoking itself. The program aimed to educate adolescents and build skills in order to promote healthy attitudes and beliefs related to smoking.