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Gospodarstvo

Evropska unija je zaradi enotnega trga 28 držav pomembna svetovna trgovinska sila.

S povečanjem naložb v promet, energijo in raziskave si prizadeva za trajno gospodarsko rast, obenem pa želi zmanjšati negativne okoljske vplive gospodarskega razvoja.

Gospodarstvo EU

Če primerjamo proizvodnjo blaga in storitev (BDP), je gospodarstvo EU že večje kot ameriško: BDP EU leta 2014:

  • 13 920 541 milijonov evrov.

Trgovina

Čeprav ima EU samo 7 % svetovnega prebivalstva, njen delež trgovine z ostalim svetom predstavlja približno petino svetovnega uvoza in izvoza.

Trgovina med državami EU predstavlja približno dve tretjini celotnega obsega trgovine EU.

Čeprav posledice svetovne gospodarske krize občuti tudi trgovina, EU ostaja največja svetovna trgovinska partnerica, saj je bil njen delež na svetovnih uvoznih trgih leta 2011 kar 16,4 %. Sledijo ji ZDA s 15,5 % celotnega uvoza in Kitajska z 11,9 %. EU je bila istega leta tudi največja svetovna izvoznica, njen delež je predstavljal 15,4 % celotnega svetovnega izvoza. Za primerjavo: delež Kitajske je bil 13,4 % in ZDA 10,5 %.

Zaposlovanje

Svetovna gospodarska kriza in pretresi v območju evra so pustili posledice tudi na področju zaposlovanja v EU.

Delovna sila v kmetijstvu

DržavaDružinska delovna silaRedno zaposleni (nedružinska delovna sila)Sezonsko in priložnostno delo (nedružinska delovna sila)
Avstrija90,52%8,48%1,00%
Belgija74,52%19,54%5,93%
Bolgarija86,22%10,01%3,77%
Ceška36,30%60,75%2,95%
Ciper92,87%5,46%1,66%
Danska65,28%32,08%2,63%
Estonija69,08%29,78%1,14%
Finska59,08%32,99%7,93%
Francija49,54%41,97%8,49%
Grcija94,07%1,94%3,98%
Hrvaška96,09%3,45%0,46%
Irska92,55%6,32%1,13%
Italija88,18%6,48%5,34%
Latvija88,17%11,66%0,18%
Litva87,94%11,28%0,77%
Luksemburg74,17%22,70%3,13%
Madšarska88,02%8,90%3,08%
Malta95,85%3,75%0,40%
Nemcija69,45%23,22%7,33%
Nizozemska62,10%27,86%10,04%
Poljska96,38%2,17%1,44%
Portugalska86,88%9,30%3,82%
Romunija97,15%1,34%1,51%
Slovaška47,92%50,16%1,92%
Slovenija97,24%1,29%1,46%
Španija74,27%17,85%7,88%
Švedska58,96%35,20%5,85%
Zdrušeno kraljestvo60,70%33,62%5,67%

Vir: Eurostat

Odstotek zaposlenih v industriji (razen v gradbeništvu) v primerjavi z letom 2010. (2010 = 100)

LetoQ1Q2Q3Q4
201398.9498.7798.80
201498.9499.1699.4399.53
201397.2096.3796.02
201494.2494.8194.8794.89
201396.5896.1295.62
201494.9094.4394.0793.81
2013100.79100.60100.62
2014101.14101.69102.09102.63
201396.4196.2895.94
201496.2296.9296.9797.42
2013105.43105.49105.65
2014105.84106.19106.42106.63
2013107.85108.11108.19
2014107.69108.52109.06110.76
2013101.0099.86100.42
201499.9699.44100.71101.72
201377.1478.2775.63
201479.4077.5577.8775.73
201388.2087.2587.66
201487.3088.6990.5391.35
201397.2096.9796.74
201496.5696.2595.8495.47
2013:::
2014::::
201381.8779.8579.35
201477.5978.1377.9077.54
2013114.43114.92114.59
2014113.59111.64112.68111.65
2013105.48106.14107.07
2014107.53107.69109.05109.85
201395.7895.4896.03
201495.5295.7495.8395.75
2013102.01102.41102.76
2014103.45104.37105.28105.71
201398.6998.3897.71
201498.4898.4398.0197.84
201397.3096.8996.60
201496.2496.0796.1496.23
2013104.08103.81103.82
2014103.42103.54103.35103.46
2013100.19100.45100.70
2014101.10101.52101.87102.34
201393.0492.8392.95
201492.8193.2093.5393.89
2013104.16103.94104.03
2014104.59105.40105.87106.61
201394.2294.2094.32
201494.2794.6294.9095.11
2013102.22102.53103.04
2014103.88104.12104.36104.90
201398.3995.0495.00
201493.7591.9589.5390.40
201398.4697.5897.75
201497.9197.4898.0997.43
201398.5799.1099.53
2014100.41100.91101.69101.92
201391.4891.3190.91
201489.6989.4989.2889.15

Podatkov za države EU, ki jih ni na spustnem seznamu, ni.

Vir: Eurostat

Stopnja brezposelnosti

DržavaŽenskeMoški
Avstrija46,09%53,91%
Belgija46,24%53,76%
Bolgarija48,23%51,77%
Češka57,83%42,17%
Ciper48,93%51,07%
Danska55,37%44,63%
Estonija45,59%54,41%
Finska48,33%51,67%
Francija48,22%51,78%
Grčija58,54%41,46%
Hrvaška52,22%47,78%
Irska40,26%59,74%
Italija54,24%45,76%
Latvija48,19%51,81%
Litva42,42%57,58%
Luksemburg55,56%44,44%
Madžarska52,21%47,79%
Malta53,93%46,07%
Nemčija48,19%51,81%
Nizozemska53,17%46,83%
Poljska51,59%48,41%
Portugalska50,21%49,79%
Romunija42,40%57,60%
Slovaška57,49%42,51%
Slovenija52,23%47,77%
Španija54,57%45,43%
Švedska49,31%50,69%
Združeno kraljestvo49,49%50,51%

Podatkov za države EU, ki jih ni na spustnem seznamu, ni.

Vir: Eurostat


Raziskave

Raziskave in razvoj so pomemben del strategije EU za izboljšanje konkurenčnosti gospodarstva. EU si prizadeva povečati naložbe v raziskave in razvoj, da bi porabo na tem področju približala ZDA in Japonski.

Skupni izdatki za razvoj in raziskave kot delež BDP

DržavaSektor gospodarstvoSektor državaSektor visokega šolstvaZasebni nepridobitni sektor
Avstrija2.10.130.720.01
Belgija1.720.20.510.01
Bolgarija0.390.190.060
Češka1.030.350.520.01
Ciper0.070.070.260.06
Danska1.960.071.020.01
Estonija0.820.150.730.02
Finska2.260.290.710.02
Francija1.450.290.470.03
Grčija0.270.230.30.01
Hrvaška0.410.210.2:
Irska1.130.070.34:
Italija0.720.180.370.04
Latvija0.170.180.26:
Litva0.240.190.52:
Luksemburg0.680.380.24:
Madžarska0.970.210.2:
Malta0.470.070.30
Nemčija1.90.420.51:
Nizozemska1.090.240.63:
Poljska0.380.230.250
Portugalska0.630.090.590.02
Romunija0.120.190.080
Slovaška0.380.170.270
Slovenija1.990.340.270
Španija0.670.240.350
Švedska2.280.120.90.01
Združeno kraljestvo1.060.130.440.03

Za nekatere države in/ali sektorje ni razpoložljivih podatkov

Vir: Eurostat

Promet

EU spodbuja razvoj učinkovitih, varnih, zanesljivih in okolju prijaznih prometnih omrežij.

Od leta 2008 se je delež poti, opravljenih z avtom, nekoliko povišal v primerjavi z drugimi oblikami cestnega prevoza (denimo avtobusi). Države EU še naprej podpirajo naložbe v železniški promet in njegovo prestrukturiranje.

Kljub gospodarski krizi pa se bo svetovni letalski promet do leta 2030 predvidoma povečeval za 5 % na leto. Več letalskega prometa pomeni tudi več skrbi glede varnosti. Zato je cilj letalske politike EU, da evropski zračni prostor postane najvarnejši na svetu.

Vir: Eurostat


Vir: Eurostat

Potniki v cestnem, železniškem in letalskem prometu

LetoVlakOsebna vozilaAvtobus
20007.282.410.4
20017.182.710.2
20026.883.39.9
20036.783.59.9
20046.883.49.8
20056.983.29.9
20067.183.29.7
20077.283.19.8
20087.383.19.7
20097.183.79.2
20107.283.69.2
20117.383.49.2
20127.6839.3
20137.683.29.2
20007.282.410.4
20017.182.710.2
20026.883.39.9
20036.783.59.8
20046.883.49.8
20056.983.29.9
20067.183.29.7
20077.283.19.8
20087.383.19.6
20097.183.79.2
20107.283.69.2
20117.383.49.2
20127.7839.3
20137.683.29.2
20006.38310.8
20016.482.611
20026.581.911.7
20036.580.513
20047.179.613.2
20056.679.813.6
20066.979.213.9
20077.178.814.1
20087.579.613
20097.579.513
20107.779.712.7
20117.779.512.8
20127.479.612.9
20137.477.415.2
20007.860.831.4
20016.661.532
20025.461.233.4
20035.566.528.1
20045.169.825
20054.870.924.3
20064.772.622.7
20074.473.821.8
2008475.120.8
20093.779.516.8
20103.68016.4
20113.580.615.9
2012380.116.9
20132.980.916.2
20008.373.118.6
20018.371.819.9
20027.573.818.7
20037.375.517.2
20047.576.616
20057.375.517.2
20067.575.217.3
20077.375.717
20087.17616.9
20096.876.216.9
20107.57319.5
20117.674.418
20128.37417.7
20138.573.617.9
20008.779.611.7
20019.179.211.7
20029.279.111.7
20039.379.111.6
20049.379.311.4
20059.579.111.4
20069.779.111.2
20079.779.610.7
20089.779.810.5
20099.580.110.4
20109.879.710.5
20111079.910.1
201210.279.99.9
201310.2809.8
20007.785.27.1
20017.685.56.9
20027.186.26.7
20037.286.16.8
20047.585.86.7
20057.585.86.7
20067.885.66.6
20077.885.76.5
20088.185.66.3
20097.9866.1
20108866
20118.285.95.9
20128.985.45.7
20138.585.75.8
20002.769.827.5
20011.970.128
20021.871.726.5
20031.773.624.7
20041.872.925.3
20051.975.722.4
200627819.9
20072.279.418.4
20082.181.416.5
2009283.115
2010283.614.4
2011284.114
20121.883.614.6
20131.783.914.4
20003.280.616.2
20013.380.616.1
20023.58115.6
20033.381.415.3
2004381.915.1
20053.382.114.6
20063.382.314.4
20073.482.314.2
20083.382.314.4
20092.882.115
20102.982.614.5
20112.982.614.6
20122.882.814.4
20132.783.214.1
20002.272.825.1
20011.974.323.8
20021.975.123
20031.676.422.1
20041.677.520.9
20051.778.320
20061.679.219.2
20071.679.918.5
20081.380.817.9
20091.281.916.9
20101.181.617.3
20110.881.617.6
20120.781.617.7
20130.981.317.8
20005.48113.5
20015.580.813.7
20025.282.512.3
20035.183.111.8
2004581.713.2
20055.18212.9
20065.282.812
200758114
20085.580.314.3
20095.481.413.3
20105.482.312.3
20115.680.913.5
20125.680.713.7
20136.180.713.2
20008.686.15.3
20018.586.64.9
20028.786.45
20038.486.65
20048.786.25.1
20059.185.85.2
20069.485.35.3
20079.684.95.5
20089.385.65.2
20099.485.45.2
20109.385.55.3
20119.385.35.4
20129.585.15.4
20139.485.25.4
20005.181.413.6
20014.881.713.5
20024.582.213.3
20034.282.213.6
20044.283.812.1
20054.383.811.9
20064.483.711.8
2007582.912.1
20085.482.212.5
20095.683.610.7
20105.683.710.7
20114.984.610.5
20123.585.810.7
20133.185.511.5
20005.883.310.9
20015.883.211
20025.683.311.1
20035.583.411.1
20045.583.411.1
2005681.812.2
20066.181.512.4
2007681.612.4
2008681.712.4
20095.582.811.7
20105.682.412.1
20115.881.712.6
20126.479.613.9
20136.380.413.3
2000:77.722.3
2001:77.522.5
2002:77.422.6
2003:76.423.6
2004:78.821.2
2005:79.220.8
2006:79.620.4
2007:80.319.7
2008:81.218.8
2009:82.417.6
2010:81.918.1
2011:81.718.3
2012:81.318.7
2013:81.518.5
20004.876.918.4
20014.879.915.3
20024.876.618.6
20034.875.719.4
20045.273.821.1
20055.473.521.1
20065.476.618
20074.979.415.7
20085.278.716.1
20094.780.215.1
20104.778.217.1
20114.976.218.9
20124.876.918.3
20134.777.318
20003.282.214.6
20012.882.614.6
20022.58215.4
20031.98513.1
20041.586.611.9
20050.789.89.5
20060.691.48
20070.6918.4
20080.691.28.2
20090.692.37.1
20100.791.77.6
20110.890.88.3
20120.8918.2
20130.891.47.8
20005.185.59.5
20015.185.29.7
20023.985.710.5
20033.785.710.6
20043.685.610.8
20053.685.510.9
20063.985.310.8
20074.184.911.1
20084.384.211.4
20094.384.311.4
20104.583.512.1
20114.483.112.5
20124.68312.4
20134.782.912.4
20001361.925.1
200113.461.724.9
200213.961.125
200313.462.124.5
200413.463.223.4
200512.664.223.2
200611.965.622.5
20071167.621.5
200810.467.522.1
200910.269.120.7
20101068.621.5
201110.268.321.5
201210.167.622.3
201310.267.522.3
2000:79.620.4
2001:79.320.7
2002:79.420.6
2003:79.520.5
2004:79.620.4
2005:80.319.7
2006:80.419.6
2007:80.619.4
2008:80.819.2
2009:81.918.1
2010:81.518.5
2011:82.417.6
2012:82.517.5
2013:8317
20009.4864.6
20019.4864.6
20029.386.44.3
20038.787.43.9
20048.487.73.9
20058.987.33.8
20069.487.23.5
20079.687.13.4
20089.287.33.5
20098.887.73.5
20108.987.73.5
20119.986.63.5
20121086.73.3
201310.586.23.3
20009.879.211
20019.779.410.9
20029.779.410.9
20039.579.510.9
20049.579.611
20059.879.710.5
20061079.610.4
200710.179.210.8
200811.178.610.2
200911.179.39.6
20101178.710.3
20111178.910.1
201211.578.510
201312.777.49.8
200011.36127.7
200110.762.926.4
20029.965.124.9
20039.266.524.3
20048.567.923.6
20058.269.422.4
20068.270.121.8
20078.570.720.8
20088.271.919.9
20097.474.717.9
20107.176.116.8
20116.977.415.7
20126.778.514.8
20136.279.614.1
20004.681.713.6
20014.582.812.6
20024.384.910.9
20033.985.111
20043.885.111.1
2005489.36.7
2006489.66.3
20074.189.46.5
20084.389.26.4
20094.489.46.2
20104.489.16.5
20114.588.86.7
20124.189.36.6
2013489.16.9
200016.371.512.2
200115.172.512.4
200211.975.812.3
200311.575.712.8
200411.476.212.4
20059.975.514.6
20069.676.414
20078.677.514
20087.677.215.2
20096.58013.6
20105.981.312.9
20115.581.712.8
20124.881.813.4
20134.582.313.2
20002.982.914.3
20012.983.513.6
2002383.913.2
2003383.513.5
20042.784.912.4
20052.785.611.6
20062.785.611.7
20072.68611.4
20082.786.410.9
20092.686.710.7
20102.586.810.8
20112.386.611
20122.386.711.1
20132.386.311.4
20007.764.427.8
20017.564.727.8
20027.266.826
20036.368.824.8
2004667.826.2
20055.969.424.8
20065.970.823.3
200767222
20086.47320.6
20096.677.615.8
20106.77815.3
2011777.315.7
20127.177.315.6
20137.177.815.1
20005.183.411.5
20014.883.811.3
20024.884.111.1
20034.784.410.9
20044.784.810.6
20054.884.910.3
20064.884.910.3
2007584.910
20085.484.510.1
20095.184.910
20105.284.99.9
2011585.19.8
20125.384.99.8
20135.384.99.8
20007.583.88.6
20017.983.88.3
20027.8848.2
20037.784.38
20047.584.77.8
20057.784.67.6
20068.384.17.6
20078.783.97.4
20089.483.37.2
20099.583.47.1
20109.483.47.2
20118.884.46.8
20129.184.36.7
20139.3846.8
20005.388.16.6
20015.388.26.5
20025.389.15.6
20035.488.56.1
20045.788.75.6
20055.988.35.8
20066.288.35.5
20076.687.95.5
20086.987.25.9
20096.9876
20107.586.36.2
20117.986.25.9
20128.2865.9
20138.4865.7
2000:88.611.4
2001:88.611.4
2002:88.611.4
2003:88.611.4
2004:88.611.4
2005:88.611.4
2006:88.611.4
2007:88.611.4
2008:88.611.4
2009:88.611.4
2010:88.611.4
2011:88.611.4
2012:88.611.4
2013:88.611.4
20004.588.37.1
20014.588.56.9
20024.1896.9
20034.188.97
20044.388.86.9
20054.588.57.1
20064.688.66.9
20074.688.76.7
20084.888.56.7
20094.788.66.7
20104.888.46.8
20114.588.47
20124.689.85.6
20134.889.85.5
200013.781.15.2
200114.280.65.2
200214.880.15.1
20031579.85.2
200415.379.65.2
200516.378.45.3
200616.577.95.6
20071777.45.5
200817.177.85.2
200917.477.55.1
201017.677.35.1
201117.677.25.1
201217.277.75.1
201317.177.85.1
2000284.513.5
20012.88314.3
20021.981.316.7
20031.778.819.5
20041.778.519.8
20051.779.219.1
20061.880.417.8
20071.980.517.6
20082.378.319.4
20092.479.218.5
20102.277.520.3
2011275.522.5
20121.577.820.7
20131.180.318.6
20003.445.950.7
20013.449.647
20023.14947.8
20033.449.247.4
20042.851.345.9
20052.652.345
20062.653.943.4
20072.754.942.4
20082.456.341.3
20092.556.940.6
20102.459.338.3
20112.459.238.4
20121.761.636.6
20131.463.734.9

Vir: Eurostat

Letalski potniški promet

LetoLetalski promet
2007:
2008799024981
2009752512652
2010778324669
2011822830045
2012828160763
2013842219926
2014876884771
2007792387321
2008797571170
2009751138170
2010776851750
2011821265790
2012826463402
2013840556194
2014875134752
2007:
2008:
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2009198531887
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Vir: Eurostat


Energija in okolje

EU uvaža več kot polovico energije, ki jo potrebuje.

Delež električne energije iz obnovljivih virov energije

Delež bruto porabe električne energije (v %)%
Malta1.6
Luksemburg5.3
Ciper6.6
Madžarska6.6
Nizozemska10.0
Poljska10.7
Belgija12.4
Češka12.8
Estonija13.0
Litva13.1
Združeno kraljestvo13.8
Francija16.8
Bolgarija18.9
Irska20.8
Slovaška20.8
Grčija21.2
Nemčija25.3
Finska30.9
Italija31.3
Slovenija33.1
Španija36.7
Romunija37.5
Hrvaška42.2
Danska43.1
Latvija48.8
Portugalska49.1
Švedska61.8
Avstrija68.0

Vir: Eurostat

Neto uvozna energetska odvisnost kot delež skupne porabe

DržavaPremogNaftaZemeljski plin
Avstrija94.592.574.7
Belgija95.3102.0100.5
Bolgarija16.4103.992.8
Češka-11.696.4100.2
Ciper100.0100.9:
Danska90.7-12.0-23.1
Estonija-0.159.9100.0
Finska65.3104.499.9
Francija93.499.097.4
Grčija3.294.6100.0
Hrvaška110.177.131.8
Irska72.4100.296.8
Italija96.190.788.1
Latvija88.8100.4115.6
Litva99.793.2100.0
Luksemburg100.0100.399.6
Madžarska26.985.071.2
Malta:104.6:
Nemčija44.596.186.9
Nizozemska111.595.6-85.4
Poljska-10.491.374.2
Portugalska95.496.3101.5
Romunija18.946.811.8
Slovaška80.689.995.3
Slovenija19.497.399.6
Španija70.597.498.6
Švedska82.4101.599.1
Združeno kraljestvo82.140.250.1

Vir: Eurostat